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specific antibodies of pasteurella multocida in newborn calves of vaccinated dams.twenty-five newborn holstein friesian calves, from dams vaccinated against haemorrhagic septicaemia (hs), were tested repeatedly over the first 6 months of life to monitor the transferred antibody levels against hs. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure the specific hs antibodies with antigens from pasteurella multocida strains b:2 and e:2. there was a significant curvilinear relationship between the monitored igg response and the age of the calves. peak serum igg levels were o ...200111474861
the efficacy of valnemulin (econor) in the control of disease caused by experimental infection of calves with mycoplasma bovis.mycoplasma bovis infection was experimentally induced in groups of six young calves. a further group was uninfected and served as a control. ten days after infection, medication with either enrofloxacin (baytril, bayer) or valnemulin (econor, novartis) was instituted via the milk replacer for a further 10 days, after which all calves were killed. infection resulted in depression, pyrexia, inappetance and prominent respiratory signs. arthritis occurred in two animals and two (unmedicated) animals ...200515766939
antimicrobial susceptibility of pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle and pigs.minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of 10 antimicrobial agents were determined for pasteurella multocida from cattle and pigs (72 and 68 isolates, respectively). higher mics were observed with oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tilmicosin and thiamphenicol for porcine isolates than for bovine isolates. enrofloxacin was the most active, with an mic for 90% of the isolates (mic90) of 0.05 microg/ml for both bovine and porcine isolates. aspoxicillin exhibited the same excellent activity against pen ...200111666039
tet(l)-mediated tetracycline resistance in bovine mannheimia and pasteurella isolates.tetracycline-resistant mannheimia and pasteurella isolates, which were negative for the tetracycline resistance genes (tet) commonly detected among these bacteria, were investigated for other tet genes present and their location.200515972309
a comparison of 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease.the aim of this study was to compare 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever (uf)/bovine respiratory disease (brd). at feedlot arrival, 3882 calves were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to 2 groups, which were housed by group in 12 pens. at the time of allocation, 1 group (mlv3-bt2) received a multivalent, modified-live viral vaccine containing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) and types i and ii bovine viral diarr ...200818512457
the response of mannheimia haemolytica to iron limitation: implications for the acquisition of iron in the bovine lung.mannheimia haemolytica is the major causative agent of shipping fever, a severe pneumonia in cattle causing high morbidity and mortality. a prerequisite of successful lung colonization by m. haemolytica is the necessity to adapt to the paucity of iron. the lack of genome information has precluded an assessment of the genetic repertoire available to m. haemolytica to adapt to low iron environments. to close this knowledge-gap, we have determined 90% of a virulent m. haemolytica serotype a1 genome ...200717240088
experimental transmission of pasteurella multocida 6:b in goats.haemorrhagic septicaemia (hs) is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by pasteurella multocida 6:b. outbreaks of the disease have been closely associated with carrier animals that transmit the organism to susceptible animals during stressful condition. this study was conducted to determine whether goats exposed intranasally to p. multocida 6:b can transmit the organism to contact goats. thirty-six healthy local katjang goats were divided into four groups and goats of groups 1 and 3 we ...200717381677
in vitro activities of spectinomycin and comparator agents against pasteurella multocida and mannheimia haemolytica from respiratory tract infections of cattle.prior to the renewal of spectinomycin licensing for veterinary uses in germany, 154 pasteurella multocida and 148 mannheimia haemolytica strains from respiratory tract infections in cattle were investigated for their mics of spectinomycin and other antimicrobial agents. the data obtained should serve as a baseline from which to judge the future development of resistance. moreover, the in vitro activity of spectinomycin in comparison with other antimicrobials should be assessed.200414729757
[long-chain fatty acids of pasteurella multocida nad pasteurella haemolytica].the relative contents of long-chain fatty acids in p. multocida and p. haemolytica were investigated. a dependence on the composition of the broth was established. accordingly, comparative quantitative studies on fatty acid contents have to be conducted using bacteria grown with the same lot of broth medium. as for p. multocida, there were significant differences between the serovars (c14 in tdhm and c16, delta 2c18 in bpl). these differences are, however, not significant to replace serotyping. ...199710084940
a bighorn sheep die-off in southern colorado involving a pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.we investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) wherein a pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "fossil ridge" herd's winter range, colorado, usa, between 13 december 2007 and 29 february 2008. eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrin ...201020966277
influence of systemic fluoroquinolone administration on the presence of pasteurella multocida in the upper respiratory tract of clinically healthy calves.the influence of enrofloxacin administration (5 mg/kg) for five consecutive days on the occurrence of pasteurella multocida in the upper respiratory tract of two healthy calves was monitored over a 10-day period. from nasal swabs of two additional healthy control calves, which received a placebo saline administration, p. multocida was isolated throughout the study period. in the enrofloxacin treated calves, p. multocida was not demonstrated in the nasopharynx from 48 h after the first injection ...200818808692
biofilm bacteria: formation and comparative susceptibility to antibiotics.the calgary biofilm device (cbd) was used to form bacterial biofilms of selected veterinary gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria from cattle, sheep, pigs, chicken, and turkeys. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (mbec) of ampicillin, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin g, streptomycin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tilmicosin, and trimethoprim-sulfadoxine for gram-positive and -negative b ...200211989739
contribution of respiratory burst activity to innate immune function and the effects of disease status and agent on chemiluminescence responses by ruminant phagocytes in vitro.the mechanisms of interaction between phagocytes and different bacteria that help resolve lung infections or contribute to lung pathology are poorly defined. alveolar phagocytes (resident macrophages and recruited neutrophils) make a major contribution to innate immunity by mounting a respiratory burst that helps kill internalised bacteria. however, this ability may be altered during or after exposure to infection. this review considers the application and limitations of a variety of analytical ...200616678912
characterization of sucrose-negative pasteurella multocida variants, including isolates from large-cat bite wounds.to validate the identification of pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpob and infb genes showed the monophyly of the strains characterized and the reference strains of p. multocida. the sucrose-negative strains formed two groups, one related to reference strains of p. multocida and the oth ...200515634981
in vitro activities of florfenicol against bovine and porcine respiratory tract pathogens.florfenicol in vitro activities for a total of 756 bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infections of cattle and swine were comparatively investigated by the agar diffusion method and the microdilution broth method. florfenicol showed high in vitro activity against pasteurella multocida, mannheimia haemolytica, actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and streptococcus suis, with all of the isolates inhibited by </=2 micro g of florfenicol per ml.200312878547
surveillance for antibiotic resistance in veterinary pathogens from the perspective of a regional diagnostic laboratory.the toowoomba veterinary laboratory tests for antibiotic resistance through passive surveillance of bacterial pathogens from diseased, frequently intensively managed, animals. testing is carried out on the basis of the number of animals involved, the nature and severity of the disease and the identity and significance of the bacterium, the results guiding the submitting veterinarian in implementing appropriate treatment. the antibiotics chosen for testing are those that are currently registered ...200312807288
isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens from bovine pneumonia: 1994--2002.between 1994 and 2002, a total of 390 (46.3%) mannheimia haemolytica, 292 (34.7%) pasteurella multocida, and 160 (19.0%) histophilus somni were isolated at the oklahoma animal disease diagnostic laboratory from lungs from 6-18-month-old beef cattle with pneumonia. the ratio of m. haemolytica isolations to p. multocida isolations decreased from 3.1 in 1994 to 0.8 in 2000 while increasing to 1.5 in 2002. mannheimia haemolytica isolations significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from 62.5% in 1994 to bet ...200415460326
respiratory disease in calves: microbiological investigations on trans-tracheally aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid and acute phase protein response.trans-tracheal aspirations from 56 apparently healthy calves and 34 calves with clinical signs of pneumonia were collected in six different herds during september and november 2002. the 90 samples were cultivated and investigated by pcr tests targeting the species histophilus somni, mannheimia haemolytica, pasteurella multocida, mycoplasma bovis, mycoplasma dispar, and mycoplasma bovirhinis. a pcr test amplifying the lktc-artj intergenic region was evaluated and shown to be specific for the two ...200919186010
[pasteurella: insights into the virulence determinants of a heterogenous bacterial type].pasteurella (p.) multocida is the causative agent of numerous economically relevant diseases worldwide. these are enzootic bronchopneumonia in cattle and sheep and hemorraghic septicemia in cattle and buffaloes, rhinitis atrophicans in swine, snuffles in rabbit, and fowl cholera. all disease complexes are associated with certain capsular and somatic antigens. even as human pathogen p. multocida is of increasing importance, causing wound infections, and even septicemia, meningitis, and endocardit ...200415495927
dfra20, a novel trimethoprim resistance gene from pasteurella multocida.a novel trimethoprim resistance gene, designated dfra20, was detected on the 11-kb plasmid pcck154 from pasteurella multocida. the dfra20 gene codes for a dihydrofolate reductase of 169 amino acids. sequence comparisons revealed that the dfra20 protein differed distinctly from all dihydrofolate reductases known so far.200515616323
identification of pasteurella multocida isolates of ruminant origin using polymerase chain reaction and their antibiogram study.a total of 100 isolates of pasteurella multocida from various ruminant species (cattle, buffalo and sheep) belonging to different parts of country were identified using pasteurella multocida-pcr (pm-pcr) and capsular pcr assays. pm-pcr revealed an amplicon of approximately 460 bp in all the isolates tested. as regards capsular pcr, 36 of 38 cattle isolates and 30 of 34 buffalo isolates were found to belong to capsular serogroup b whereas rest of the cattle and buffalo isolates belonged to serogr ...200918759064
evaluation of a live trivalent vaccine for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, para-influenza type-3 virus and pasteurella multocida in calves.a live trivalent vaccine for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibr), para-influenza type-3 virus (pi3) and pasteurella multocida type b vaccine was prepared. the preparation contained 10(7) tcid50 of ibr, 10(7) tcid50 of pi3 & 10(9) cfu of p. multocida type b per 3 ml. ten calves (5-7 days old) were vaccinated intranasally while five unvaccinated calves of the same age were used as control. vaccinated calves were examined daily for disease manifestation. serum and nasal secretion specimen ...200416734122
molecular analysis of florfenicol-resistant pasteurella multocida isolates in germany.three florfenicol-resistant pasteurella multocida isolates from germany, two from swine and one from a calf, were investigated for the genetics and transferability of florfenicol resistance.200818786941
in vitro activities of tulathromycin and ceftiofur combined with other antimicrobial agents using bovine pasteurella multocida and mannheimia haemolytica isolates.the purpose of this study was to determine the activities of two antibacterial agents used in the treatment of bovine respiratory infections-tulathromycin, a macrolide, and ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin-alone, in combination with each other, and in combination with each of seven additional antibiotics (tilmicosin, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and penicillin g) against bovine pasteurella multocida (n = 60) and mannheimia haemolytica (n = 10) iso ...200819003782
identification of immunogenic proteins associated with protection against haemorrhagic septicaemia after vaccination of calves with a live-attenuated aroa derivative of pasteurella multocida b:2.pasteurella multocida serotype b:2 is the causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (hs), a fatal disease of cattle and buffaloes. as a step towards the identification of individual antigens that may protect against hs, proteins present in a sonicated cell extract (sce) and outer-membrane protein (omp) preparation of a wild-type p. multocida serotype b:2 were investigated by immunoblotting with sera from calves which had been protected against challenge with a virulent strain of p. multocida b ...200919243798
characterization and time course of pulmonary lesions in calves after intratracheal infection with pasteurella multocida a:3.pasteurella multocida a:3 is a common cause of suppurative bronchopneumonia in calves and results in significant production losses and mortality. here we describe the lesions in three calves at each of four time points (1 day and 4, 7 and 10 days) after experimental intratracheal infection with approximately 1x10(9) colony-forming units of p. multocida a:3 moredun research institute (mri isolate 671/90). equivalent age- and time-matched sham-dosed negative control animals were also studied. infe ...201019951821
comparison of genotypic and phenotypic characterization methods for pasteurella multocida isolates from fatal cases of bovine respiratory disease.bovine respiratory disease (brd) is the most costly disease of beef cattle in north america. because pasteurella multocida is a commensal of the upper respiratory tract, it is generally considered an opportunistic pathogen. however, studies in swine indicated that there may be a limited number of strains associated with disease, suggesting that some are more virulent than others. although this may also be true of isolates from cattle, appropriate typing methods must be established before this po ...201020453209
Identification of Pasteurella multocida capsular types isolated from rabbits and other domestic animals in Mexico with respiratory diseases.Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of pasteurellosis, a major disease in most domestic animals and livestock. In this study, a total of 34 isolates of P. multocida from rabbits and other domestic animals from Mexico with respiratory diseases underwent polymerase chain reaction-based capsular typing. One sheep isolate was found to belong to capsular serogroup D, whereas the rest of the rabbit, sheep, cattle, pig, goat, and duck isolates belonged to capsular serogroup A of P. multocida. ...201122068635
use of polymerase chain reaction to identify brucella abortus strain rb51 among brucella field isolates from cattle in italy.brucella abortus strain rb51, a rough mutant of the b. abortus 2308 virulent strain, was recently approved in the united states as the official vaccine for brucellosis in cattle. following recent evidence of unauthorized use of rb51 vaccine in italy, where the use of vaccines for brucellosis is no longer allowed, the suitability of an rb51-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for identifying the rb51 strain among brucella field isolates from cattle in italy was investigated. the oligonucleot ...200111315520
bacterial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease complex.pneumonia caused by the bacterial pathogens discussed in this article is the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality of the brdc. most of these infectious bacteria are not capable of inducing significant disease without the presence of other predisposing environmental factors, physiologic stressors, or concurrent infections. mannheimia haemolytica is the most common and serious of these bacterial agents and is therefore also the most highly characterized. there are other important bact ...201020619191
a review of hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffalo.hemorrhagic septicemia (hs), an acute, fatal and septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by pasteurella multocida, is important in tropical regions of the world, especially in african and asian countries. the prevalence of disease has been well documented with predominant isolation of p. multocida serotypes b:2 and e:2. conventional methods of identification such as serotyping, biotyping, antibiogram determination and pathogenicity as well as molecular methods (p. multocida-specific po ...201121676341
immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of moringa oleifera in animals.aim: the aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulatory action of methanolic extract of moringa oleifera (memo) in an experimental model of immunity. the cellular immunity was evaluated using neutrophil adhesion test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and carbon clearance assay, whereas, humoral immunity was tested by mice lethality test, serum immunoglobulin estimation and indirect haemagglutination assay in animals. administration of memo (250 and 750 mg/kg, po) and ocimum ...201021090530
molecular epidemiology of pasteurella multocida in dairy and beef calves.the molecular epidemiology of pasteurella multocida has rarely been studied at the farm level in cattle. the aim of this study was to determine whether single or multiple strains of p. multocida tend to exist within farms. molecular characterisation was carried out on isolates obtained from nasal swabs from 105 calves from 32 randomly selected beef and dairy farms located throughout scotland, and from 131 calves from 20 farms in the mayenne region of france, where sampling occurred in response t ...201121511409
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and sensitivity to tulathromycin in goat respiratory bacterial isolates.bacterial pneumonia is a common and often life-threatening respiratory problem in both meat and dairy goats. options for approved antibiotic therapy in goats to combat these bacterial infections are severely limited and frequently drugs must be used in an extra-label manner. tulathromycin, a triamilide macrolide antimicrobial drug shown to be effective against swine and cattle respiratory bacterial agents, has been identified as a potentially useful drug in caprines. the present study was conduc ...201122078276
efficacy of metaphylactic florfenicol therapy during natural outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease.the efficacy of an injectable formulation of florfenicol (300 mg/ml) as metaphylactic control of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease (brd) was evaluated in two double-blind randomly controlled field studies on two dutch veal calf herds (a and b). cattle aged not older than 3 months and in the direct presence of calves with clinical respiratory disease were randomly allocated to treatment with 40 mg/kg florfenicol subcutaneously (s.c.) a positive control treatment (12.5 mg/kg tilmicosi ...200819000268
pasteurella multocida pathogenesis: 125 years after pasteur.pasteurella multocida was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by louis pasteur in 1881. since then, this gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many other economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. the mechanisms by which these bacteria can invade the mucosa, evade innate immunity and cause systemic disease are slowly being elucidated. key virulence factors identified to date include capsule and lipopolysaccharide. the capsule is cl ...200617107417
prevalence of respiratory pathogens in diseased, non-vaccinated, routinely medicated veal calves.the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in diseased veal calves was determined in 24 respiratory disease outbreaks in 15 herds in belgium. bacteria were cultured from nasopharyngeal swabs and seroconversion against viruses and mycoplasma bovis was determined on paired sera. at the individual calf level, mycoplasma species, mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella multocida, were isolated from 70.5 per cent, 21.5 per cent and 26.0 per cent of swabs, respectively. at the herd level, the presence of ...201121831999
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