effects of crossbreed pregnancies on the abortion risk of neospora caninum-infected dairy cows.previous studies have shown that the use of beef bull semen significantly reduces the rate of abortions due to neospora caninum in artificially inseminated (ai) seropositive dairy cows. in addition, certain beef breeds could be more resistant to n. caninum infection and abortion than others. the aim of the present study was to determine whether different crossbreed pregnancies, those derived from limousin, charolais, piedmontese or belgian blue semen, carry different risks of abortion in neospor ...200919464119
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild and domestic ruminants sharing pastures in galicia (northwest spain).the prevalence of antibodies to the protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum were investigated by the direct agglutination test (dat) and celisa, respectively, in 160 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 177 sheep and 178 cattle sharing pastures in galicia (northwest spain). the seroprevalence for t. gondii was 13.7% in roe deer, 57% in sheep and 7.3% in cattle. the seroprevalence for n. canimum was 6.8%, 10.1% and 24.1% in roe deer, sheep and cattle, respectively. statistically sig ...201019482324
genetic diversity amongst isolates of neospora caninum, and the development of a multiplex assay for the detection of distinct strains.infection with neospora caninum is regarded as a significant cause of abortion in cattle. despite the economic impact of this infection, relatively little is known about the biology of this parasite. in this study, mini and microsatellite dnas were detected in the genome of n. caninum and eight loci were identified that each contained repetitive dna which was polymorphic among different isolates of this parasite. a multiplex pcr assay was developed for the detection of genetic variation within n ...200919496247
experimental infection with a low virulence isolate of neospora caninum at 70 days gestation in cattle did not result in foetopathy.the nc-spain 1h isolate of neospora caninum, which was newly obtained from the brain of a congenitally asymptomatic infected calf, demonstrated a reduced in vitro tachyzoite yield and viability rate, as well as low virulence in mouse models. the objective of the present study was to determine the ability of this isolate to induce foetal death in a pregnant bovine model. for this purpose, 13 naïve pregnant heifers were divided into three groups and were experimentally challenged with either 10(7) ...200919497257
neospora caninum--how close are we to development of an efficacious vaccine that prevents abortion in cattle?neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle around the world. although the clinical signs of disease in both dogs and cattle have now been recognised for over 20years, treatment and control options are still limited, despite the availability of a commercial vaccine in some countries of the world. the case for an efficacious vaccine has not been convincingly waged by farmers, veterinarians and other members of the agricultural and rural communities. in recent times, ho ...200919497326
[use of the real time rt-pcr for immune related gene expression quantitation in experimentally infected neospora caninum bovine calves].neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion and natimortality in cattle. host immune defense is capable to inhibit tachyzoite activity during acute infection, but there is no action against bradyzoites in tissue cysts. activation and modulation of this response is controlled by cell mediators. the real-time rt-pcr technique was employed to detect some of those mediators during n. caninum infection. holstein and nelore calves intramuscularly infected with tachyzoites and uninfected con ...200919500454
comparison between immunohistochemistry and two pcr methods for detection of neospora caninum in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue of bovine fetuses.the objective of this study was to identify the presence of the parasite by comparing immunohistochemistry (ihc) with two polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods for the detection of the pnc5 gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) of n. caninum in brain tissue of bovine fetuses that had previously been fixed in formalin and paraffin-embedded. in 29 out of 48 brains (60.4%), microscopic lesions consistent with neospora infection were observed, and 21 of the 29 cases (72.41%) were posit ...200919515495
neospora caninum and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells: parasite survival, proliferation, and induction of cytokine expression.dendritic cells (dcs) represent the first line defence of the innate immune system following infection with pathogens. we exploratively addressed invasion and survival ability of neospora caninum, a parasite causing abortion in cattle, in mouse bone marrow dcs (bmdcs), and respective cytokine expression patterns. immature bmdcs were exposed to viable (untreated) and nonviable parasites that had been inactivated by different means. invasion and/or internalization, as well as intracellular surviva ...200919527452
seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in bos javanicus ('bali cattle') from indonesia.a cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain first information on the presence of neospora caninum infection in bos javanicus ('bali cattle'), the predominant beef cattle in the eastern islands of indonesia. serum samples were collected from 438 bali cattle of two age classes (<2 years, >2 years) and both genders at three slaughterhouses in the bali island, and examined for n. caninum-specific antibodies using native ncsrs2 (p38 antigen) as an elisa antigen. the estimated overall seroprevale ...201019533406
the first finding of neospora caninum and the occurrence of other abortifacient agents in sheep in slovakia.neosporosis is an infection of animals caused by an intracellular coccidian parasite, neospora caninum, closely related to toxoplasma gondii. the parasite is one of important abortifacient agents of bovine abortions worldwide. the aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of anti-neospora antibodies in dairy aborting sheep from two eastern slovak regions and to compare it with the occurrence of other potential abortifacient agents. sera of 382 sheep, mainly the improved valachian and merino ...200919540672
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle ranches with high abortion rate: special emphasis to serologic co-existence with toxoplasma gondii, brucella abortus and listeria monocytogenes.the aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle ranches with higher abortion rates and co-existence of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, brucella abortus, and listeria monocytogenes antibodies. the blood samples were collected from dairy cows with history of abortion (n=234) as well as from pregnant cows that were (n=323) kept in the same ranches. n. caninum seroprevalence was 10.77% (60/557). the co-existence rate of n. caninum seropositivity with t. ...200919592171
early postabortion recovery of neospora-infected lactating dairy cows.this study was designed to assess the reproductive performance of neospora caninum-infected dairy cows (bos taurus) after abortion. the population examined was composed of 92 aborting cows subsequently subjected to at least one artificial insemination (ai) attempt. of these animals, 68 were n. caninum seropositive and 24 were seronegative. only animals producing at least 25 kg milk at the estrus after abortion were inseminated. normal uterine involution was verified at first ai after abortion in ...200919595443
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and coexistence with toxoplasma gondii in dogs.neospora caninum is a protozoal agent causing abortion and infertility problems in dairy cattle. the objective of the present study was to detect the seroprevalence of n.caninum in dogs and its co-existence with toxoplasma gondii in some rural and urban regions of kirikka-le province. a total of 121 blood samples were examined with indirect immunoflorescent antibody test to detect the presence of n.caninum igg antibodies. the seropositivity of n.caninum was 28.9% in dogs. the seropositivity rate ...200919598086
indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is involved in defense against neospora caninum in human and bovine cells.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii. in nature this parasite is found especially in dogs and cattle, but it may also infect other livestock. the growth of n. caninum, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, is controlled mainly by the cell-mediated immune response. during infection the cytokine gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) plays a prominent role in regulating the growth of n. caninum in natural and experimental disease. the present study showed ...200919620347
detection, quantifications and pharmacokinetics of toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) in cattle.toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) is a triazine-based anti-protozoal agent with highly specific actions against apicomplexan group of organisms, which are undergoing intensive investigation. toltrazuril sulfone may have clinical application in the treatment of neospora. caninum and other protozoal infections in cattle. to evaluate absorption, distribution, and elimination characteristics of toltrazuril sulfone in cattle, a sensitive validated quantitative high-pressure liquid chromatography method ...200919646093
association of bola drb3 and dqa1 alleles with susceptibility to neospora caninum and reproductive outcome in quebec holstein cattle.the bola drb3 and dqa1 genes are part of the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii in cattle. these genes are highly polymorphic and have been associated with resistance to several diseases, such as mastitis, bovine leukemia virus (blv) and dermatophilis. sequenced based typing of these genes has been carried out extensively from blood samples; however it is often impractical or expensive to obtain such samples. repositories of well-characterized serum from cattle are readily available ...200919646818
detection of neospora caninum in aborted bovine fetuses and dam blood samples by nested pcr and elisa and seroprevalence in beijing and tianjin, china.neospora caninum infection is a significant cause of abortion in cattle. we investigated the tissue distribution of n. caninum in aborted bovine fetuses and dam blood samples by a nested pcr assay, and compared the nested pcr with elisa in the diagnosis of n. caninum infection. in total, 26 aborted fetuses and 813 blood samples were collected from 8 dairy herds in beijing (n=212) and tianjin (n=601), china. fifteen fetuses (57.7%) were tested n. caninum-positive by the nested pcr. n. caninum dna ...200919660160
endogenous and exogenous transplacental transmission of neospora caninum - how the route of transmission impacts on epidemiology and control of disease.vertical transmission of the protozoan parasite, neospora caninum is highly efficient and can take two forms - endogenous transplacental transmission resulting from activation of the quiescent bradyzoite stage during pregnancy or exogenous transplacental transmission resulting from ingestion of oocysts during pregnancy. calves born carrying infection derived from either endogenous or exogenous transplacental transmission are capable of infecting their offspring when they start to breed. this rev ...200919691862
seroprevalence and spatial distribution of neospora caninum in a population of beef cattle.a cross-sectional serological survey for neospora caninum was carried out in swedish beef cattle in order to estimate the seroprevalence and investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. blood samples were collected from 2754 animals in 2130 herds and analysed for presence of antibodies to n. caninum. the study included 18.5% of all swedish beef herds. spatial autocorrelation was assessed by calculating moran's i and cluster detection was performed using lisa- and spatial scan statisti ...200919709771
microsatellite markers for the molecular characterization of neospora caninum: application to clinical samples.we report here on the development of a nested pcr procedure for the application of neospora caninum microsatellite markers to clinical samples. genotyping technology by fluorescently labelled dna fragment analysis was used in combination with dna sequencing for those markers which show additional snps or complex repetitive sequences. twenty-nine dna samples from naturally infected bovine aborted foetuses from two regions of spain where n. caninum had been detected by nested pcr of the its1 rrna ...200919720464
first epidemiological study on exposure to neospora caninum in different canine populations in the algiers district (algeria).neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. dogs act as final hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. they can also harbour the extraintestinal stage of the parasite and this may be associated with a fairly rare neuromuscular condition. the sera of 781 dogs from the algiers district were screened by ifat for the presence of anti-n. caninum antibodies. these dogs were distributed into four populations: local stray dogs, police dogs, dogs from breeding kennels and fa ...200919723590
dynamics of heat shock protein 70 concentrations in peripheral blood lymphocyte lysates during pregnancy in lactating holstein-friesian cows.the aim of this study was to characterize the dynamics of the concentrations of heat shock protein 70 kda (hsp70) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of lactating holstein-friesian dairy cows (bos taurus) during pregnancy. the detection of pregnancy was carried out and blood samples collected on days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 of gestation from 46 cows (11 primiparous and 35 pluriparous, 34 seropositive and 12 seronegative to neospora caninum). peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated by densi ...200919729195
failure of a vaccine using immunogenic recombinant proteins rncsag4 and rncgra7 against neosporosis in mice.the development of an effective vaccine against neospora caninum infection in cattle is an important issue due to the significant economic impact of this parasitic disease worldwide. in this work, the immune response, safety and efficacy of different vaccine formulations using the n. caninum recombinant proteins rncsag4 (the first bradyzoite-specific protein assayed as a vaccine) and rncgra7 were evaluated in mouse models. the survival curves of pups from all vaccinated groups showed a slight de ...200919782735
generation of parasite cysts in cultured cells instead of living order to develop any effective means of prevention or therapy against neospora caninum infection, all three life cycle stages of this parasite have to be taken into account. in this project, the in vitro culture of n. caninum bradyzoites containing tissue cysts has been developed, thus allowing to the initiation of stage conversion without the use of animal experimentation. this enables researchers to study novel aspects of stage differentiation, to investigate novel diagnostic antigens, and ...200719835051
[preliminary application of pcr-based assay for the detection of neospora caninum in bovine aborted fetus].to establish a pcr diagnostic method based on nc-5 gene of neospora caninum, for being used to detect neospora in brain tissues of bovine aborted fetus.200919856504
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in northeastern china.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in china's northeastern heilongjiang province was surveyed between 2007 and 2008. in total, 540 serum samples of dairy cattle from 9 counties were examined for antibodies to n. caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum in dairy cattle was 13.3% (72/540). the seroprevalence of n. caninum in aborting cows (14.9%) was slightly higher than that in nonaborting cows (10.3%). dairy cattle with 5 pregna ...201019895158
investigation of neospora caninum, hammondia sp., and toxoplasma gondii in tissues from slaughtered beef cattle in bahia, brazil.neospora caninum, hammondia sp., and toxoplasma gondii are parasites with morphological and genetic similarities. n. caninum and t. gondii are important abortive agents of cattle and sheep, respectively, and may infect numerous animal species. hammondia sp. is not known to induce disease in animals, but may cause confusion in the identification of closely related coccidia. the aim of this study was to investigate infection rates caused by n. caninum, hammondia sp., and t. gondii in beef cattle u ...201019943064
first identification of neospora caninum by pcr in aborted bovine foetuses in romania.the first identification of neospora caninum infection in aborted bovine foetuses in romania is reported. nine aborted foetuses were collected from a dairy farm. the foetal age of foetuses was between 3 and 7 months. a 7-month-old foetus was mummified. n. caninum dna nc-5 region was amplified from samples extracted from brain tissues of three (33.3%) aborted foetuses. the foetal ages of pcr positive foetuses were 3, 4 and 7 months (mummified). no specific lesions or tissue cysts were found to th ...201019953273
fecal and molecular survey of neospora caninum in farm and household dogs in mashhad area, khorasan province, iran.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. dog is the definitive host for n. caninum and can infect dairy cattle. the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of neospora oocysts in feces of dogs from dairy farms. a total of 174 fecal samples was collected from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs during 2006 and 2008. fecal samples of dogs were microscopically examined for detecting hammondia neospora-like oocysts (hnlo) by mini parasep sf fecal parasite ...200919967094
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies and its consequences for reproductive parameters in dairy cows from dakar-senegal, west africa.the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies and its effects on reproductive parameters in cows in intensive dairy herds in dakar. randomised blood samples were taken for serology from 196 cows in four herds with a history of sporadic abortion. all of the sera were assayed for antibodies against n. caninum, candida guillermondii, coxiella burnetii, and chlamydophila sp. the associations between serostatus and reproductive parameters (abortion, number o ...201019997972
associations between reproductive performance and seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral-diarrhea virus, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and neospora caninum in canadian dairy cows.our objective was to investigate effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (blv), type 1 bovine viral-diarrhea virus (bvdv), mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), and neospora caninum (nc), and their possible interactions, on reproductive efficiency (specifically, first-service conception [fsc], and calving interval [ci]) in dairy cows. the sample population included up to 30 randomly selected animals from 179 randomly selected farms in five provinces in canada, from w ...201020015556
risk factors associated with neospora caninum seropositivity in randomly sampled canadian dairy cows and herds.our objective was to determine cow- and herd-level risk factors associated with seropositivity for neospora caninum in a large number of randomly selected canadian dairy herds, controlling for important confounding variables and co-infections with bovine leukemia virus (blv), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map). serum samples were obtained from 30 randomly selected cows, where available, in 240 herds using monthly milk testing, within 6 of ...201020018395
[inquiry of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in dairy cattle, dogs and rural workers of the south-west region of mato grosso state].considering the importance of neosporosis in the animal health and production, the frequency of antibodies to neospora caninum was evaluated in dairy cattle of the southwestern region of mato grosso state, brazil, in addition to serum samples obtained from dogs and humans living in the farms. a total of 1036 serum samples were analyzed, from which 932 were from dairy bovine females, 37 from dogs and 67 from humans, from 24 farms and examined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). reac ...200920040187
diagnosis of neospora caninum in bovine fetuses by histology, immunohistochemistry, and nested-pcr.neospora caninum, a cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle, was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and nested-pcr, using primers from the nc5 region of the genomic dna (pcr plus) and primers from the its1 region of the ribosomal dna (pcr jb). a total of 105 fetal samples sent to the centro de pesquisa e desenvolvimento de sanidade animal do instituto biológico from january 2006 to may 2008 were examined for evidence of n. caninum. histological examination revealed 71.4% with non-sup ...200920040203
neospora caninum: early immune response of rat mixed glial cultures after tachyzoites infection.neospora caninum causes neurologic disease in dogs and abortion in cattle. little is known about the immune response of the cns against this protozoan. the aim of this study was to evaluate production of il-6, il-10, tnf-alpha, ifn-gamma, and no in rat mixed glial cell cultures infected by n. caninum. ifn-gamma was not observed. the mean cytokine released after 24 and 72 h of infection were 3.8+/-0.6 and 3.7+/-0.6 pg tnf-alpha/mg protein and 2.7+/-0.69 and 4.1+/-0.64 pg il-10/mg protein, respect ...201020045699
[determination and correlation of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and dogs from paraná, brazil].the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. the aim of the present study was to determine and to compare the presence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle, as well as in farm dogs, and the relationship among them. the research was conducted in different mesoregions of paraná state, southern brazil. sera from 1.263 cattle, from 77 farms were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by elisa. sera from 129 dogs, from 35 farms were tested for antibo ...200820059847
interleukin-12 response to ncsrs2 immunization of balb/c mice against neospora caninum.the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum can cause abortions and is recognized as an important causative agent responsible for economic and reproductive losses in the cattle industry. humoral immune response was investigated in balb/c mice by using recombinant ncsrs2 expressed in escherichia coli as polyhistidine-tagged fusion proteins. ncsrs2 is the major immunodominant tachyzoite surface antigen of n. caninum. separate groups of female balb/c mice were infected subcutaneously with (p) pbs, ( ...200820059851
[seroprevalence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum and anti-toxoplasma gondii in captive wild canids].neosporosis is considered one of the main cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the world. the prevalence of neospora caninum in wild species has been studied since the coyote (canis latrans), a north american wild canid specie was discovered as definitive host of this parasite. the aim of the present study was to determine the serum prevalence of n. caninum and t. gondii in wild native canids species from brazil. serum samples of 25 crab-eating dogs (cerdocyon thous), five pampas fox (lycalopex ...200820059860
[epidemiologic survey of neospora caninum in bovines of rural settlements in corumbá, ms].neospora caninum, is an obligate intracellular parasite, can infect domestic and wild dogs, equines and ruminants. it was described in 1988, and its economic importance is attributed to costs of abortion, the value of the fetuses, artificial insemination and coverage, the decrease in milk production, the increase in the disposal and replacement of animals. in four rural settlements of the municipality of corumba, ms (mato grande, paiolzinho, taquaral and tamarineiro) was used a combination of qu ...200820059867
neospora caninum excreted/secreted antigens trigger cc-chemokine receptor 5-dependent cell migration.neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is an obligate intracellular parasite considered to be a major cause of abortion in cattle throughout the world. most studies concerning n. caninum have focused on life cycle, seroepidemiology, pathology and vaccination, while data on host-parasite interaction, such as host cell migration, mechanisms of evasion and dissemination of this parasite during the early phase of infection are still poorly understood. here we show the ability of excre ...201020060395
fetal death in cows experimentally infected with neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle, but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. most of the n. caninum experimental primary infections in cattle late in gestation, after 120 days of pregnancy, result in birth of full-term congenitally infected fetuses. in the present study, the distribution of parasites and pathogenesis of infection in both dams and fetuses after inoculation with 10(7) culture derived tachyzoites of n. caninum nc-illinois cattle str ...201020089361
serologic profiles for sarcocystis sp. and neospora caninum and productive performance in naturally infected beef calves.sarcocystis sp. and neospora caninum infections affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. the objective of the present study was to trace serologic profiles for sarcocystis sp. and n. caninum in naturally infected beef calves and analyze their relationship with transmission routes and productive performance. samples were collected in two cow-calf operations located in buenos aires province, argentina. in farm 1, 43 calves were bled and weighed three times. in farm 2, 69 calves w ...201020101411
australian dingoes are definitive hosts of neospora provide objective data on the potential role of dingoes (canis lupus dingo) in the life cycle of neospora caninum in australia, the production of n. caninum oocysts by experimentally infected canids was investigated. three dingo pups raised in captivity and three domestic dogs were fed tissue from calves infected with an australian isolate of n. caninum, nc-nowra. oocysts of n. caninum, confirmed by species-specific pcr, were shed in low numbers by one dingo pup at 12-14 days p.i. the remaini ...201020149793
identification of neospora caninum proteins regulated during the differentiation process from tachyzoite to bradyzoite stage by dige.identification of differentially expressed proteins during neospora caninum tachyzoite-bradyzoite conversion processes may lead to a better knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms developed by this important parasite of cattle. in the present work, a differential expression proteomic study of tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages was accomplished for the first time by applying dige technology coupled with ms analysis. up to 72 differentially expressed spots were visualized (1.5-fold in relative abunda ...201020162558
stress-driven stage transformation of neospora caninum.neosporiosis, a serious disease caused by the apicomplexan intracellular parasite neospora caninum, is considered to be one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. it is associated with potentially serious complications such as abortion, stillbirth and maternal infertility. to survive in fluctuating physiological and immunological environments, n. caninum has evolved a diverse set of regulatory mechanisms that govern various adaptive responses. the most intriguing paradigm in n. c ...201020165871
the prevalence and spatial clustering of neospora caninum in dairy herds in norway.the aims of this study were to estimate the national herd prevalence and the general spatial distribution of neospora caninum infection in norwegian dairy cattle. bulk milk samples from 1657 randomly selected dairy herds were analysed by iscom elisa for the presence of n. caninum specific antibodies. the national herd prevalence was estimated to be 0.7% (95% ci: 0.3-1.2%), which is the lowest national herd prevalence reported in europe. in addition, we included a subpopulation study in which all ...201020227188
pathogenic characterization in mice of neospora caninum isolates obtained from asymptomatic this study, we characterized 8 new isolates obtained from healthy but congenitally infected calves using a balb/c mouse model. neospora caninum-infected mice survived without exhibiting any clinical signs of disease. nevertheless, differences among isolates in parasite organ distribution, parasite burden and the severity of histopathological lesions were determined. mice infected with the nc-spain 5h, nc-spain 7 and nc-spain 9 isolates showed higher parasite burdens and more severe brain lesi ...201020233488
a survey of neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion in large dairy farms of mashhad, iran.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoon causing abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to assess the importance of this parasite for causing abortion in dairy farms in the mashhad area of iran. of the aborted bovine fetuses, 151 were collected from dairy farms between 2006 and 2008. first, brain samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the presence of n. caninum dna, diagnosis was complemented with immunohistochemistry (ihc) and fetal serology (eli ...201020352453
comparative evaluation of immunofluorescent antibody and new immunoblot tests for the specific detection of antibodies against besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites and bradyzoites in bovine sera.besnoitia besnoiti, an apicomplexan parasite causes economically important disease in cattle in many countries of africa and asia is re-emerging in europe. serological identification of infected cattle is important because introduction of these animals into naive herds seems to play a major role in the transmission of the parasite. we report new, simplified immunoblot-based serological tests for the detection of b. besnoiti-specific antibodies. antigens were used under non-reducing conditions in ...201020378250
implications of wild dog ecology on the sylvatic and domestic life cycle of neospora caninum in australia.neospora caninum is transmitted either transplacentally or horizontally by ingestion of tissue cysts present in tissues or oocysts shed by dogs. neosporosis is a significant disease, causing cattle abortion at 5-7 months of pregnancy. infected cows may remain infective for life transmitting the infection in several consecutive or non-consecutive pregnancies. a great deal is known about the epidemiology of neosporosis, although only limited information is available on the main routes of horizonta ...201120400345
recognition by toll-like receptor 2 induces antigen-presenting cell activation and th1 programming during infection by neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for major economic losses due to abortions in cattle. toll-like receptors (tlrs) sense specific microbial products and direct downstream signaling pathways in immune cells, linking innate, and adaptive immunity. here, we analyze the role of tlr2 on innate and adaptive immune responses during n. caninum infection. inflammatory peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to n. caninum-soluble antigens presented an ...201020404835
neospora caninum and coxiella burnetii seropositivity are related to endocrine pattern changes during gestation in lactating dairy cows.q fever is a zoonotic infection caused by coxiella burnetii that is endemic worldwide. domestic ruminants are a source of infection for humans. given the suggestion that the bacterium recrudesces during pregnancy in cattle, this study was designed to determine whether c. burnetii infection affects hormonal patterns, such as progesterone, cortisol, pregnancy associated glycoproteins (pag), and prolactin during gestation in lactating cows. possible interactions with neospora caninum were also expl ...201020416940
microsatellite typing and avidity analysis suggest a common source of infection in herds with epidemic neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion.neosporosis is an important cause of reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. two different abortion patterns associated with neospora caninum infection have been observed in cattle herds: endemic and epidemic abortion outbreaks. the endemic pattern is characterized by an abortion problem in a herd persisting for several months or years, and is assumed to be caused by reactivation of a chronic infection. in epidemic outbreaks, abortions concentrate within a short period of time, most likely due ...201020609521
association between seropositivity for neospora caninum and reproductive performance of beef heifers in the pantanal of mato grosso do sul, brazil.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect domestic and wild canids, ruminants, and horses. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of antibodies to n. caninum and reproductive loss in beef heifers in the south pantanal region of mato grosso, brazil. a total of 1098 heifers were evaluated from breeding to calving with regard to reproductive performance, and serology for neosporosis was assayed by indirect immunofluorescence react ...201020624350
association between neospora caninum seropositivity and perinatal mortality in dairy heifers at first calving.associations between neospora caninum infection and the reproductive performance of dairy heifers in their first and second pregnancy on 18 uk farms were examined. six-month-old heifer calves were tested for n caninum-specific antibodies with a commercial elisa, and were then monitored until their second calving. random-effects regression analyses were performed on the data, using serological status as the explanatory variable. of 460 heifers tested, 7.2 per cent were seropositive. seropositive ...201020643884
abortions in bovines and neospora caninum transmission in an embryo transfer center.neosporosis is considered to be one of the main causes of abortions in bovines. in this study we evaluated the congenital transmission and occurrence of abortions by neospora caninum in an embryo transfer center in neropolis, goiás. serological samples from 101 recipients, 61 donors, and 90 calves were analyzed. among these animals, 32.67% of the recipients, 22.22% of the donors, and 6.66% of the calves were positive for n. caninum. the rate of vertical transmission was 24%. there was a statisti ...201020655663
kennel dogs as sentinels of leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum in majorca island, spain.kennel dogs can serve as sentinels and/or reservoirs of diseases of veterinary and zoonotic interest because they have often roamed free and lived outdoors, thus being exposed to pathogens. we tested dogs from the kennel of inca (majorca/mallorca, balearic islands, spain) for evidence of infection with three protozoan parasites: leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum. exposure to l. infantum was found in 56.3% of 48 dogs (37.5% by western blot, 43.8% by pcr). only 30% of in ...201020689966
differential susceptibility of human trophoblastic (bewo) and uterine cervical (hela) cells to neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite, closely related to toxoplasma gondii, and causes abortion and congenital neosporosis in cattle worldwide. trophoblast cells act in mechanisms of innate immune defense at the fetal-maternal interface and no data are available about the interaction of neospora with human trophoblasts. thus, this study aimed to verify the susceptibility of human trophoblastic (bewo) compared with uterine cervical (hela) cell lines to n. caninum. bewo and hela cells were ...201020708622
neospora caninum tachyzoite- and antigen-stimulated cytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and spleen cells of naive balb/c mice.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan pathogen that causes abortion in cattle. this parasite elicits a typical type 1 immune response in host animals, and it is widely believed that the strong type 1 immune response during pregnancy may result in fetal death. pro-inflammatory and/or inflammatory cytokines produced during either primary or secondary pathogen exposure are supposed to be the mediators of abortion. the present study defined cytokine production by murine naïve dendritic cell ...201020738198
peripheral white blood cell counts throughout pregnancy in non-aborting neospora caninum-seronegative and seropositive high-producing dairy cows in a holstein friesian herd.pregnancy is characterized by transient changes in the maternal immune system, also evident at peripheral level. the present study analyzes the kinetics and possible factors affecting peripheral white blood cell populations throughout pregnancy in a herd of high-producing dairy cows chronically infected or not with neospora caninum. we examined 54 pregnant parous cows: 29 neospora-seronegative and 25 neospora-seropositive cows. blood samples were collected on days 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of ge ...201120801467
microarray analyses of mouse responses to infection by neospora caninum identifies disease associated cellular pathways in the host response.neospora caninum is a coccidian cyst-forming parasite found in a wide range of host species such as mice, dogs and cattle. the development of methods such as vaccines to prevent abortion and fetal loss due to neosporosis would be greatly assisted by further knowledge on immunity and host responses to infection. in this study we used microarray technology to investigate the protective host responses occurring at 6h post infection in the spleen of mice infected with a prototype live n. caninum vac ...201020817048
a new thrombospondin-related anonymous protein homologue in neospora caninum (ncmic2-like1).neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that has the dog as a definitive host and cattle (among other animals) as intermediate hosts. it causes encephalopathy in dogs and abortion in cows, with significant loss in worldwide livestock. as any apicomplexan, the parasite invades the cells using proteins contained in the phylum-specific organelles, like the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. the aim of this study was the characterization of a homologue (denominated ncmic2-like1) of n. c ...201020880420
prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in sheep flocks of uberlândia county, mg.neosporosis is a parasitic disease that occurs in sheep and is associated with reproductive failure. the aim of this study was to verify seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in 12 sheep flocks in uberlândia county, minas gerais, brazil, using indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa). a total of 334 sheep blood samples were analyzed and an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm in order to correlate with risk factors of neosporosis: gender, age, breed, abortion problems, co ...201020943017
evaluation of a commercial elisa for the specific detection of antibodies against besnoitia besnoiti.bovine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease in cattle caused by the protozoan parasite besnoitia besnoiti, which occurs endemically in many countries of africa and asia and is spreading in europe. serological identification of subclinically infected cattle is important to avoid the introduction of infected animals into naive herds. here we determine the sensitivity and specificity of the priocheck(®) besnoitia ab, a serological test recently introduced into the european market. anal ...201021035269
neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered beef cows (bos indicus).neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes the most important reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. the objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of vertical transmission of n. caninum in zebus breed beef cows (bos indicus) submitted for slaughter at an abattoir in the northern region of the state of paraná, southern brazil. one hundred and fifty-nine cows were evaluated: 83 pregnant (in different stages of gestation) and 76 non-pregnant. serum determination of n. ca ...201021063729
immune response to neospora caninum native antigens formulated with immune stimulating complexes in calves.the aim of this study was to compare the immune responses to live neospora caninum tachyzoites and n. caninum native antigens formulated with immune stimulating complexes matrix (iscom-matrix) in calves. fifteen calves were used in this study: 3 were intravenously inoculated with 1 × 10(8) live tachyzoites (group a), 3 were inoculated twice with n. caninum native antigens formulated with iscoms (group b); 3 with n. caninum native antigens in phosphate-buffered saline (pbs) (group c); 3 received ...201021074325
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in free living and farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in poland.serum samples from 47 free living and 106 farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) from the mazurian lake district in north-east poland were investigated for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum. a modified neospora iscom-elisa was used for initial screening. all sera with optical density (od) values exceeding 0.400 absorbance units were further investigated by western blot analysis. eighteen sera were positive in both tests. six of these were from free living and 12 from farmed animals giving ...201021077439
prevalence of antibodies against neospora caninum in dogs from urban areas in central poland.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. to assess the prevalence of the parasite in urban dogs in the mazovian voivodeship, central poland, serum samples from 257 dogs were analyzed for the presence of specific igg antibodies. the examined dogs visited three private veterinary clinics located in warsaw due to control tests, vaccinations, or other reasons not directly connected with neosporosis. ...201021079995
detection of specific antibodies anti-neospora caninum in the fallow deer (dama dama).sera from 335 farmed fallow deer (dama dama) at the breeding station in kosewo górne in the mazurian lake district, north-east poland, were investigated for the presence of antibodies against neospora caninum. the distribution of age groups was as follow: >4years - 154 animals; 2years - 76 animals; 1year - 105 animals. ten sera with the optical density exceeding 0.159 absorbance units (i.e., cut-off value) in elisa test were also analyzed by western blot. western blot analysis revealed seroreact ...201021087781
experimental infection of dogs (canis familiaris) with sporulated oocysts of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is widely distributed in the world and this parasite is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. dogs and coyotes are definitive hosts of n. caninum and several species of domestic and wild animals are intermediate hosts. dogs can become infected by the ingestion of tissues containing cysts and then excrete oocysts. it is not yet known whether sporulated oocysts are able to induce a patent infection in dogs, i.e. a shedding of n. caninum oocysts in feces. the objective of ...201021094584
monensin use against neospora caninum challenge in dairy cattle.using a randomized controlled trial design, a randomly allocated intervention group of 15 cows received a slow-release bolus that delivered 100 days of monensin. the negative control group of 15 cows received a placebo bolus that was identical to the monensin bolus, except without the monensin. two weeks after bolus administration, all cows were challenged with a 2 ml subcutaneous injection of a live tachyzoite suspension. whole blood and serum samples were collected from each cow every week for ...201021106293
neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle from the northwest region of spain, galicia.herd and individual animal seroprevalence for neospora caninum (n. caninum) in dairy, beef and mixed cattle were obtained in all populations within the galician farmer sanitary defence associations (adsg) in 2004. all animals ≥1 year of age were examined serologically by indirect elisa. 1147 dairy herds (37,090 animals), 1464 beef herds (20,206 animals) and 141 mixed herds (2292 animals) were surveyed. true herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 80.6% (87.7% dairy, 76.7% beef and 78.4% mixed he ...201021145605
development of an indirect elisa-ncsrs2 for detection of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle.neosporosis is of alarming economic concern in the cattle industry. the effectiveness of diagnostic tests for detecting specific antibodies against neospora caninum is hampered by potential cross-reaction with other coccidia. use of a single specific antigen might improve test specificity. an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed using the truncated protein ncsrs2 expressed in escherichia coli. the elisa results were compared with those of the indirect fluorescence ant ...201021168278
tunicamycins, a class of nucleoside antibiotics similar to corynetoxins of the rathayibacter toxicus, increase susceptibility of mice to neospora caninum.neosporosis is the leading cause of abortion in cattle. neospora caninum-associated abortion may exhibit both endemic and epidemic patterns. it was reported that the epidemic outbreaks took place in the form of "abortion storms" and were not significantly correlated with seasonal changes or consumption of any particular feeds; and thus, the mechanisms by which the epidemic "abortion storms" are triggered remain unclear. annual ryegrass toxicity (argt) is a severe or fatal neurological disorder o ...201021168974
influence of culture medium ph on internalization, growth and phenotypic plasticity of neospora caninum.neospora caninum, a strictly intracellular protozoan, is a major leading cause of parasite-induced abortion in cattle. a widely held view of n. caninum infection is that both cellular proliferation and stage interconversion (tachyzoite-bradyzoite transformation) are triggered, perhaps even modulated by, changes in cultural conditions. this study tested the hypothesis that exposure of n. caninum tachyzoites to different ph culture media affects the parasite's entry, proliferation and cyst formati ...201021185654
transplacental transmission in cattle: is toxoplasma gondii less potent than neospora caninum?we compared the transplacental-transmission ability of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in cattle. one uninfected pregnant heifer served as control, while three were inoculated with n. caninum k9wa strain and four with t. gondii rh strain at their midgestational period. both infected groups showed clinical signs and antibodies either to n. caninum or t. gondii, while the control animal was normal. two (50%) toxoplasma dams aborted on days 6 and 11 postinoculation. t. gondii tachyzoites wer ...201121203773
different humoral mechanisms against neospora caninum infection in purebreed and crossbreed beef/dairy cattle pregnancies.the antigen-specific igg subclass response may be a convenient indicator of the underlying nature of t helper cell regulation. the aim of the present study was to identify possible differences in neospora caninum-specific total plasma igg, igg1 and igg2 antibody levels in purebreed and crossbreed pregnancies throughout gestation in beef and dairy cattle chronically infected with n. caninum. comparisons were also made between aborting and non-aborting dams. the population examined comprised 96 pr ...201021216103
genetic manipulation of neospora caninum to express the bradyzoite-specific protein ncsag4 in tachyzoites.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite and the aetiological agent of bovine neosporosis, one of the main causes of reproductive failure worldwide. we have generated 2 independent transgenic knock-in clones, nc-1sag4c1.1 and nc-1sag4c2.1, that express the bradyzoite stage-specific protein ncsag4 in the tachyzoite stage. these clones have similar growth rates in vitro as the wild-type (wt) strain nc-1. studies in a cerebral mouse model of infection revealed a slightly lower rate of detection ...201121232176
prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in moose (alces alces) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in sweden.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. t. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. n. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. the purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of t. gondii, and n. caninum i ...201021232869
immunization of female balb/c mice with neospora cyclophilin and/or ncsrs2 elicits specific antibody response and prevents against challenge infection by neospora caninum.neospora caninum is the causal agent of bovine neosporosis which results in high levels of abortion. the present study determined the protective efficacy of two neospora antigens--neospora cyclophilin (nccyp) and ncsrs2. the ability of native nccyp to upregulate mouse ifn-? was also confirmed in this study. recombinant nccyp or ncsrs2 were tested either alone or in combination and formulated with adjuvant immumax-sr and cpg. female balb/c mice (n=15) of 10-12 weeks of age were immunized s.c. twi ...201121281689
up regulation of the maternal immune response in the placenta of cattle naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite which is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. it forms persistent infections which recrudesce during pregnancy leading to foetal infection and in a proportion of cases, abortion. the mechanisms underlying abortion are not understood. in this study, recrudescence of a persistent infection in eight naturally infected cows occurred between 20 and 33 weeks of gestation. animals were killed at the time of recrudescence and parasites we ...201121283810
quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assays for the sensitive detection of besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle.bovine besnoitiosis, an economically important disease in cattle in some countries of africa and asia, is emerging in europe. the definitive host of besnoitia besnoiti, the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis, is unknown and the transmission of the parasite is not completely understood. sensitive and quantitative dna detection methods are needed to determine whether serologically positive animals are infectious and to examine the role of vectors (e.g. haematophagous insects) in the transmissi ...201121324596
functional activation of t cells by dendritic cells and macrophages exposed to the intracellular parasite neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan pathogen that causes abortion in cattle. we studied how the interaction between murine conventional dendritic cells or macrophages and n. caninum influences the generation of cell-mediated immunity against the parasite. we first explored the invasion and survival ability of n. caninum in dendritic cells and macrophages. we observed that protozoa rapidly invaded and proliferated into these two cell populations. we then investigated how neospora-expos ...201121329692
immunoblot diagnosis of infection with neospora caninum in cattle based on recombinant ncsag4 antigen.the neospora caninum (n. caninum) ncsag4 gene was subcloned into a pet-28a (+) vector and successfully expressed in escherichia coli as inclusion body, and confirmed by sds-page and western blot using anti-his monoclonal antibody. the purified protein was then purified using ni-nta affinity chromatography column and recognized by positive serum from n. caninum-infected cattle. immunoblot (ib) method based on purified recombinant ncsag4 (rncsag4) antigen to detect antibodies against n. caninum in ...201121340564
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle of southern china.a seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle was carried out in china's southern guangdong province between july 2009 and march 2010. a total of 370 serum samples of dairy cattle was collected from 5 farms and examined for antibodies to n. caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum in dairy cattle was 18.9% (70/370). the seroprevalence of n. caninum in aborting cows (22.7%) was higher than that in nonaborting cows (16.3%), ...201021348632
in vitro effects of arylimidamides against besnoitia besnoiti infection in vero cells.the in vitro effects of 4 arylimidamides (db811, db786, db750 and db766) against the proliferative tachyzoite stage of the apicomplexan parasite besnoitia besnoiti were investigated. these four compounds had been shown earlier to exhibit in vitro activities in the nanomolar range against the related apicomplexans neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii. real-time-pcr was used to assess b. besnoiti intracellular proliferation in vitro. preliminary assessment by light microscopy identified db811 an ...201121349220
shedding of neospora caninum oocysts by dogs fed different tissues from naturally infected cattle.neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. the distribution of n. caninum in tissues of adult cattle is unknown and the parasite has not been demonstrated histologically in tissues of cows. in the present study the distribution of n. caninum in different tissues of adult cattle was evaluated by bioassays in dogs. seventeen dogs (2-3 month-old) were fed different tissues of 4 naturally exposed adult cattle (indirect fluorescent antibody test n. can ...201121450407
[studies on the role of the red fox (vulpes vulpes) as a potential definitive host of neospora caninum].neospora (n.) caninum is a protozoan parasite which is regarded as a major cause of abortion in cattle. dogs and coyotes are definitive hosts of n. caninum which may shed environmentally resistant stages, oocysts, in their feces. epidemiological studies in germany showed that the presence of dogs increased the risk of a bovine herd to be n. caninum-positive in a bulk-milk elisa test. however, there were also n. caninum-positive herds where dogs were not kept together with cattle.this leads to th ...201121465771
identification of novel proteins in neospora caninum using an organelle purification and monoclonal antibody approach.neospora caninum is an important veterinary pathogen that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. neospora has also generated substantial interest because it is an extremely close relative of the human pathogen toxoplasma gondii, yet does not appear to infect humans. while for toxoplasma there are a wide array of molecular tools and reagents available for experimental investigation, relatively few reagents exist for neospora. to investigate the unique biological features of ...201121483743
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and brucella abortus among dairy cattle herds with high abortion rates.abstract the protozoon neospora caninum and the bacterium brucella abortus are well recognized abortifacients in dairy cattle. serum samples (n = 240) from aborting (n = 141) and at risk (n = 99) animals from 5 herds with high abortion rates in punjab province, pakistan were tested for antibodies to n. caninum using monoclonal antibody based competitive elisa and to b. abortus using the serum agglutination test. antibodies to n. caninum and b. abortus were detected in 105 (43.8 %) and 135 (56.3% ...201121506829
coxiella burnetii seropositivity is highly stable throughout gestation in lactating high-producing dairy cows.the aims of this study were to analyse, in high-producing dairy cows, plasma coxiella burnetii antibody titres and seroconversion throughout gestation, along with possible factors affecting such titres. the study was performed on 65 lactating pregnant non-aborting animals in a commercial holstein-friesian dairy herd in northeastern spain. blood samples for antibody determinations were collected on days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of gestation. by general linear model (glm) repeated measures an ...201121507080
anti-neospora caninum antibodies in milk in relation to production losses in dairy cattle.a comprehensive field study was carried out with the following objectives: (a) to assess the usefulness of individual and bulk tank milk analysis for determining neospora caninum serostatus in individual cows and herds, and (b) to study the associations between n. caninum infection status (based on milk testing), and several productive and reproductive parameters in the animals. antibodies were detected with a commercially available elisa test (bio k 192/5). analysis of paired serum and milk sam ...201121645937
selection of neospora caninum antigens stimulating bovine cd4+ve t cell responses through immuno-potency screening and proteomic approaches.abstract: neospora caninum is recognised worldwide as a major cause of bovine infectious abortion. there is a real need to develop effective strategies to control infection during pregnancy which may lead to either abortion or congenital transmission. due to the intracellular nature of the parasite, cell-mediated immune (cmi) responses involving cd4+ve, cd8+ve, tcr+ve t cells and nk cells, as well as production of ifn-gamma, are thought to be important for protective immunity. in this study we a ...201121813001
comparative efficacy of immunization with inactivated whole tachyzoites versus a tachyzoite-bradyzoite mixture against neosporosis in mice.summarythe worldwide economic impact of neospora caninum infection has caused the development of effective vaccines to become one of the main goals in the field of neosporosis research. in this study, the protection conferred by antigens from inactivated whole tachyzoites (tz) and a tachyzoite-bradyzoite mixture (tz-bz) of n. caninum (nc-spain7 isolate) incorporated into a water-in-oil emulsion (w/o) and aluminium hydroxide-ginseng extract (al/g) was evaluated in mouse models of congenital and c ...201121810300
emergence of bovine ehrlichiosis in belgian cattle herds.bovine ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum. the disease can also be transmitted to humans. outbreaks in cattle have been described in many european countries. in belgium, infections caused by a. phagocytophilum have been reported in humans and dogs; however, this paper details the first report of ehrlichiosis in cattle herds in belgium. the first case described was in a dairy herd located in eastern belgium. clinical signs included hyperthermia, p ...201121771546
cytokine gene expression at the materno-foetal interface after experimental neospora caninum infection of heifers at 110ôçâdays of gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle, but the reasons why only some animals abort remain unclear. the immunological control of the parasite in the placenta or by the foetus could be the key to determining the mechanism of abortion and/or transplacental transmission to the foetus. in this study, cytokine gene expression, analysed by real-time rt-pcr, at the maternal (caruncle) and foetal placenta (cotyledon) of heifers infected at 110ôçâdays of gestation by intravenous inoculat ...201121711362
epizootiologic investigations of selected abortive agents in free-ranging alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) in the early 2000s, several colonies of alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) in switzerland ceased growing or began to decrease. reproductive problems due to infections with abortive agents might have negatively affected recruitment. we assessed the presence of selected agents of abortion in alpine ibex by serologic, molecular, and culture techniques and evaluated whether infection with these agents might have affected population densities. blood and fecal samples were collected from 651 ibex in 14 col ...201121719818
neosporosis in animals--the last five years.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as toxoplasma gondii. since its first recognition in 1984 in dogs and the description of a new genus and species neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. this review is focused on current status of neosporosis in animals b ...201121704458
epidemiology and impact of neospora caninum infection in three queensland tropical dairy herds.this study investigated the epidemiology of neospora caninum in three tropical dairy herds in north queensland, australia. all animals in the herds were bled, and the sera were tested by elisa for n. caninum antibodies. herd records were examined, and the number of calves carried to term and the number of abortions which occurred over the lifetime of each animal were recorded to determine the abortion rate for each animal. pedigrees were constructed for two of the herds to investigate whether ve ...201121736635
transgenic neospora caninum strains constitutively expressing the bradyzoite ncsag4 protein proved to be safe and conferred significant levels of protection against vertical transmission when used as live vaccines in present, there is no effective treatment or vaccine to prevent vertical transmission or abortion associated with neospora caninum infection in cattle. different vaccine formulations have been assayed, and live vaccines have shown the most promising results in terms of protection. previously, transgenic n. caninum tachyzoites expressing the bradyzoite stage-specific ncsag4 antigen in a constitutive manner (nc-1 sag4(c)) were obtained and showed a reduced persistence of parasite in inoculated m ...201121816191
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