TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
molecular epidemiology of pasteurella multocida in dairy and beef calves.the molecular epidemiology of pasteurella multocida has rarely been studied at the farm level in cattle. the aim of this study was to determine whether single or multiple strains of p. multocida tend to exist within farms. molecular characterisation was carried out on isolates obtained from nasal swabs from 105 calves from 32 randomly selected beef and dairy farms located throughout scotland, and from 131 calves from 20 farms in the mayenne region of france, where sampling occurred in response t ...201121511409
a review of hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffalo.hemorrhagic septicemia (hs), an acute, fatal and septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by pasteurella multocida, is important in tropical regions of the world, especially in african and asian countries. the prevalence of disease has been well documented with predominant isolation of p. multocida serotypes b:2 and e:2. conventional methods of identification such as serotyping, biotyping, antibiogram determination and pathogenicity as well as molecular methods (p. multocida-specific po ...201121676341
prevalence of respiratory pathogens in diseased, non-vaccinated, routinely medicated veal calves.the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in diseased veal calves was determined in 24 respiratory disease outbreaks in 15 herds in belgium. bacteria were cultured from nasopharyngeal swabs and seroconversion against viruses and mycoplasma bovis was determined on paired sera. at the individual calf level, mycoplasma species, mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella multocida, were isolated from 70.5 per cent, 21.5 per cent and 26.0 per cent of swabs, respectively. at the herd level, the presence of ...201121831999
Identification of Pasteurella multocida capsular types isolated from rabbits and other domestic animals in Mexico with respiratory diseases.Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of pasteurellosis, a major disease in most domestic animals and livestock. In this study, a total of 34 isolates of P. multocida from rabbits and other domestic animals from Mexico with respiratory diseases underwent polymerase chain reaction-based capsular typing. One sheep isolate was found to belong to capsular serogroup D, whereas the rest of the rabbit, sheep, cattle, pig, goat, and duck isolates belonged to capsular serogroup A of P. multocida. ...201122068635
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and sensitivity to tulathromycin in goat respiratory bacterial isolates.bacterial pneumonia is a common and often life-threatening respiratory problem in both meat and dairy goats. options for approved antibiotic therapy in goats to combat these bacterial infections are severely limited and frequently drugs must be used in an extra-label manner. tulathromycin, a triamilide macrolide antimicrobial drug shown to be effective against swine and cattle respiratory bacterial agents, has been identified as a potentially useful drug in caprines. the present study was conduc ...201122078276
characterization and time course of pulmonary lesions in calves after intratracheal infection with pasteurella multocida a:3.pasteurella multocida a:3 is a common cause of suppurative bronchopneumonia in calves and results in significant production losses and mortality. here we describe the lesions in three calves at each of four time points (1 day and 4, 7 and 10 days) after experimental intratracheal infection with approximately 1x10(9) colony-forming units of p. multocida a:3 moredun research institute (mri isolate 671/90). equivalent age- and time-matched sham-dosed negative control animals were also studied. infe ...201019951821
comparison of genotypic and phenotypic characterization methods for pasteurella multocida isolates from fatal cases of bovine respiratory disease.bovine respiratory disease (brd) is the most costly disease of beef cattle in north america. because pasteurella multocida is a commensal of the upper respiratory tract, it is generally considered an opportunistic pathogen. however, studies in swine indicated that there may be a limited number of strains associated with disease, suggesting that some are more virulent than others. although this may also be true of isolates from cattle, appropriate typing methods must be established before this po ...201020453209
bacterial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease complex.pneumonia caused by the bacterial pathogens discussed in this article is the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality of the brdc. most of these infectious bacteria are not capable of inducing significant disease without the presence of other predisposing environmental factors, physiologic stressors, or concurrent infections. mannheimia haemolytica is the most common and serious of these bacterial agents and is therefore also the most highly characterized. there are other important bact ...201020619191
a bighorn sheep die-off in southern colorado involving a pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.we investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) wherein a pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "fossil ridge" herd's winter range, colorado, usa, between 13 december 2007 and 29 february 2008. eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrin ...201020966277
immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of moringa oleifera in animals.aim: the aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulatory action of methanolic extract of moringa oleifera (memo) in an experimental model of immunity. the cellular immunity was evaluated using neutrophil adhesion test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and carbon clearance assay, whereas, humoral immunity was tested by mice lethality test, serum immunoglobulin estimation and indirect haemagglutination assay in animals. administration of memo (250 and 750 mg/kg, po) and ocimum ...201021090530
identification of pasteurella multocida isolates of ruminant origin using polymerase chain reaction and their antibiogram study.a total of 100 isolates of pasteurella multocida from various ruminant species (cattle, buffalo and sheep) belonging to different parts of country were identified using pasteurella multocida-pcr (pm-pcr) and capsular pcr assays. pm-pcr revealed an amplicon of approximately 460 bp in all the isolates tested. as regards capsular pcr, 36 of 38 cattle isolates and 30 of 34 buffalo isolates were found to belong to capsular serogroup b whereas rest of the cattle and buffalo isolates belonged to serogr ...200918759064
respiratory disease in calves: microbiological investigations on trans-tracheally aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid and acute phase protein response.trans-tracheal aspirations from 56 apparently healthy calves and 34 calves with clinical signs of pneumonia were collected in six different herds during september and november 2002. the 90 samples were cultivated and investigated by pcr tests targeting the species histophilus somni, mannheimia haemolytica, pasteurella multocida, mycoplasma bovis, mycoplasma dispar, and mycoplasma bovirhinis. a pcr test amplifying the lktc-artj intergenic region was evaluated and shown to be specific for the two ...200919186010
identification of immunogenic proteins associated with protection against haemorrhagic septicaemia after vaccination of calves with a live-attenuated aroa derivative of pasteurella multocida b:2.pasteurella multocida serotype b:2 is the causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (hs), a fatal disease of cattle and buffaloes. as a step towards the identification of individual antigens that may protect against hs, proteins present in a sonicated cell extract (sce) and outer-membrane protein (omp) preparation of a wild-type p. multocida serotype b:2 were investigated by immunoblotting with sera from calves which had been protected against challenge with a virulent strain of p. multocida b ...200919243798
a comparison of 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease.the aim of this study was to compare 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever (uf)/bovine respiratory disease (brd). at feedlot arrival, 3882 calves were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to 2 groups, which were housed by group in 12 pens. at the time of allocation, 1 group (mlv3-bt2) received a multivalent, modified-live viral vaccine containing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) and types i and ii bovine viral diarr ...200818512457
molecular analysis of florfenicol-resistant pasteurella multocida isolates in germany.three florfenicol-resistant pasteurella multocida isolates from germany, two from swine and one from a calf, were investigated for the genetics and transferability of florfenicol resistance.200818786941
influence of systemic fluoroquinolone administration on the presence of pasteurella multocida in the upper respiratory tract of clinically healthy calves.the influence of enrofloxacin administration (5 mg/kg) for five consecutive days on the occurrence of pasteurella multocida in the upper respiratory tract of two healthy calves was monitored over a 10-day period. from nasal swabs of two additional healthy control calves, which received a placebo saline administration, p. multocida was isolated throughout the study period. in the enrofloxacin treated calves, p. multocida was not demonstrated in the nasopharynx from 48 h after the first injection ...200818808692
efficacy of metaphylactic florfenicol therapy during natural outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease.the efficacy of an injectable formulation of florfenicol (300 mg/ml) as metaphylactic control of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease (brd) was evaluated in two double-blind randomly controlled field studies on two dutch veal calf herds (a and b). cattle aged not older than 3 months and in the direct presence of calves with clinical respiratory disease were randomly allocated to treatment with 40 mg/kg florfenicol subcutaneously (s.c.) a positive control treatment (12.5 mg/kg tilmicosi ...200819000268
in vitro activities of tulathromycin and ceftiofur combined with other antimicrobial agents using bovine pasteurella multocida and mannheimia haemolytica isolates.the purpose of this study was to determine the activities of two antibacterial agents used in the treatment of bovine respiratory infections-tulathromycin, a macrolide, and ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin-alone, in combination with each other, and in combination with each of seven additional antibiotics (tilmicosin, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and penicillin g) against bovine pasteurella multocida (n = 60) and mannheimia haemolytica (n = 10) iso ...200819003782
the response of mannheimia haemolytica to iron limitation: implications for the acquisition of iron in the bovine lung.mannheimia haemolytica is the major causative agent of shipping fever, a severe pneumonia in cattle causing high morbidity and mortality. a prerequisite of successful lung colonization by m. haemolytica is the necessity to adapt to the paucity of iron. the lack of genome information has precluded an assessment of the genetic repertoire available to m. haemolytica to adapt to low iron environments. to close this knowledge-gap, we have determined 90% of a virulent m. haemolytica serotype a1 genome ...200717240088
experimental transmission of pasteurella multocida 6:b in goats.haemorrhagic septicaemia (hs) is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by pasteurella multocida 6:b. outbreaks of the disease have been closely associated with carrier animals that transmit the organism to susceptible animals during stressful condition. this study was conducted to determine whether goats exposed intranasally to p. multocida 6:b can transmit the organism to contact goats. thirty-six healthy local katjang goats were divided into four groups and goats of groups 1 and 3 we ...200717381677
pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. p. multocida serogroup a isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (brd), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. p. multocida a:3 is the most common serotype isolated from brd, and these isolates have limited ...200718218157
contribution of respiratory burst activity to innate immune function and the effects of disease status and agent on chemiluminescence responses by ruminant phagocytes in vitro.the mechanisms of interaction between phagocytes and different bacteria that help resolve lung infections or contribute to lung pathology are poorly defined. alveolar phagocytes (resident macrophages and recruited neutrophils) make a major contribution to innate immunity by mounting a respiratory burst that helps kill internalised bacteria. however, this ability may be altered during or after exposure to infection. this review considers the application and limitations of a variety of analytical ...200616678912
pasteurella multocida pathogenesis: 125 years after pasteur.pasteurella multocida was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by louis pasteur in 1881. since then, this gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many other economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. the mechanisms by which these bacteria can invade the mucosa, evade innate immunity and cause systemic disease are slowly being elucidated. key virulence factors identified to date include capsule and lipopolysaccharide. the capsule is cl ...200617107417
dfra20, a novel trimethoprim resistance gene from pasteurella multocida.a novel trimethoprim resistance gene, designated dfra20, was detected on the 11-kb plasmid pcck154 from pasteurella multocida. the dfra20 gene codes for a dihydrofolate reductase of 169 amino acids. sequence comparisons revealed that the dfra20 protein differed distinctly from all dihydrofolate reductases known so far.200515616323
characterization of sucrose-negative pasteurella multocida variants, including isolates from large-cat bite validate the identification of pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpob and infb genes showed the monophyly of the strains characterized and the reference strains of p. multocida. the sucrose-negative strains formed two groups, one related to reference strains of p. multocida and the oth ...200515634981
the efficacy of valnemulin (econor) in the control of disease caused by experimental infection of calves with mycoplasma bovis.mycoplasma bovis infection was experimentally induced in groups of six young calves. a further group was uninfected and served as a control. ten days after infection, medication with either enrofloxacin (baytril, bayer) or valnemulin (econor, novartis) was instituted via the milk replacer for a further 10 days, after which all calves were killed. infection resulted in depression, pyrexia, inappetance and prominent respiratory signs. arthritis occurred in two animals and two (unmedicated) animals ...200515766939
tet(l)-mediated tetracycline resistance in bovine mannheimia and pasteurella isolates.tetracycline-resistant mannheimia and pasteurella isolates, which were negative for the tetracycline resistance genes (tet) commonly detected among these bacteria, were investigated for other tet genes present and their location.200515972309
evaluation of a live trivalent vaccine for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, para-influenza type-3 virus and pasteurella multocida in calves.a live trivalent vaccine for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibr), para-influenza type-3 virus (pi3) and pasteurella multocida type b vaccine was prepared. the preparation contained 10(7) tcid50 of ibr, 10(7) tcid50 of pi3 & 10(9) cfu of p. multocida type b per 3 ml. ten calves (5-7 days old) were vaccinated intranasally while five unvaccinated calves of the same age were used as control. vaccinated calves were examined daily for disease manifestation. serum and nasal secretion specimen ...200416734122
in vitro activities of spectinomycin and comparator agents against pasteurella multocida and mannheimia haemolytica from respiratory tract infections of cattle.prior to the renewal of spectinomycin licensing for veterinary uses in germany, 154 pasteurella multocida and 148 mannheimia haemolytica strains from respiratory tract infections in cattle were investigated for their mics of spectinomycin and other antimicrobial agents. the data obtained should serve as a baseline from which to judge the future development of resistance. moreover, the in vitro activity of spectinomycin in comparison with other antimicrobials should be assessed.200414729757
otitis in cattle, an aetiological review.otitis externa in cattle has a significant impact in tropical and subtropical regions, and the aetiological agents are predominantly rhabditiform nematodes and mites of the genus raillietia. its prevalence is higher in mature and zebu cattle. in advanced clinical cases there can be irreversible and fatal neural lesions. ear infection in calves has been associated with concurrent respiratory diseases and mixed infection. the principal reported agents of otitis in calves are bacteria such as actin ...200414995970
isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens from bovine pneumonia: 1994--2002.between 1994 and 2002, a total of 390 (46.3%) mannheimia haemolytica, 292 (34.7%) pasteurella multocida, and 160 (19.0%) histophilus somni were isolated at the oklahoma animal disease diagnostic laboratory from lungs from 6-18-month-old beef cattle with pneumonia. the ratio of m. haemolytica isolations to p. multocida isolations decreased from 3.1 in 1994 to 0.8 in 2000 while increasing to 1.5 in 2002. mannheimia haemolytica isolations significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from 62.5% in 1994 to bet ...200415460326
[pasteurella: insights into the virulence determinants of a heterogenous bacterial type].pasteurella (p.) multocida is the causative agent of numerous economically relevant diseases worldwide. these are enzootic bronchopneumonia in cattle and sheep and hemorraghic septicemia in cattle and buffaloes, rhinitis atrophicans in swine, snuffles in rabbit, and fowl cholera. all disease complexes are associated with certain capsular and somatic antigens. even as human pathogen p. multocida is of increasing importance, causing wound infections, and even septicemia, meningitis, and endocardit ...200415495927
surveillance for antibiotic resistance in veterinary pathogens from the perspective of a regional diagnostic laboratory.the toowoomba veterinary laboratory tests for antibiotic resistance through passive surveillance of bacterial pathogens from diseased, frequently intensively managed, animals. testing is carried out on the basis of the number of animals involved, the nature and severity of the disease and the identity and significance of the bacterium, the results guiding the submitting veterinarian in implementing appropriate treatment. the antibiotics chosen for testing are those that are currently registered ...200312807288
in vitro activities of florfenicol against bovine and porcine respiratory tract pathogens.florfenicol in vitro activities for a total of 756 bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infections of cattle and swine were comparatively investigated by the agar diffusion method and the microdilution broth method. florfenicol showed high in vitro activity against pasteurella multocida, mannheimia haemolytica, actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and streptococcus suis, with all of the isolates inhibited by </=2 micro g of florfenicol per ml.200312878547
isolation of mycoplasmas from nasal swabs of calves affected with respiratory diseases and antimicrobial susceptibility of their isolates.nasal swabs of 293 calves were examined for mycoplasma. the samples were collected from calves affected with respiratory diseases on 71 farms in various parts of japan between 1996 and 1997. mycoplasma bovirhinis was isolated from 47 of 293 calves (16.0%). mycoplasma alkalescens, m. bovis, m. arginini, m. bovigenitalium and acholeplasma spp. were isolated from 19 (6.5%), seven (2.4%), four (1.4%), four (1.4%) and 18 (6.1%) calves, respectively. pasteurella multocida and p. haemolytica were isola ...200314535934
biofilm bacteria: formation and comparative susceptibility to antibiotics.the calgary biofilm device (cbd) was used to form bacterial biofilms of selected veterinary gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria from cattle, sheep, pigs, chicken, and turkeys. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (mbec) of ampicillin, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin g, streptomycin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tilmicosin, and trimethoprim-sulfadoxine for gram-positive and -negative b ...200211989739
[consequences of short term fluctuations of the environmental temperatures in calves--part 2: effects on the health status of animals within three weeks after exposure].the aim of the present study was to examine consequences of sudden changes in ambient temperature over a 4-hour period (see part 1 [elmer & reinhold, 2002]) on respiratory health in clinically healthy calves. therefore, the relationship between short-term changes in ambient temperature and the occurrence of clinical respiratory disease was checked over a period of 3 weeks after exposure in 10 calves exposed to 5 degrees c, in 9 calves exposed to 35 degrees c and in 8 control calves (kept at 18-2 ...200211998372
bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) 1b: predominant bvdv subtype in calves with respiratory disease.the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) infections was determined in 2 groups of stocker calves with acute respiratory disease. both studies used calves assembled after purchase from auction markets by an order buyer and transported to feedyards, where they were held for approximately 30 d. in 1 study, the calves were mixed with fresh ranch calves from a single ranch. during the studies, at day 0 and at weekly intervals, blood was collected for viral antibody testing and virus isola ...200212146890
genetic organization of pasteurella multocida cap loci and development of a multiplex capsular pcr typing system.current serotyping methods classify pasteurella multocida into five capsular serogroups (serogroups a, b, d, e, and f) and 16 somatic serotypes (serotypes 1 to 16). in the present study, we have developed a multiplex pcr assay as a rapid alternative to the conventional capsular serotyping system. the serogroup-specific primers used in this assay were designed following identification, sequence determination, and analysis of the capsular biosynthetic loci of each capsular serogroup. the entire ca ...200111230405
interactions between bovine endothelial cells and pasteurella multocida: association and invasion.we investigated the association and the invasion of a bovine aortic endothelial cell (baec) line by pasteurella multocida to study the potential role of internalized bacteria and possible intracellular survival during pasteurella infections. our data indicate that p. multocida is able to adhere to and to invade baecs. the density of the bacterial population plays a defined role for an optimal mechanism of interaction between bacteria and cells, as does the incubation period of association and in ...200111281326
use of polymerase chain reaction to identify brucella abortus strain rb51 among brucella field isolates from cattle in italy.brucella abortus strain rb51, a rough mutant of the b. abortus 2308 virulent strain, was recently approved in the united states as the official vaccine for brucellosis in cattle. following recent evidence of unauthorized use of rb51 vaccine in italy, where the use of vaccines for brucellosis is no longer allowed, the suitability of an rb51-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for identifying the rb51 strain among brucella field isolates from cattle in italy was investigated. the oligonucleot ...200111315520
specific antibodies of pasteurella multocida in newborn calves of vaccinated dams.twenty-five newborn holstein friesian calves, from dams vaccinated against haemorrhagic septicaemia (hs), were tested repeatedly over the first 6 months of life to monitor the transferred antibody levels against hs. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure the specific hs antibodies with antigens from pasteurella multocida strains b:2 and e:2. there was a significant curvilinear relationship between the monitored igg response and the age of the calves. peak serum igg levels were o ...200111474861
random amplification of polymorphic dna and phenotypic typing of zimbabwean isolates of pasteurella multocida.eighty-one isolates presumptively identified as pasteurella multocida from a variety of diseases in animals in zimbabwe were subjected to biochemical characterization, capsular typing and rapd analysis. the majority of isolates (over 80%) were assigned into named taxa and were predominantly p. multocida subsp. multocida and p. multocida subsp. septica, whilst the remainder were unassigned. serogroup a was predominant among the three capsular types (a, b and d) of p. multocida detected. three mai ...200111506929
antimicrobial susceptibility of pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle and pigs.minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of 10 antimicrobial agents were determined for pasteurella multocida from cattle and pigs (72 and 68 isolates, respectively). higher mics were observed with oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tilmicosin and thiamphenicol for porcine isolates than for bovine isolates. enrofloxacin was the most active, with an mic for 90% of the isolates (mic90) of 0.05 microg/ml for both bovine and porcine isolates. aspoxicillin exhibited the same excellent activity against pen ...200111666039
restriction endonuclease analysis using hhal and hpall to discriminate among group b pasteurella multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia.the purpose of this study was to improve and standardise restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) for discriminating isolates of serogroup b pasteurella multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia in wild and domestic animals and to create a reference database that can be used for epidemiological studies. two techniques for extraction and isolation of chromosomal dna were compared, a dnazol method and an enzymic lysis followed by a two-phase partition method. no differences were observed b ...200010628829
isolation of respiratory bovine coronavirus, other cytocidal viruses, and pasteurella spp from cattle involved in two natural outbreaks of shipping identify cytocidal viruses and pasteurella spp that could be isolated from cattle involved in 2 natural outbreaks of shipping fever.200010825949
induction of parturition with prostaglandin f2 alpha as a possible model to study impaired reproductive performance in the dairy cow.parturitions were induced in five cows, 2 weeks before term using prostaglandin (pg) f(2alpha). two i.m. injections were performed with an interval of 24 h. all cows calved within 5 days (average 2.7 days) after the first injection of pgf(2alpha). out of five cows, four had retained fetal membranes (rfm). each animal was sampled for bacteriological examination using uterine biopsies twice a week during 42 days postpartum (pp). jugular vein blood samples were withdrawn for pgf(2alpha)-metabolite ...200010837974
evaluation of the measurement of leukotriene b4 concentrations in exhaled condensate as a noninvasive method for assessing mediators of inflammation in the lungs of determine whether measurement of an inflammatory mediator in exhaled condensate could provide a noninvasive method for evaluating lungs of calves.200010895893
pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from danish calves.during 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the danish veterinary laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. all cases were evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined for the presence of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3 virus) and bovine coronavirus, 62 cases for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvd), 45 cases for bovine adenovirus and 51 case ...199910676147
effects of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex and crude capsular antigens of pasteurella multocida serotype a on antibody responses and delayed type hypersensitivity responses in the chicken.the effects of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (lps) and crude capsular antigen (cca) prepared from pasteurella multocida serotype a isolated from a duck in the philippines, on antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (srbc) and brucella abortus (ba) and delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) responses to bovine serum albumin (bsa) in the chickens were studied. chickens injected subcutaneously with lps and cca at 1 and 2 weeks of age and immunized intravenously with the mixed antigens of ...199910379953
pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and danofloxacin in plasma, inflammatory exudate, and bronchial secretions of calves following subcutaneous administration.enrofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg of body weight) and danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously to ruminating calves (n = 8) fitted with subcutaneous tissue cages. concentrations of enrofloxacin, its metabolite ciprofloxacin, and danofloxacin in blood (plasma), tissue cage exudate (following intracaveal injection of 0.3 ml of 1% [vol/wt] carrageenan), and bronchial secretions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and microbiological assay (enrofloxacin plus ciprof ...199910428924
candidate vaccine antigens and genes in pasteurella multocida.pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of fowl cholera and other diseases of production animals. isolates are classified into five groups based on capsular antigens and into 16 serotypes based on lps antigens. strains causing fowl cholera are most frequently designated a:1, a:3 or a:4. whole cell bacterins can provide some degree of protection, but only against the homologous lps serotype. there is good evidence that cross-protective antigens are expressed only under in vivo conditions. em ...199910486918
immunity provided by haemorrhagic septicaemia-subunit vaccine in ruminants.a subunit vaccine against haemorrhagic septicaemia (hs), the principal killer disease in ruminants, especially cattle and carabao, in the philippines, has been developed. using capsules of pasteurella multocida group b as an active component of the vaccine, it gave solid protection against challenge with live organism in mice. an active calf protection test showed that in 24 hours, animals vaccinated with plain saline died after challenge compared to those given the subunit vaccine which survive ...19989554285
tn5706, a transposon-like element from pasteurella multocida mediating tetracycline resistance.the 4,378-bp putative tetracycline resistance transposon tn5706 of pasteurella multocida consists of an internal tet(h)-tetr resistance gene region which is flanked by almost identical insertion elements, is1596 and is1597. two reading frames for proteins of 70 and 228 amino acids were detected in each of these insertion sequence elements. the 228-amino-acid protein revealed homology to transposase proteins of gram-positive bacteria.19989687418
occurrence of some viruses and bacteria involved in respiratory diseases of ruminants in hungary.serological surveys, virological and bacteriological investigations were carried out on large populations of lambs and calves kept in intensive fattening units on hungarian large-scale farms, in order to study the occurrence of viruses and bacteria involved in the respiratory disease complex. the investigations were carried out in stocks where 5-20% of the young animals succumbed to acute or chronic pneumonia every year. serological surveys revealed that seropositivity to bovine adenovirus type ...19989713141
comparison of radiographic and necropsy findings of lung lesions in calves after challenge exposure with pasteurella test suitability of radiographic evaluation of lung lesions as a substitute for lung lesion scores derived by examination at necropsy in challenge-exposure models of bovine pneumonia.19989736385
intracellular accumulation, subcellular distribution, and efflux of tilmicosin in chicken phagocytes.tilmicosin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic, currently approved for veterinary use in cattle and swine respiratory disease, and is in development for use in poultry mycoplasma air sacculitis. in order to provide an understanding of clinical efficacy, the in vitro interaction of tilmicosin with three types of chicken phagocytes (mq-ncsu macrophages, monocyte-macrophages, and heterophils) was evaluated. after incubation with radiolabeled tilmicosin, uptake was determined and expressed as t ...19989776059
effects of the major pasteurella multocida porin on bovine evaluate in vitro effect of the major fraction of outer membrane proteins of pasteurella multocida with porin-like activities on some biological functions of bovine neutrophils.19989781460
[capsule formation in pasteurella multocida, serovar a].in this work the process of capsule formation in p.multocida bovine strain, serovar a, has been studied. the cultures were grown on liquid and solid nutrient media prepared on the basis of hottinger hydrolysate and synthetic culture medium 199. extracellular material was detected by the method electron cytochemistry with ruthenium red and polycationic ferritin. as revealed by specific staining and labeling, p.multocida capsule of serovar a was found to contain material of the polysaccharide natu ...19989949492
[long-chain fatty acids of pasteurella multocida nad pasteurella haemolytica].the relative contents of long-chain fatty acids in p. multocida and p. haemolytica were investigated. a dependence on the composition of the broth was established. accordingly, comparative quantitative studies on fatty acid contents have to be conducted using bacteria grown with the same lot of broth medium. as for p. multocida, there were significant differences between the serovars (c14 in tdhm and c16, delta 2c18 in bpl). these differences are, however, not significant to replace serotyping. ...199710084940
repromicin derivatives with potent antibacterial activity against pasteurella multocida.reductive amination of repromicin with polyfunctional amines has led to new macrolide antibacterial agents, some of which are highly potent against the gram-negative pathogen pasteurella multocida both in vitro and in a mouse infection model. a key element in this discovery was the recognition that among certain known macrolides increasing lipophilicity results in diminished in vivo activity. one repromicin derivative, 20-[n-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]-n-l-alanylamino]-20-deoxorepro micin (35), w ...19979083494
protection against haemorrhagic septicaemia induced by vaccination of buffalo calves with an improved oil adjuvant experimental oil adjuvant vaccine was developed against haemorrhagic septicaemia, a disease of cattle and buffalo caused by pasteurella multocida serotype b and e. mineral oil, mercol 52, was used as adjuvant together with span 85 and tween 85 as emulsifiers. the vaccine was evaluated by single dose intramuscular immunisation of 1-2 year old buffalo calves. igg and igm class antibodies were determined by elisa. the group of animals immunised with the experimental oil adjuvant vaccine showed a ...19979351202
the fractional inhibitory concentration index of antimicrobial agents for bacteria and mycoplasma isolated from the nasal swabs of cattle with respiratory diseases.we investigated the effect of thiamphenicol plus lincomycin (tp + lcm) and thiamphenicol plus tylosin (tp + ts) combinations using checker board method on the growth of pasteurella (p.) multocida, p. haemolytica and mycoplasma (m.) bovis by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration index (fic index). the results showed that the fic indexes of the tp + lcm combination for p. multocida, p. haemolytica and m. bovis were 0.36 +/- 0.10, 0.72 +/- 0.09 and 0.81 +/- 0.18, respectively. the fic ...19968877979
in-vitro activity of ceftiofur against australian isolates of the family pasteurellaceae associated with respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. 19968894010
antibody responses of cattle to outer membrane proteins of pasteurella multocida quantify the serum antibody responses to pasteurella multocida a:3 outer membrane proteins (omp) for cattle vaccinated with the homologous serogroup and to correlate those responses with the extent of experimentally induced pneumonia.19968896683
validation of random amplified polymorphic dna assays by ribotyping as tools for epidemiological surveys of pasteurella from animals.two collections of strains of pasteurella were studied for epidemiological purposes by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) assays. these strains were isolated through two different structures of animal productions: cattle and rabbit. forty strains of p. haemolytica from cattle reared in independent breeding-herds belonged to only 3 ribotypes after digestion with hindiii and pvuii. no further discrimination of these strains was obtained by rapd assays. all these 40 strains show ...19968914254
interpretive criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of ceftiofur against bacteria associated with swine respiratory disease.ceftiofur, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, is active against a variety of animal pathogens, including organisms associated with swine respiratory disease. however, minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) breakpoint and disk diffusion interpretive criteria have not been established for swine pathogens. susceptibility tests were performed by broth microdilution mic and disk diffusion methods on 246 bacterial species that cause swine respiratory disease. ceftiofur was active against salmonella s ...19968953533
restricted b-cell responses to microbial challenge of the respiratory tract.the local b-cell response in the respiratory tract to infectious challenge has been analyzed in pigs and calves using two techniques: flow cytometry and antibody secreting cell (asc) probes. pneumonia in pigs caused by experimental infection with mycoplasma hyopneumoniae resulted in a 25-fold increase in the b-cell population in bal and lung parenchyma 28 days post infection. asc probes revealed that the b-cell response of immune pigs to a large challenge infection was localized to lung parenchy ...19968988866
pasteurella multocida toxin stimulates mitogenesis and cytoskeleton reorganization in swiss 3t3 fibroblasts.pasteurella multocida toxin (pmt) causes cytoplasmic retraction in epithelial cells, activates osteoclast neoformation, and is a potent mitogen for swiss 3t3 fibroblasts. in the present study designed to further investigate the effects of pmt on cell shape and proliferation, we report that the mitogenic effect of affinitypurified pmt on quiescent 3t3 cells was even superior at 5 ng/ml to that of fetal bovine serum or bombesin. this positive effect was inhibited by heat denaturation and methylami ...19968647912
epidemiologic and pathologic characteristics of respiratory tract disease in dairy heifers during the first three months of describe the incidence of respiratory tract disease in dairy calves and to compare antibody titers and microbial isolates from transtracheal wash samples between calves with and without respiratory tract disease (cases and controls, respectively).19968707680
influence of chondroitinase on indirect hemagglutination titers and phagocytosis of pasteurella multocida serogroups a, d and f.capsules of pasteurella multocida serogroups a, d and f contain mucopolysaccharides which block antigenic determinants and prevent phagocytosis. in this study, capsules of serogroup a, d and f strains of p. multocida were depolymerized by enzyme treatment. capsule depolymerization of serogroup d and f strains with chondroitinase increased indirect hemagglutination (iha) test titers and enhanced phagocytosis by swine neutrophils. capsule depolymerization of serogroup a strains with hyaluronidase ...19958748544
isolation of a spermatozoa motility inhibiting factor from chicken seminal plasma with antibacterial property.a 78-kda spermatozoa motility inhibiting factor (smif) was purified from chicken (gallus domesticus) seminal plasma by anion exchange (de-53) followed by affinity chromatography on concanavalin a-sepharose. the factor is thermostable and inhibited the spermatozoa motility in a dose dependent manner. in addition, smif inhibited the growth of gram negative bacteria, pasteurella multocida but not gram positive streptococcus equi. the factor lost its spermatozoa immobilizing property after treatment ...19958541320
proposed quality control guidelines for antimicrobial susceptibility tests using tilmicosin.quality control guidelines for tilmicosin, a novel veterinary-use-only macrolide, were developed in a multi-laboratory study according to established national committee for clinical laboratory standards (nccls) procedures (m23-t2). tilmicosin was incorporated into sensititre plates for broth microdilution endpoint testing and into two lots of 15-micrograms disks for kirby-bauer agar disk diffusion testing. one common lot and five unique lots of mueller-hinton media were used. (broth was cation a ...19957714188
transferrin receptors on ruminant pathogens vary in their interaction with the c-lobe and n-lobe of ruminant transferrins.the interaction between ruminant transferrins and receptor proteins on the surface of the ruminant pathogens pasteurella haemolytica, haemophilus somnus, pasteurella multocida, haemophilus agnii, and moraxella bovis was evaluated by a combination of binding assays and affinity isolation procedures. membranes isolated from p. haemolytica, p. multocida, and h. agnii were capable of binding sheep, goat, and cattle transferrins whereas binding by membranes from h. somnus and m. bovis was specific fo ...19948076248
pasteurella multocida: oropharyngeal carriage and antibody response in breeders.the presence of pasteurella multocida in the oropharynx of 58 pig, cattle or rabbit breeders whose livestock had suffered from pasteurellosis was investigated using a selective medium. blood samples for serological studies were collected at the same moment. nineteen breeders were found to host one p multocida subsp multocida strain. oropharyngeal carriage of p multocida was found to be more frequent in pig breeders (42% of individuals) than in cattle (10%) or rabbit (0%) breeders. genomic polymo ...19948142961
toxin production by pasteurella multocida isolated from rabbits with atrophic rhinitis.naturally acquired turbinate atrophy in rabbits was associated with pasteurella multocida infection. several in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to document toxin production from p multocida isolates and to determine the relation of toxin to atrophic rhinitis in rabbits. ten isolates of p multocida serotype a:12 were obtained from adult new zealand white rabbits with noninduced atrophic rhinitis. specific-pathogen-free rabbits inoculated intranasally with isolates of p multocida develope ...19938214896
[the effect of toxins from pasteurella multocida type d in calves in vivo].by intratracheal injection of purified dermonecrotic toxin from a pasteurella multocida type d strain, pneumonitis in calves could be produced. this demonstrates the important role of this toxin in the pathogenesis of pneumonitis in calves.19938471015
evaluation of the rapid nh system for identification of haemophilus somnus, pasteurella multocida, pasteurella haemolytica, and actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from cattle and pigs with respiratory disease.haemophilus somnus, pasteurella haemolytica, pasteurella multocida, and actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from cattle and pigs with respiratory disease were used to evaluate the rapid nh system (innovative diagnostics, atlanta, ga.). minor modifications of the rapid nh system to include animal source and growth requirements would permit the identification of all isolates tested.19938501242
morbidity and mortality in a large irish feedlot; microbiological and serological findings in cattle with acute respiratory disease.a survey of morbidity and mortality was undertaken in a slatted unit containing 6399 beef cattle over a 6 month period. the mortality rate was 0.78% and the morbidity rate was 12.7%. the interval from arrival to morbidity was 25.5 days +/- 0.9. significantly more sick cattle were identified on either mondays or tuesdays than were seen on saturdays or sundays (p < 0.005). the mean interval to mortality (all diseases) was 48.5 days +/- 7.4. respiratory disease was the most frequently recorded dise ...19938111615
immunogens of pasteurella.the family pasteurellaceae pohl contains gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic and fermentative bacteria of the genera pasteurella, haemophilus, and actinobacillus. approximately 20 different species of the genus pasteurella have been identified using phenotypic and genetic analyses. of these species, p. multocida and p. haemolytica are the most prominent pathogens in domestic animals causing severe diseases and major economic losses in the cattle, swine, sheep, and poultry industries. mechanis ...19938116191
ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of pasteurella haemolytica, escherichia coli, and klebsiella pneumoniae by normal serum.pulmonary surfactant has been shown to play an increasingly important role in bacterial clearance at the alveolar surface in the lung. this study describes a bactericidal mechanism in which ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of pasteurella haemolytica by normal serum. to demonstrate killing, six bacterial species were incubated first with pulmonary surfactant for 60 min at 37 degrees c and then with serum for an additional 60 min at 37 degrees c. p. haemolytica type a1 strains 82-25 and ...19921452351
pharmacokinetic evaluation of ceftiofur in serum, tissue chamber fluid and bronchial secretions from healthy beef-bred calves.ceftiofur is a new broad spectrum cephalosporin marketed for the treatment of acute bovine respiratory disease. in this investigation ceftiofur was administered by intramuscular injection, at 24 h intervals, to healthy beef-bred calves for four days at dosages of 2.2 and 4.4 mg/kg of body weight, with 4 wk intervals between dosing regimens. serum, tissue chamber fluid (tcf), and bronchial secretion (bs) concentrations of ceftiofur were measured by microbiological assay after the first and fourth ...19921477795
[the importance of dermonecrotoxin and dermonecrotoxoid of pasteurella multocida for the calf].the i. m. application of dermonecrotoxin of p. multocida var. d led to an atrophy of nasal conchae, liver-swelling and to induration of liver and spleen. the intratracheal application caused a lobular pneumonia. the vaccination with toxoid resulted in an immunity against a challenge with toxin but not with p. multocida var. d. correlations between antitoxic serum-titers and immunity have to be investigated in future.19921497586
chronic frontal sinusitis in dairy cattle: 12 cases (1978-1989).chronic frontal sinusitis in 12 dairy cattle most often was associated with a history of dehorning, in which the sinus was entered (67%), or with respiratory tract disease (25%). the most common organisms isolated were actinomyces pyogenes and pasteurella multocida. signs of infection did not develop for months in some cattle and were often intermittent. the most common clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, fever, frontal bone distortion, exophthalmos, abnormal posture, nasal discharge, an ...19921500335
characterization and comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities and outer membrane protein and plasmid dna profiles of pasteurella haemolytica and certain other members of the genus pasteurella.the outer membrane protein (omp), plasmid, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of pasteurella haemolytica serotypes 1 through 12, a bovine isolate of p multocida, a chicken isolate of p multocida, and an unidentified pasteurella species of bovine origin were examined. isolates of p haemolytica serotypes belonging to the same biotype possessed similar omp profiles. biotype a isolates contained 2 prominent omp of 43 kilodaltons (kd) and 29 kd, whereas biotype-t serotypes contained 3 major omp of ...19911789515
in vitro binding of pasteurella multocida cell wall preparations to tracheal mucus of cattle and swine and to a tracheal epithel cell wall preparation of cattle.outer membrane preparations of various pasteurella isolates (pasteurella multocida and some other pasteurella species) from cattle and swine were extracted by n-lauryl-sarcosine sodium salt. capsular extracts were prepared by heat treatment. both preparations bound to epithel cell wall preparations (ecw) of trachea from cattle and to tracheal mucus of cattle and swine. binding was demonstrated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). distinct high adherence values were shown by the great ...19911796684
evidence for non-siderophore-mediated acquisition of transferrin-bound iron by pasteurella multocida.two clinical isolates of pasteurella multocida associated with bovine pneumonia were examined for iron acquisition. both isolates were capable of obtaining iron for growth from bovine but not from human, avian, equine or porcine transferrin. this correlated with specific binding of bovine transferrin by iron-limited cells or isolated membranes. no siderophore was detected in the strains by a general screening assay. in response to iron-limited conditions, a number of high molecular mass iron-reg ...19911839048
interactions of haemophilus-actinobacillus-pasteurella bacteria with phagocytic cells.the haemophilus-actinobacillus-pasteurella (hap) group of bacteria contains a number of important veterinary and human pathogens. although each species has specific characteristics and host range, most share the general property of being resistant to cellular defense mechanisms. in some cases (e.g. pasteurella multocida, pasteurella haemolytica and actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae) resistance results in part from the presence of an antiphagocytic capsule that protects the bacilli against ingestio ...19902193702
our understanding of the pasteurellaceae.with the exception of a few consistent pathogens--pasteurella multocida strains of bovine hemorrhagic septicemia and fowl cholera, actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae, haemophilus aegyptius and haemophilus paragallinarum--members of the family pasteurellaceae are commensal parasites on mucous membranes of vertebrate animals. many have pathogenic potential, which becomes manifest under conditions of immunodeficiency and stress. pathogenesis (except in porcine atrophic rhinitis) depends ...19902193710
specificity of dna probes for the detection of toxigenic pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida strains.five dna probes directed against different regions of the gene that encodes the dermonecrotic toxin of pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida were examined for their ability to identify toxigenic p. multocida subsp. multocida strains. the specificities of the probes were studied with 96 strains of p. multocida subsp. multocida and 22 strains of 11 other bacterial species. results of colony hybridization assays using these probes indicated that two of the five probes have potential diagnostic val ...19902203816
bovine recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhancement of bovine neutrophil functions in vitro.neutrophils were purified from blood of dexamethasone-treated (0.04 mg/kg of body weight) and untreated calves. cells were untreated (controls) or cultured in media containing 5 or 10 ng of bovine recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rbgm-csf)/ml for 10 to 12 hours before being tested for various functions. dexamethasone treatment of calves decreased luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, decreased phagocytosis of pasteurella multocida and several staphylococcus spp by var ...19902204299
bactericidal activity in the sera of mice vaccinated with pasteurella multocida type a.the susceptibility of pasteurella multocida to killing by serum and the ability of protective vaccines to stimulate this mechanism of immunity in mice were investigated. p. multocida type of bovine origin was used to prepare a vaccine incorporating heat killed organisms and for homologous infection of mice. bactericidal capacity and elisa antibody titres were determined for individual mouse sera. protection was clearly associated with bactericidal antibodies raised by vaccination. the bactericid ...19902219665
[atrophic rhinitis in swine and other animal species].evidence that cattle, goats and rabbits may suffer from natural diseases equivalent to porcine atrophic rhinitis is presented. etiology and course of the progressive (enzootic) and non-progressive (sporadic) forms of atrophic rhinitis in pigs are discussed and compared with known data about similar diseases in other animals. it seems that atrophic rhinitis caused by toxigenic strains of pasteurella multocida may be a disease of different animal species.19902242733
outer membrane proteins of bovine strains of pasteurella multocida type a and their doubtful role as protective antigens.outer membranes were prepared by the sarkosyl method from 30 strains of pasteurella multocida and the closely related taxon 13, which had been isolated from cattle. the patterns of the outer membrane proteins (omps) on sds-page were generally similar to one another, though the four major proteins (a-d) varied somewhat in molecular mass; these patterns allowed the strains to be arranged into 12 groups. taxon 13 strains and typical p. multocida strains were indistinguishable, both types being foun ...19902342087
protection against progressive atrophic rhinitis by vaccination with pasteurella multocida toxin purified by monoclonal antibodies.pasteurella multocida toxin was purified by affinity chromatography and inactivated by treatment with formaldehyde before use as a single component vaccine against progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs. twenty pregnant gilts which were vaccinated twice before farrowing with either low or high doses of the purified toxoid, developed dose-dependent positive serum and colostrum titres to the toxin and, unlike the progeny of 10 untreated control gilts, the offspring of the vaccinated gilts also had ...19892528856
pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime given alone and combination with probenecid to unweaned calves.ceftazidime pharmacokinetic values were studied in unweaned calves given the antibiotic alone or in combination with probenecid. ceftazidime was administered iv to 9 calves at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of body weight and im (10 mg/kg) to 8 calves, to 7 calves (10 mg/kg plus probenecid [40 mg/kg]), and to 9 calves (10 mg/kg plus probenecid [80 mg/kg]). serum concentration-vs-time data were analyzed, using noncompartmental methods based on statistical moment theory. the data for iv ceftazidime administ ...19892679252
cloning and expression of the pasteurella multocida toxin gene, toxa, in escherichia coli.a chromosomal dna library of a toxigenic type d strain of pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida was established in escherichia coli. from this library two clones, spe308 and spe312, were identified by using a monoclonal antibody against the osteoclast-stimulating p. multocida toxin (pmt). extracts of these clones showed cytopathic activity identical to that of extracts of toxigenic p. multocida. the recombinant plasmids, pspe308 and pspe312, directed the synthesis of a protein with an apparent ...19892680987
agarose soy casein digest medium for replacement of blood agar for potency determinations of live pasteurella vaccines.blood agar, prepared with trypticase (bbl microbiology systems, cockeysville, md.) soy agar and 5% defibrinated bovine blood, is used for testing the potency of live pasteurella multocida and pasteurella haemolytica vaccines, but its potential for variation makes it undesirable to use in a standard assay method. tests done with rpmi 1640 and trypticase soy medium indicated that the benefits obtained by adding defibrinated blood to the trypticase soy agar medium were more likely due to neutraliza ...19892705764
experimental pasteurella multocida pneumonia in calves.pasteurella multocida was isolated from the lungs of calves that died on a farm in the south of england. this organism was inoculated experimentally into 13 calves by the intratracheal route: in all but two of the calves mild clinical disease resulted and at necropsy, three or four days later, pneumonic consolidation involving up to 22 per cent of the lung was observed. p multocida was isolated from all but two of the lungs. of two calves inoculated intravenously with p multocida, one showed mil ...19892799074
pharmacokinetics of single doses of cefoxitin given by the intravenous and intramuscular routes to unweaned calves.cefoxitin pharmacokinetics and bioavailability were studied in unweaned calves. the antibiotic was administered to nine calves intravenously (i.v.), to seven calves intramuscularly (i.m.) at 20 mg/kg and to eight calves i.m. at 20 mg/kg together with probenecid at 40 mg/kg. serum concentration versus time data were analysed using statistical moment theory (smt). the i.v. data were also fitted by a linear, open two-compartment model. the elimination half-life (t1/2) was 66.9 +/- 6.9 min (mean +/- ...19883054149
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