survey for natural neospora caninum infection in wild and captive birds.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that presents worldwide distribution and is mainly implicated as responsible for bovine abortion. although the presence of birds in cattle-raising properties is positively correlated to higher infection rates, very little has been described about the role of these animals in the parasite's life cycle. in that sense, this work aimed to investigate the serological and histological positivity of different avian species sampled in its natural habitat or in ca ...201121680099
neospora caninum is associated with abortion in algerian cattle.abstract neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. however, little information is available for algeria. accordingly, 799 cattle from 87 farms in the north and northeast of algeria were enrolled in a seroepidemiological survey. an indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) revealed a seroprevalence of 19.6%. the animals were divided into 3 groups according to their breed: imported european cattle, local breeds, and crossed animals (european x local). seroprevalences were ...201121728878
first report of neospora caninum infection in cattle in sudan.a cross-sectional survey was conducted in sudan to determine sero-prevalence and risk factors associated with neospora caninum infection in non-vaccinated dairy herds and to assess importance of the disease. blood samples were collected from a total of 262 animals from 25 herds. sera were tested for antibodies against n. caninum using elisa test. the prevalence rates of n. caninum antibodies in cattle were high both at herd level (44%) and at individual animal level (10.7%). herd level infection ...201121898183
Efficacy of a Neospora caninum killed tachyzoite vaccine in preventing abortion and vertical transmission in dairy cattle.A clinical trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of Bovilis(®) Neoguard, a killed Neospora caninum tachyzoite vaccine on 5 commercial dairy farms in New Zealand with a history of Neospora-associated abortion. Cattle were enrolled in the trial at 30-60 days of gestation and randomly allocated to treatment or control groups. Treatment consisted of 5mL doses of Bovilis Neoguard administered subcutaneously at enrolment then 4 weeks later. Isotonic saline was administered to the control group. ...201221925752
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of romania.neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. the main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. in romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. the purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in diff ...201122091468
an applied printing immunoassay with recombinant nc-sag1 for detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes an important reproductive disease in cattle. neospora caninum surface antigen 1 (nc-sag1) is an immunodominant candidate for the development of a diagnostic reagent for neosporosis. the current study describes the development and evaluation of an antigen print immunoassay (apia) with recombinant nc-sag1 for the detection of specific antibodies to n. caninum in cattle. the concordance between apia and a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent as ...201121908357
Parasite limiting macrophages promote IL-17 secretion in naive bovine CD4? T-cells during Neospora caninum infection.Neospora caninum infects bovine hosts giving rise to pro-inflammatory immune responses that can result in foetal death or spontaneous abortion, this appears to be mediated by the actions of IFN-? on cell activation and migration/trafficking. Yet successful vaccination or natural immunity is also strongly correlated with IFN-? production. We utilised in vitro infection of bovine macrophages to prime naive T-cell responses. Naive T-cells in contact with infected macrophages produce both IFN-? and ...201122005586
Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples.The current study describes the development of a set of 5 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assays for the simultaneous detection of abortive infection agents in bovine fetal tissues, including Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., and Campylobacter fetus (mPCR1); Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii (mPCR2); Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci (mPCR3); Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Ureaplasma diversum (mPCR4); and Bovine viral diarrhea virus ...201121908306
serological survey of neospora caninum in small ruminants from pernambuco state, brazil.neospora caninum infection is an important cause of bovine abortion as well as neonatal mortality in goats and sheep. a serological survey for antibodies against n. caninum in goats and sheep was carried out in the municipality of ibimirim, pe, northeastern brazil. the imunnofluoresce antibody test showed that 26.6% (85/319) of the goats and 64.2% (52/81) of the sheep were positive. serologic reactivity was associated with age in goats (p < 0.01) and sheep (p > 0.05), with increasing rates in ol ...201121961757
artinm, a d-mannose-binding lectin from artocarpus integrifolia, plays a potent adjuvant and immunostimulatory role in immunization against neospora caninum.artinm and jacalin (jac) are lectins from the jackfruit (artocarpus integrifolia) that have important role in modulation of immune responses to pathogens. neospora caninum is an apicomplexa parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive disorders in cattle, with economic impact on the livestock industry. hence, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of artinm and jac in immunization of mice against neosporosis. six c57bl/6 mouse groups were subcutaneously immunized three times at ...201122001880
serological survey of neospora caninum infection in cattle herds from western romania.abstract serum samples from 376 randomly selected adult cattle, from 25 farms located in 3 counties (arad, bihor, and timiş) from western romania, were sampled for neospora caninum antibodies using a commercial elisa-kit (bio k 218, bio-x diagnostics, jemelle, belgium). seroprevalence values and risk factors for neosporosis (cow age, breed, herd size, farming system, previous abortion, and number of farm dogs) were examined using a generalized linear mixed model with a binomial distribution. o ...201122150344
cytokine gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from neospora caninum naturally infected dams throughout gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle but it is not known why some infected animals suffer abortion while others do not. an essential role in protective immunity against n. caninum has been proposed for th1 cytokines such as ifn-γ and il-12 although cytokine patterns in n. caninum infected pregnant cattle have been scarcely addressed. in this study, gene expression of the cytokines ifn-γ, il-12, il-10, il-4 and tnf-α was analyzed by real time rt-pcr in peripheral blood mononucl ...201221846584
neospora caninum: comparative gene expression profiling of neospora caninum wild type and a temperature sensitive understand the genetic basis of virulence, gene expression profiles of a temperature-sensitive clone (ncts-8, relatively avirulent) and its wild type (nc-1) of neospora caninum were characterized and compared using a high-density microarray with approximately 63,000 distinct oligonucleotides. this microarray consists of 5692 unique n. caninum sequences, including 1980 tentative consensus sequences and 3712 singleton ests from the tigr n. caninum gene index (ncgi, release 5.0). each sequence w ...201121963790
Molecular pathology, taxonomy and epidemiology of Besnoitia species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae).Until recently, besnoitiosis has been a neglected disease of domestic animals. Now, a geographic expansion of the causing protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti in livestock has been recognized and the disease in cattle is considered emerging in Europe. Bovine besnoitiosis leads to significant economic losses by a decline in milk production, sterility, transient or permanent infertility of bulls, skin lesions and increase of mortality in affected cattle population. Phylogenetically, the Besnoitia ...201121906696
causes of abortion on new zealand dairy farms with a history of abortion associated with neospora caninum.abstract201222175426
sero-prevalence of neospora caninum and besnoitia besnoiti in south australian beef and dairy cattle.a serological survey for neospora caninum and besnoitia besnoiti was carried out in beef and dairy cattle in south australia. serum samples of dairy cattle (n=133) from 9 properties and tank milk samples from a further 122 dairy herds were tested. an additional 810 sera from beef cattle from 51 properties were also tested. testing at the individual animal level by idexx neospora x2 ab test elisa revealed a low prevalence of n. caninum antibodies of only 2.7% (95% ci; 1.6-3.7%) sera positive, as ...201122138306
Potential involvement of Neospora caninum in naturally occurring ovine abortions in New Zealand.Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite and is recognised as the leading cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Natural infection with N. caninum has been described in sheep but it has generally not been regarded as a significant cause of abortion. Recently, there have been several New Zealand cases of foetal abortions where N. caninum was detected which strongly suggested the involvement of Neospora in these abortions. However, there is minimal information about the prevalence of N. ...201122112976
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection on dairy cattle in farms from southern romania.abstract neospora caninum, a coccidian parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii, is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. conventional serological techniques, such as indirect fluorescent antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), are routinely used in adult animals and aborted fetuses for the detection of anti-n. caninum antibodies. in romania, infection with n. caninum in cattle has been reported recently, but only in limited areas from the north and ...201121955278
neospora caninum in bovine fetuses of minas gerais, brazil: genetic characteristics of rdna.neosporosis is an important cause of abortion in cattle and information on their genetics and host parasite relationships are desirable. neospora caninum samples obtained from 24 bovine fetuses from minas gerais, were genetically analyzed in part of the rdna region, coding for rrnas. previously, brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, ovary or testis, uterus and skin of the ear were analyzed by conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry. of thes ...201122166381
study of the risk factors associated with neospora caninum seroprevalence in algerian cattle populations.bovine abortions due to neospora caninum infection were reported worldwide. the situation in algeria was unknown. for the evaluation of the prevalence of n. caninum and its associated risk factors, 799 cattle belonging to 87 farms of the north and northeast of algeria were analyzed. the cattle were divided into imported cattle, local cattle and improved cattle corresponding to breeding between imported and local cattle. sera were examined for the presence of n. caninum antibodies by indirect flu ...201222244708
immunological characterization of neospora caninum cyclophilin.summaryneospora caninum is an intracellular parasite that poses a unique ability to infect a variety of cell types by causing host cell migration. although previous studies demonstrated that parasite-derived proteins could trigger host cell migration, the related molecules have yet to be determined. our study aimed to investigate the relationship between neospora-derived molecules and host cell migration using recombinant protein of n. caninum cyclophilin (nccyp). indirect fluorescent antibody t ...201222217002
neospora caninum: in vivo and in vitro treatment with artemisone.neosporosis caused by neospora caninum has global economic, clinical, and epidemiological impacts, mainly in the cattle industry. currently, there is no useful drug for treatment of neosporosis. this publication is the first to describe the significant benefits that artemisone has on neospora infections both in vitro and in vivo. artemisone is a new semi-synthetic 10-alkylamino artemisinin that is superior to other artemisinin derivatives in terms of its significantly higher antimalarial activit ...201122260899
experimental inoculation of neospora caninum in pregnant water buffalo.the aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of neospora caninum in experimentally inoculated pregnant water buffalo (bubalus bubalis). twelve mediterranean female water buffaloes ranging in age from 4 to 14 years old and seronegative to n. caninum by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) were involved. ten females were intravenously inoculated with 10(8) tachyzoites of nc-1 strain at 70 (n=3) or 90 (n=7) days of pregnancy (dp). two control animals were inoculated with placebo ...201122244534
occurrence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with t. gondii, but the importance of n. caninum remains uncertain. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of n. caninum and t. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. for this purpose ...201222260901
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in tabriz, northwest iran.the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to neospora caninum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in tabriz, capital of east-azarbaijan in northwest of iran.201122347319
[seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle farms in algeria's central northern region].as there has been little research into the epidemiological status of bovine neosporosis in algeria, the main aims of this study were to confirm the circulation of neospora caninum in the country and to determine its seroprevalence in dairy cattle in five provinces of algeria's central northern region by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. a serological study of 186 dairy cattle declared brucellosis-free established an overall seroprevalence of 12.37%, conf ...201223520748
association of histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from brazil.this study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of brazil. fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. pcr/rt-pcr assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1), listeri ...201525480485
survey of nine abortifacient infectious agents in aborted bovine fetuses from dairy farms in beijing, china, by pcr.abortion in dairy cattle causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry. aborted fetuses and samples from the corresponding aborting dams from 12 dairy herds in beijing were tested for 9 abortifacient infectious pathogens by pcr between 2008 and 2010. from a total of 80 abortion cases collected during this period, infectious agents were detected in 45 (56.3%) cases, 22 (48.9%) of which represented co-infections with two or three infectious agents. the detected pathogens included infec ...201222366134
prevalence of bovine herpesvirus type 4 in aborting dairy cows.bovine herpesvirus type 4 (bhv-4) is related to many different conditions: infertility, postpartal metritis, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, encephalitis, calf pneumonia, keratoconjunctivitis, cutaneous lesions, digital dermatitis and abortion. in this study a retrospective pcr examination of 100 extracted dna samples from aborting cows was performed in order to determine: prevalence of bhv-4 in abortive cattle, whether coinfections bhv-4 with other abortifacient pathogens are present in the same samp ...201628092611
seroepidemiological study of neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in la pampa, argentina.neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. the aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of argentina (la pampa, province). an average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. a total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- neospora caninum igg using an indirect-elisa and 302 seropositive-elisa sera were re-examined using an avidity-elisa proce ...201526203996
geographical distribution modelling for neospora caninum and coxiella burnetii infections in dairy cattle farms in northeastern spain.maximum entropy ecological niche modelling and spatial scan statistic were utilized to predict the geographical range and to investigate clusters of infections for neospora caninum and coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle farms in catalonia, northeastern spain, using the maxent and satscan programs, respectively. the geographical distribution of neospora and coxiella with the highest level of probability (p > 0·60) covers central catalonia and spreads towards northeastern catalonia which contains a ...201322370223
development of a diagnostic method for neosporosis in cattle using recombinant neospora caninum proteins.neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs, caused by intracellular parasite, neospora caninum. neosporosis appears to be a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide and causes to huge economic loss to dairy industry.201222558916
occurrence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum in alberta cow-calf operations.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) and neospora caninum (nc) are two pathogens causing important production limiting diseases in the cattle industry. significant impacts of map and nc have been reported on dairy cattle herds, but little is known about the importance, risk factors and transmission patterns in western canadian cow-calf herds. in this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of map and nc infection in southwest alberta cow-calf herds was estimated, risk factors for nc w ...201425277685
can hierarchical modeling improve our understanding of bovine abortion due to neospora caninum infection?the purpose of this study was to use mixed logistic regression to evaluate the association between neospora caninum serostatus and abortion, accounting for the effects of farms. the main objective was to explore the interpretation of this model and discuss the contribution of this analysis to our understanding of the disease's epidemiology. a mixed-effects logistic model using farms as a random effect and the serostatus for n. caninum, age of cattle and farm location as fixed effects was perform ...201728259557
isolation and biological and molecular characterization of neospora caninum (nc-sp1) from a naturally infected adult asymptomatic cattle (bos taurus) in the state of são paulo, brazil.the biological and genetic diversity of neospora caninum is very limited because of availability of only a few viable isolates worldwide. this study describes the isolation and biological and molecular characterization of a new viable isolate of n. caninum (nc-sp1), from a cattle in brazil. approximately 400 g of brain from a naturally infected adult male cattle from an abattoir was fed to a 2-month-old dog. neospora-like oocysts were observed on day 7 post-inoculation (pi) and the duration of o ...201728073388
seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum and its risk factors in farm dogs in nakuru district, kenya.the objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum (nc) and its risk factors in farm dogs in kenya.201627847430
assessment of transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in the agreste region of pernambuco.the transplacental transmission is the primary route of neospora caninum infection in bovine herds around the world. this study aimed to determine the frequency of transplacental transmission of the parasite in dairy cattle of agreste region of pernambuco through serological tests (ifat and elisa). three hundred sixteen serum samples from cows and heifers and their offspring were analyzed. the transplacental transmission rate was 72.22% (13/18) for cows and 69.23% (9/13) for heifers by ifat. eli ...201727737368
occurrence and first multilocus microsatellite genotyping of neospora caninum from naturally infected dogs in dairy farms in henan, central china.neospora caninum is one of the important causes of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. the dog is known as a definitive host of n. caninum and can transmit the parasite to cattle by shedding oocysts. the aim of the present study is to detect the presence of n. caninum in feces of dairy farm dogs and determine the genetic characteristics of n. caninum in central china. a total of 78 fecal samples were collected from dogs in dairy farms from may to november 2014 and examined by microscopy and nest ...201627230015
experimental neospora caninum infection modifies trophoblast cell populations and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 and 2 dynamics in pregnant dairy heifers.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (pag-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast cells, are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of foetal-placental well-being, while pag-2, produced by both mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells, may serve as an indicator of abortion risk. in prior work, natural n. caninum infection was found to modify plasma pag-1 and pag-2 patterns ...201626801588
herd-level seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in central and northeastern poland.a serosurvey was carried out to estimate the herd-level seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in cattle in central and northeastern poland. ninety seven dairy cattle herds from 2 provinces of poland (podlaskie, 47 herds and łodzkie, 50 herds) were randomly enrolled in the study using two-stage cluster method. a simple random selection was applied within each herd to select a sample of adult cows (≥18 month-old). a total number of 734 cows were enrolled in the study. the animals were scree ...201626751872
relation between neospora caninum and abortion in dairy cows: risk factors and pathogenesis of disease.neosporosis is a parasitic disease cause by neospora caninum, a parasite of great importance in livestock. this study aimed to evaluate the presence of antibody against n. caninum in dairy cattle with history of abortion, as well as to identify associated risk factors for neosporosis. animals suspected of neosporosis (n = 130) after clinical examination were randomly selected. sera samples from 29 farms were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence technique (ifa) in order to detect antibodies a ...201626747583
impact of spontaneous neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.the impact of spontaneous neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. cows were classified as seropositive (sp) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (sn) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against n caninum. seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (p < 0.001) inc ...201626542136
serological survey for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus and neospora caninum in a population of south australian alpacas (vicugna pacos).bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and neospora caninum may cause clinical disease in alpacas. both diseases are present in the australian cattle population. the objective of this study was to perform a serological prevalence survey for bvdv and n. caninum exposure in a regional alpaca population of south australia.201526456156
a review of neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis).a number of countries in the world have reported infections with neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), from africa to asia, europe and south america and recently australia. in general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of n. caninum infection. worldwide, the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffal ...201526298507
[risk factors of increased abortions in dairy herds - a statistical analysis].to examine whether dairy herds with and without abortion problems differ in their management and prevalence of antibodies against various pathogens, through collecting and analysing data from these herds.201526166195
infection by neospora caninum in dairy cattle belonging to family farmers in the northern region of brazil.neosporosis is considered a major cause of abortion among cattle worldwide. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and correlate them with possible risk factors on 63 small farms (family farms) in the municipality of ji-paraná, the main milk-producing region of the state of rondônia, northern brazil. for this purpose, 621 serum samples were collected from cows and were evaluated by means of the indirect fluorescence antibody te ...201526154960
prevalence and distribution of neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the northern territory of australia.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the northern territory (nt) of australia has never been determined. a total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the nt government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the northern territory were tested by commercial elisa for anti-n. caninum antibodies. the water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence o ...201525992666
genetic diversity of bovine neospora caninum determined by microsatellite markers.neospora caninum is one of the most significant parasitic organisms causing bovine abortion worldwide. despite the economic impact of this infection, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of this parasite. in this study, using nc5 and its1 nested pcr, n. caninum has been detected in 12 brain samples of aborted fetuses from 298 seropositive dairy cattle collected from four different regions in tehran, iran. these specimen (nc-iran) were genotyped in multilocus using 9 different m ...201525988829
neospora caninum: the first demonstration of the enteroepithelial stages in the intestines of a naturally infected dog.a 1.5-month-old kangal breed puppy from a dairy cattle farm died after showing severe diarrhoea and incoordination. necropsy examination revealed multifocal pulmonary consolidation and necrosis and fibrinohaemorrhagic enteritis. microscopically, there was necrotic and purulent bronchopneumonia, myocarditis and non-purulent encephalitis. in the jejunum and ileum there was villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia with oocyst-like and schizont-like structures in the epithelia. immunohistochemically, n ...201525981437
the effect of a live neospora caninum tachyzoite vaccine in naturally infected pregnant dairy cows.neosporosis, caused by the intracellular protozoan neospora caninum, is a major cause of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. the principal route of transmission of neosporosis is via in utero infection of the offspring. there is no effective prophylactic treatment or vaccine available against bovine neosporosis. a n. caninum ncis491 isolate was examined for its ability to immunize and reduce abortions in naturally infected dairy cows under field conditions. n. caninum-seroposi ...201525890821
a study of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence in healthy cattle in the czech republic.the aim of study was to test the sera of healthy dairy cows by elisas, the methods also used in other groups of animals in the czech republic, and thus to obtain actual data about n. caninum and t. gondii seroprevalence in cattle.201525780824
prevalence of immunoglobulin g (igg) antibody to neospora caninum in dairy cattle of hamedan province, west of iran.bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite n. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of hamedan province (west of iran) by elisa method. blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 63(12.80%) sera. a signific ...201425568710
effects of crossbreeding on endocrine patterns determined in pregnant beef/dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an intracellular coccidian parasite causing abortion worldwide in dairy cattle. studies have shown that n caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns and that beef cows or cows with a crossbreed pregnancy, especially for a greater maternal-paternal genetic distance, show a reduced risk of abortion when naturally infected compared with pure-breed holstein friesian (hf) pregnancies. this study examined the effects of crossbreeding on plasma progesterone (p4), pregnancy-associ ...201525459029
neosporosis in naturally infected pregnant dairy cattle.neosporosis caused by caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum is one of the major causes of infectious abortion in bovines worldwide. a long-term prospective study was performed in a dairy herd endemic for n. caninum in order to analyze the impact of neosporosis on the proportion of aborting cows. a total of 1078 pregnant cows were tested for presence of antibodies and the proportion of abortions was calculated. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum found in the herd was 35.5%. t ...201424986462
neospora caninum prevalence in dogs raised under different living conditions.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. dogs are important in the epidemiology of n. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. a n. caninum competitive elisa was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 differ ...201424957000
first isolation of neospora caninum from blood of a naturally infected adult dairy cow in beijing, china.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but the isolation of a viable parasite from an abortus is difficult, and viable n. caninum has not been isolated from any host in china. in the present study, peripheral blood samples were collected from a jugular vein of an adult dairy cow that had aborted; the cow was seropositive to n. caninum antibodies by elisa. white blood cells were separated and seeded onto vero cell monolayer cultures for parasite isolation. tachyzo ...201424945568
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in northern provinces, thailand.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of neosporosis, recognized as a major cause of bovine abortion around the world. thailand is a developing agricultural country located in southeast asia. livestock developments particularly in dairy cows of this country have been hampered by low productivity including milk and slow growth rate due to the impact of many pathogens including n. caninum. currently, there is no effective method for control of neosp ...201424827103
neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.the aim of this study was to investigate how neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. a convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the northeast of argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (bos taurus and bos indicus crossbreeds) ...201424792747
neospora caninum versus brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in ethiopia: a case control study.this case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of neospora caninum and brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. the study was carried out between october 2011 and june 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of ethiopia. two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. the presence of antibody to n. caninum was screened usin ...201424781154
comparative study for the detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in milk and sera in dairy cattle in southern romania.the study aimed to assess the within-herd neospora caninum exposure in dairy cattle in southern romania, based on the detection of specific antibodies in milk and serum. a total of 104 paired samples of milk and serum were collected from four dairy farms. individual samples were analyzed for n. caninum antibodies by elisa: idexx neospora ab (idx) (three farms: a, b, c; n = 60) and id-vet lab (idv) (farm d; n = 44). additionally, four pooled milk samples, one per each farm (a, b, c) and a compose ...201424570044
gamma interferon production and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins 1 and 2 in gestating dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.gamma interferon (ifn-γ) production and cross-breed pregnancy have been attributed a role in protecting dairy cows infected with neospora caninum against abortion. plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins-1 (pag-1) are a marker of placental/foetal well-being and of pag-2 is an abortion risk indicator in chronically n. caninum-infected animals. the present study examines, in cross-breed pregnancies, interactions between ifn-γ production and levels of pag-1 and pag-2 in non-aborting nat ...201424456132
neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered dairy cows (bos taurus).neospora caninum is a worldwide parasite recognized as one of the main parasites responsible for abortion in cattle. the objective of this study was to evaluate vertical transmission of n. caninum in dairy cows (bos taurus) that were slaughtered at an abattoir in the state of santa catarina, southern brazil. blood samples (with and without edta) from 60 pregnant dairy cows and blood and tissue samples (brain, lung, heart and liver) from their fetuses were collected and used for pcr and serologic ...201324252950
neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows and domestic dogs from vojvodina, serbia.neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is a protozoan parasite responsible for high rate of abortion in cattle worldwide. in dogs, consequences of infection vary from severe neuromuscular disorders to asymptomatic infection and shedding of environmentally resistant oocysts. in this study, we determined the occurrence of n. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and dogs in vojvodina (northern province of serbia) and possible risk factors. n. caninum antibodies were found in 15.4% (55/ ...201324152767
study on outbreak of neospora caninum-associated abortion in dairy cows in tabriz (northwest iran) by serological, molecular and histopathologic determine neospora caninum (n. caninum) as a cause of bovine abortion in dairy cows by elisa, pcr and pathological methods in tabriz, northwest of iran.201324144024
evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of neosporosis and leukosis in lactating dairy cows.serum and milk samples from 1229 cows on 22 ontario dairy farms were individually tested for antibodies specific for bovine leukosis virus (blv) and neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). antibodies against blv were present in 361 serum samples (29.4%) and 369 milk samples (30.0%). comparing the 2 tests, agreement was almost perfect (k = 0.86; 95% ci = 0.83 to 0.90) and the proportions of samples positive were not significantly different (p = 0.56). both tests identified ...201324082160
neospora caninum causes severe economic losses in cattle in the humid pampa region of argentina.this work estimates the economic losses due to neospora abortions in the humid pampa region of argentina.the total dairy and beef cattle population at risk of abortion is 1,771,326 and 9,726,684 head, respectively. in dairy cattle, there was an 8 % risk of experiencing abortion due to a variety of causes, but 16.5 % of them were due to neospora caninum. the economic losses were estimated at us$1,415 (1,400-1,431) per abortion, which equates to a total loss of us$33,097,221 (15,622,600-119,349,69 ...201323325013
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and associated risk factors in intensive or semi-intensively managed dairy and breeding cattle of ethiopia.a cross-sectional study of neospora caninum infection was conducted in major milksheds of ethiopia. cattle (n=2334) from 273 farms were bled and the sera screened for antibodies against n. caninum using a commercial elisa kit. herd and individual animal level data were collected from farm records and a semi-structured questionnaire format. the overall animal level seroprevalence was 13.3%, while the prevalence at farm level was 39.6%. in urban and peri-urban smallholder dairy farms, the seroprev ...201323261087
plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins measured using anti-bovine pag-2 antibodies on day 120 of gestation predict abortion in dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.the present study sought to determine: (i) the effects of neospora caninum infection and twin pregnancy on plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-2 (pag-2) concentrations throughout pregnancy and (ii) whether plasma pag-2 concentrations could predict abortion in n. caninum-infected cows. the study was performed on a commercial holstein-friesian dairy herd in northeastern spain and the final data included those recorded in 53 non-aborting and 19 aborting animals. blood samples were collected im ...201323228018
factors associated with seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in southeastern brazil.neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular cyst-forming protozoan considered a major cause of miscarriage in dairy cattle in many parts of the world. this cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between reproductive abnormalities and seropositivity to n. caninum in 1,204 dairy cows from 40 farms located in the state of minas gerais, southeastern brazil. producers were interviewed, and blood samples were collected to perform indirect immuno ...201323212838
quantification of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in dairy cows in minas gerais, brazil.the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the rate of vertical transmission and to investigate horizontal transmission of neospora caninum and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in seropositive dairy cows on two farms in the state of minas gerais, brazil. the frequency of cows seropositive for n.caninum according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was 39.4% (93/236) for farm a and 31.4% (32/102) for the farm b (p > 0.05). the mean vertical transmission rate ...201223070443
reproductive disorders in relation to neospora caninum, brucella spp. and bovine viral diarrhoea virus serostatus in breeding and dairy farms of central and southern ethiopia.abortion and stillbirth are important reproductive disorders in the dairy industry and are often caused by infectious agents. this study investigated whether bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv), brucella spp., and neospora caninum are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in dairy cattle in ethiopia. dairy cattle from 99 farms were categorized as cases (n=134) or controls (n=268) according to reproductive data. blood samples were screened for antibodies for these infectious agents. the over ...201323034138
effects of age and breed on the prevalence of neospora caninum in commercial dairy cattle from pakistan.neospora caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion worldwide. a serological survey was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of exposure to n. caninum in dairy cattle based on age and breed from punjab and sindh provinces, pakistan. serum samples from 641 animals from 12 herds from punjab (n = 7) and sindh (n = 5) provinces were tested for antibodies against n. caninum using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. positive reactions to n. caninum were seen ...201322924907
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern china.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites which cause lowered production and increased abortion in dairy cows. the aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum infection in dairy cows in the guangxi zhuang autonomous region (gzar), subtropical southern china. in total, 875 serum samples were collected from the tail veins of dairy cows in 6 main dairy cow-rearing districts of 4 administrative cities in gzar. the samp ...201222717118
prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and water buffaloes and associated abortions in the plateau of southern peninsular india.a seroprevalence study of bovine neosporosis was conducted among 1,927 dairy cattle and 341 water buffaloes from karnataka and andhra pradesh states in plateau of southern peninsular india by employing competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. overall, 12.61 and 9.97 % sera samples were found positive for the presence of neospora caninum antibody, respectively, among cattle and water buffaloes. out of 1,927 sera samples from cattle, 912 and 1,015 samples were collected from unorganized and ...201322644733
neospora caninum infection dynamics in dairy cattle.neospora caninum is considered in many countries as one of the key abortion agents in cattle. this study aims to investigate the parasite behavior in dairy cattle in the municipality of avaré, sp, brazil, where abortions frequently occur. an elisa was performed to compare two samplings on a total of 615 animals; tests were performed in the same herds with a gap of 3 years. an increase in the percentage of reactive animals was observed, ranging from 21.6% at the first sampling to 38.9% at the sec ...201222581344
increased incidence of dna amplification in follicular than in uterine and blood samples indicates possible tropism of neospora caninum to the ovarian follicle.this study evaluated the presence of neospora caninum in ovarian follicle aspirates and uterine flushes obtained from n. caninum seropositive dairy cows. ninety-two cows that aborted within the previous 90 days were sampled to determine the presence of antibodies against n. caninum. thirteen seropositive cows were chosen for collection of blood leukocytes, uterine flushes (uf; n=12) and follicular aspirates (opu; n=13). samples were centrifuged and the cellular sediment from the follicular fluid ...201222440723
herd-level prevalence of selected endemic infectious diseases of dairy cows in great implement appropriate and effective disease control programs at the national level, up-to-date and unbiased information on disease frequency is needed. the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected endemic infectious diseases in the population of dairy herds in great britain. bulk milk tank (bmt) samples from 225 randomly selected dairy farms, stratified by region and herd size, were tested for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine herpesvirus type 1 ...201728843682
association of neospora caninum with reproductive performance in dairy cows: a prospective study from iran.there is no prospective study from iran to estimate the direct risk of neospora caninum for pregnancy loss or reproductive factors. in addition, there is no report in the literature concerning the association of n. caninum with dystocia and sex of calves. therefore, this study was conducted on a group of dairy cows in a large intensive production system during 2011 to 2013 in southern iran to evaluate the impact of neosporosis on reproductive performance. a total of 253 cows which were diagnosed ...201728785385
relationships between certain metabolic diseases and selected serum biochemical parameters in seropositive dairy cows against neospora caninum infection in different stages of lactationneospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle. the general health of affected cows has not been investigated before. therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify possible relationships between certain metabolic diseases and selected serum biochemical parameters in seropositive dairy cows against n. caninum antibodies in different stages of lactation. the study was carried out using 72 n. caninum seropositive cows and 61 seronegative dairy cows (control). serum ...201728741343
risk factors for neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle and their possible cause-effect relation for disease.neospora caninum causes reproductive problems in cattle such as abortion, premature birth, retention of fetal membranes, and metritis. therefore, this study aimed to verify possible risk factors for n. caninum infection in dairy cattle and their cause-effect relation to neosporosis. serum samples of 1518 dairy cows from the west of santa catarina state, southern brazil were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) for n. caninum, where 466 were found to be positives (30.69%-ci95%; 28. ...201728666842
immune response in bovine neosporosis: protection or contribution to the pathogenesis of abortion.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a preference for cattle and dogs as hosts. when n. caninum infection occurs in cattle it induces abortion, bovine neosporosis being a main cause of abortion worldwide. in dairy cattle, the economic burden of neosporosis-associated abortion is so great that it might results in closure of a farm. however, not all infected cows abort and it is not yet understood why this occurs. at present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. this review provides ...201728578088
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