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seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef and dairy cattle breeds in northeast hungary.in order to assess the seroprevalence of bovine neosporosis with indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), blood samples were collected randomly from 1063 beef and dairy cattle belonging to 12 different breeds in northeast hungary. antibodies to neospora caninum were detected in 27 (2.5%) of the animals, kept on 19 of the 42 settlements included in this survey. since samples were collected on 50 farms, herd prevalence amounted to 38%. the percentage of cattle with seroconversion increased with ...200617278720
prevalence of neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in dairy cows in southern vietnam.the main purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) in some dairy herds in southern vietnam, and to ascertain whether there were differences in seroprevalences between herds with imported and locally bred cows. serum samples collected on five state farms and 97 smallholder herds were analysed for the presence of antibodies to n. caninum and bvdv. all bvdv antibody-negative sera were further tested by antigen-elisa in order ...200817349807
first report of neospora caninum abortion in a beef cow-calf herd from andorra, europe.neospora caninum-associated abortion was diagnosed in a 7-mo gestational age beef cow fetus from andorra. the fetus had a multifocal necrotizing encephalitis and nonpurulent multifocal myocarditis. the diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of n. caninum dna by polymerase chain reaction and tachyzoites by specific staining with n. caninum polyclonal antibodies in the fetal brain. the dam of the aborted fetus had serum n. caninum antibodies at the time of abortion but not 2 mo before abortion t ...200617304821
comparative host-parasite relationships in ovine toxoplasmosis and bovine neosporosis and strategies for vaccination.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are important causes of reproductive loss in ruminant species worldwide. both parasites cause disease during pregnancy that may result in foetal death or birth of live congenitally infected offspring. t. gondii is also an important human pathogen with the main risk groups including pregnant women and immuno-compromised individuals, although clinical disease has also been observed in outbreaks among immuno-competent people. while the two parasites are closel ...200717367899
comparative effect of neospora caninum infection in balb/c mice at three different gestation periods.neospora caninum has been recognized as a major cause of infectious bovine abortion worldwide. in the present study, the effect of n. caninum infection in mice at the 3 gestation periods (first, second, and third period) was investigated. in dams, tissue distribution of n. caninum was evaluated by nested polymerase chain reaction. in the progeny, fetal mortality, stillbirth, litter size, neonatal mortality/morbidity, vertical transmission, and parasite burden in neonatal tissues were evaluated. ...200617304808
peripheral immune responses in pregnant cattle following neospora caninum infection.experimental infection of cattle with neospora caninum in early gestation causes foetal death, but the foetus survives infection in late gestation. an immunological mechanism of abortion has been suggested; therefore changes in the maternal immune response during pregnancy could account for these differences. we have investigated the peripheral immune responses of pregnant cattle following an intravenous inoculation with 10(7) n. caninum tachyzoites in early and late gestation. percentages of cd ...200717371459
experimental neosporosis in bulls: parasite detection in semen and blood and specific antibody and interferon-gamma responses.to investigate the presence of neospora caninum in semen and blood, and the development of specific antibody and interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) responses in experimentally infected bulls.200717316779
aetiology of bovine abortion in switzerland from 1986 to 1995--a retrospective study with emphasis on detection of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii by pcr.in a retrospective study, covering the period from 1986 to 1995, tissues of aborted fetuses were re-examined. a total of 347 cases were tested immunohistochemically, among them samples of 223 brains were examined for neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv), and 249 placentae for chlamydiaceae. two real-time pcr assays, one for n. caninum, and one for t. gondii, were developed. these potential abortion-inducing agents were detected - and confirmed by pcr, excep ...200717359449
prevalence of neospora caninum and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy-breed steers in a feedlot.to determine the prevalence and effect of neospora caninum infection and persistent infection (pi) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) on weight gain, morbidity, and mortality rate in dairy-breed steer calves located on a feedlot in california.200717397345
a longitudinal study of seroprevalence and seroconversion of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in northeast thailand.a long-term study was carried out in 11 dairy herds in the khon kaen province of northeast thailand between august 2001 and november 2004. the objective was to investigate seroprevalence dynamics of neospora caninum infection in the herds and to demonstrate patterns of seroconversion in individual cattle. each herd was visited once a year, in total four times, and sera from cattle > 3 months of age and farm dogs as well as a sample from the bulk milk were collected. all samples were analysed for ...200717416467
epidemiology and control of neosporosis and neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. until 1988, it was misidentified as toxoplasma gondii. since its first recognition in dogs in 1984 and the description of the new genus and species neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations, and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. although antibodies to n. caninum have been reported, the parasi ...200717428888
seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in alberta, canada.a province-wide cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) and neospora caninum (nc) infection among cattle in 100 cow-calf herds in alberta was conducted. the seroprevalence of map in adult cattle was 1.5% across all herds. using a widely accepted herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows out of 30 animals tested, 7.9% of herds were estimated to be infected (95% confidence interval (ci): 2.3-23.4%). seropr ...200717494367
seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in urban and rural dogs in north-west italy.sera were collected from 490 dogs from north-west italy. one hundred and eighty-eight dogs were urban, while 302 dogs were rural. among the latter, 190 were shepherd dogs and 112 were cattle farm dogs. sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against neospora caninum using the neospora agglutination test. seroprevalence at 1/40, 1/80, 1/160 dilution titres was significantly higher in rural (36.4%, 19.5%, 9.9% respectively) than in urban dogs (20.2%, 10.6%, 4.8% respectively). seroprevalen ...200717456144
chronic neospora caninum infection and repeat abortion in dairy cows: a 3-year study.the serological status of neospora was monitored in animals older than 6 months in a dairy herd with a 3-year history of prevalent n. caninum and n. caninum-associated abortions. the numbers of animals in the herd tested each year of the study period were 259, 222 and 231, respectively. a separate analysis was performed on the 122 animals persisting in the herd for the 3 years. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum in the herd decreased from 31.7% in the first year to 24.8% in the second year ...200717467905
induction of tachyzoite egress from cells infected with the protozoan neospora caninum by nitro- and bromo-thiazolides, a class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs.neospora caninum represents an important pathogen causing stillbirth and abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. nitazoxanide (ntz) and its deacetylated metabolite tizoxanide (tiz) are nitro-thiazolyl-salicylamide drugs with a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity in vitro and in vivo. in order to generate compounds potentially applicable in food and breeding animals, the nitro group was removed, and the thiazole-moiety was modified by other functional groups. we had shown earlier ...200717481636
factors associated with variation in neospora caninum bulk-milk s/p ratios in initially bulk-milk negative testing dutch dairy herds.we conducted a study on 81 initially bulk-milk elisa negative dairy herds taken from a random sample of dutch dairy herds to evaluate variation in bulk-milk s/p ratios and to study reasons for bulk-milk conversion. these herds were repeatedly (3-month intervals) tested between april 2004 and august 2005 and serostatus of all animals had previously been established as negative (n), low-positive (lp) or high-positive (hp). of these herds, herd- and test-related factors associated with variation in ...200717566576
prevention of lethal experimental infection of c57bl/6 mice by vaccination with brucella abortus strain rb51 expressing neospora caninum antigens.bovine abortions caused by the intracellular protozoal parasite neospora caninum are a major concern to cattle industries worldwide. a strong th1 immune response is required for protection against n. caninum. brucella abortus strain rb51 is currently used as a live, attenuated vaccine against bovine brucellosis. strain rb51 can also be used as an expression vector for heterologous protein expression. in this study, putative protective antigens of n. caninum mic1, mic3, gra2, gra6 and srs2, were ...200717568587
use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in bulk milk to estimate the prevalence of neospora caninum on dairy farms in prince edward island, canada.this study evaluated the use of bulk milk as a diagnostic tool for estimation of herd-level neospora caninum exposure in atlantic canada; it was used to estimate the prevalence of dairy farms with a within-herd n. caninum-seroprevalence > or = 15% in prince edward island (pei). the variation over time of n. caninum antibodies in bulk milk is also reported. skimmed bulk milk and individual serum samples were analyzed for n. caninum antibodies by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). ...200717542367
development of two immunochromatographic tests for the serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis.in this study, we developed two immunochromatographic tests (icts), which are nitrocellulose membrane-based immunoassays for the convenient and rapid serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis caused by babesia bovis (boict) and babesia bigemina (biict). the efficacy of two icts was evaluated using 13 positive sera from experimentally infected cattle with b. bovis or b. bigemina. clear results showed that the boict and elisa detected antibodies in sera collected from 14 to 93 days post-infection, while ...200717590275
serological evidence of neospora caninum infection in mithun (bos frontalis) from india.studies conducted on mithuns maintained at national research centre on mithun, indian council of agricultural research (icar), nagaland, india and mithuns found in free-ranging condition of nagaland revealed that the overall prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in mithun was 10% (95% ci=5-15) when detected by a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. highest (prevalence rate=16, 95% ci=8-24) seroprevalence was found in mithuns above 3 years of age and l ...200817590395
prevention of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in c57bl/6 mice vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 expressing n. caninum protective antigens.bovine abortions caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum have been responsible for severe economic losses to the cattle industry. infected cows either experience abortion or transmit the parasite transplacentally at a rate of up to 95%. neospora caninum vaccines that can prevent vertical transmission and ensure disruption in the life cycle of the parasite greatly aid in the management of neosporosis in the cattle industry. brucella abortus strain rb51, a commercially available vacci ...200717575983
possible role of bovine trophoblast giant cells in transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum is an aplicomplexan parasite that has brought several concerns to cattle raisers worldwide due to its relationship to fetal loss. however, the mechanism of the parasite's transplacental infection and induced abortions are not completely understood. bovine trophoblastic binucleated cells (bnc) play a major role in the maternal-fetal interactions, migrating during the entire pregnancy from chorionic connections to uterine epithelium. this study aimed to investigate the possible ro ...200717588318
the apicomplexan pathogen neospora caninum inhibits host cell apoptosis in the absence of discernible nf-kappa b activation.neospora caninum, a causative agent of bovine abortions, is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to the human pathogen toxoplasma gondii. since a number of intracellular parasites, including t. gondii, have been shown to modulate host cell apoptosis, the present study was conducted to establish whether n. caninum is similarly capable of subverting apoptotic pathways in its host cells. our results indicated that death receptor-mediated apoptosis is repressed during n. caninum infectio ...200717576757
dynamics of anti-neospora caninum antibodies during gestation in chronically infected dairy cows.the dynamics of antibody production against neospora caninum during the gestation period was examined in chronically infected dairy cows. data were obtained from 86 pregnant parous dairy cows, 21 of which had suffered abortion. the cows belonged to two herds in which a diagnosis of n. caninum infection had been previously confirmed in aborted foetuses. pregnancy diagnosis and blood collection were performed on post-insemination days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and at parturition or until the tim ...200717643822
reduced cerebral infection of neospora caninum in balb/c mice vaccinated with recombinant brucella abortus rb51 strains expressing n. caninum srs2 and gra7 proteins.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of bovine neosporosis, an important disease affecting the reproductive performance of cattle worldwide. currently there is no effective vaccine available to prevent n. caninum infection in cattle. in this study, we examined the feasibility of developing a live, recombinant n. caninum vaccine using brucella abortus vaccine strain rb51 as the expression and delivery vector. we generated two recombinant rb51 stra ...200717651896
neospora caninum in cattle: experimental infection with oocysts can result in exogenous transplacental infection, but not endogenous transplacental infection in the subsequent pregnancy.whilst it is presumed that infection of pregnant cattle with neospora caninum oocysts can provoke abortion and is the likely cause of epidemic abortion outbreaks, only two previous experiments have involved inoculation of pregnant cows with oocysts (and only one abortion was provoked in 22 pregnancies). here, we describe the oral oocyst challenge of 18 cows synchronously bred and inoculated precisely at 70 (n=6), 120 (n=6) and 210 (n=6) days in pregnancy with a nominal dose of 40,000 oocysts. on ...200717624353
prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from santarém, pará, brazil.prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies was measured in serum samples randomly collected from dairy (40 cows from four farms) and beef cattle (120 animals from 12 farms) from the municipality of santarém, pará state, brazil, calculated by using the win episcope 2.0 statistical program. the presence of anti-n. caninum antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence-antibody test with a cut-off value of 1:100. we found that 13 farms (81.25%) showed infection rates above 10%, which ...200817619028
neospora caninum infection in birds: experimental infections in chicken and embryonated eggs.neospora caninum causes economical impact in cattle-raising farms since it is implicated as the major cause of bovine abortions. although infection by the parasite has been widely described in mammals, the role of birds in its life-cycle is still obscure. therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the infection by n. caninum in different chicken models. experimental infections were conducted in 7-day-old chicks, laying hens and embryonated eggs, where samples were analysed for parasite burden, igg a ...200717686190
first identification of neospora caninum infection in aborted bovine foetuses in china.the first identification of neospora caninum infection in the tissues of aborted bovine foetuses in china is reported. aborted foetuses were collected from 16 dams, and 12 of the dams had high serum antibody titres to n. caninum determined using an elisa test kit. the nc-5 gene of n. caninum was amplified from dna samples extracted from brains of four aborted foetuses using a neospora-specific pcr assay, confirming n. caninum infection in the aborted foetuses. histology and immunohistochemistry ...200717706874
quantification of vertical and horizontal transmission of neospora caninum infection in dutch dairy herds.ninety-six of 108 randomly selected dutch dairy herds had one or more cows with a positive serostatus for n. caninum. in these 96 herds, we have quantified the probabilities of vertical transmission (vt) and horizontal transmission (ht) of n. caninum infection by combining serostatus and pedigree data in 4091 dam-daughter pairs. the probability of animals infected by vertical transmission during pregnancy (prob(vt)) was calculated as the proportion of seropositive daughters among daughters of se ...200717640807
humoral immune response in pregnant heifers inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival route.the aim of this study was to compare systemic humoral immune responses in pregnant heifers inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival and intravenous routes. twenty nine heifers separated in three experimental groups were studied: group 1 (n=10 animals) and group 2 (n=9 animals) were inoculated with 10(8) of n. caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival and intravenous routes at 5th month of gestation, respectively; group 3 (n=10 animals) were non-inoculated control animals. an indire ...200717697754
epidemiology of neosporosis in dairy cattle in galicia (nw spain).this comprehensive study of neosporosis in dairy cattle in galicia (nw spain) included: (1) a comparative study of three serological techniques for detection of neospora caninum antibodies (direct agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence); (2) a cross-sectional serological survey in which 276 herds and 5,196 animals were tested; (3) a study of n. caninum antibody dynamics; (4) the isolation of viable tachyzoites of n. caninum. data were analysed to determi ...200817899194
cloning and expression of an antigenic domain of a major surface protein (nc-p43) of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. it was described in 1988 as causing neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. recently, n. caninum has been the focus of considerable attention for its large impact on the dairy industry, given the economic losses related to breeding failures and to a decrease in productivity. elisa diagnosis of neosporosis has not been widely used in brazil, mostly because of th ...200717706005
isolation of neospora caninum from dairy zero grazing cattle in israel.first israeli neospora caninum isolates were obtained from brain tissues of aborted fetuses (ncis491 and ncis580) from dairy farms endemic for neosporosis and maintaining cattle on zero grazing. tissues from different parts of the fetus brains were used to infect vero cells. tachyzoites of n. caninum were first observed in cultures from days 30 and 32 after infection. to confirm the identity of the isolated parasites, dna extracts from brains and cultures were tested by pcr with specific primers ...200717850972
protection against abortion linked to gamma interferon production in pregnant dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.many immunological aspects of pregnancy, such as the role played by gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) in abortion, are not well understood. neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan considered to be among the main causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study analyzes the interaction between ifn-gamma production and n. caninum infection in naturally infected pregnant cows. data were obtained from 126 pregnant cows: 86 seropositive and 40 seronegative for the parasite. pregnancy diagn ...200717854883
histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of neospora caninum diagnosis in bovine aborted fetuses.lesions suggestive of protozoal infection such as nonsuppurative myositis, nonsuppurative myocarditis, nonsuppurative pneumonia associated with focal cellular necrosis and multifocal necrotizing nonsuppurative encephalitis were observed in 89 (34%) out of 258 aborted bovine fetuses. immunohistochemistry (ihc) revealed tachyzoites and cysts of neospora caninum in 55 (61.8%) of these 89 fetuses. several fetal variables were tested by multivariate logistic regression, in which increasing odds for p ...200717904290
occurrence of antibodies against neospora caninum in water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) on four ranches in corrientes province, argentina.the aim of the present work was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to neospora caninum in water buffaloes on four ranches located in corrientes province in the northeast of argentina. antibodies against n. caninum were determined in sera of 449 water buffaloes by using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). a bayesian logistic regression mixed model was used to quantify the strength of association between positive serological results to n. caninum and gender, age and category (calf, ...200717950535
the host-parasite relationship in pregnant cattle infected with neospora caninum.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is an important cause of reproductive disease in cattle worldwide. the dog is a definitive host for the parasite and the oocyst stage, shed in the faeces, is a source of infection for cattle through consumption of contaminated feed or water. in addition, transplacental transmission of n. caninum is a very efficient means of the parasite infecting a new host and this can occur in successive pregnancies and over several generations. neospora parasites may ca ...200717958926
dense-granule protein ncgra7, a new marker for the serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection in aborting cows.to investigate whether the production of an antigen-specific antibody is associated with neospora caninum-induced bovine abortion, 62 serum samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the recombinant antigens ncsag1, ncsrs2, and ncgra7. our study suggested that ncgra7 would be a new marker for the serodiagnosis of n. caninum infection resulting in abortion.200717959821
the extent of parasite-associated necrosis in the placenta and foetal tissues of cattle following neospora caninum infection in early and late gestation correlates with foetal death.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is the most frequently diagnosed abortifacient in the uk and a leading cause of abortion worldwide but the mechanisms leading to abortion are not fully understood. the distribution of parasites and the histopathological changes in the placenta and foetus were compared in 12 cows following experimental infection of cattle with n. caninum in early (n=6) and late (n=6) gestation, by pcr, immunohistology, light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. ...200818021783
neospora caninum infection in greek dairy cattle herds detected by two antibody assays in individual milk samples.a survey to demonstrate the presence and the extent of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle was carried out in greece. seven hundred and seventy-seven (777) individual milk samples from all milking cows in 10 dairy herds were tested using an elisa (p38-milk-elisa) and immunoblot analysis. the herd prevalence was 80.0% and 100.0%, while the overall prevalence was 15.2% (ranging between 0.0% and 38.9%) and 27.9% (ranging between 3.4% and 61.6%) based on the results of the elisa and the immun ...200818158217
studies on synchronous egress of coccidian parasites (neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, eimeria bovis) from bovine endothelial host cells mediated by calcium ionophore a23187.neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and eimeria bovis are coccidian parasites of veterinary importance. tachyzoites of n. caninum and t. gondii and sporozoites of e. bovis are able to invade and replicate in endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. as it holds true for all eukaryotic cells, the survival of parasitized host cells and the parasites themselves should be dependent on ion balances, especially on extra- and intracellular calcium concentrations. addition of the calcium ionophore a23187 ...200818158611
diagnosis of sarcocystis cruzi, neospora caninum, and toxoplasma gondii infections in cattle.the aim of the study was to diagnose sarcocystis sp. infections in cattle and to detect coinfections by toxoplasma gondii and/or neospora caninum. blood, diaphragm, esophagus, and myocardium from 90 beef cattle from argentina were collected. histopathological, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction assays, and direct microscopical examination were carried out. sarcocysts from myocardium were measured and counted. indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for the three protozoans was perf ...200818066600
prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. it was described in 1988 and has been known as a major cause of abortion in bovines and neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. to estimate the prevalence of bovine neosporosis in the 22 municipalities of the so-called estrato 1 subregion of the brazilian state of mato grosso do sul, blood samples were collected from cows aged 24 months and older, from december ...200718078599
low seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection associated with the limousin breed in cow-calf herds in andorra, europe.neospora caninum seroprevalence and risk factors affecting seroprevalence in beef cattle in andorra were investigated. antibodies to n. caninum were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on a yearly basis in 1,758 animals older than 6 mo, belonging to 26 herds. mean seroprevalence of antibodies to n. caninum for the herds was 7.4 +/- 1.2% (130/1,758). logistic regression analyses were performed on data from each animal, considering n. caninum seropositivity as the dependent va ...200718163335
anti-neosporal igg and ige antibodies in canine neosporosis.neospora caninum infection provokes neurological disorders, recurrent abortion and death in dogs and cattle. dogs are both intermediate and definitive host of n. caninum. thus, the development of sensitive and specific immunoassays to diagnose canine neosporosis is essential to control this disease. this work investigated serum anti-neosporal igg and ige antibodies in 140 dogs represented by 30 healthy animals (group i), 11 dogs showing acute n. caninum infection (group ii), 50 urban dogs with s ...200718035978
development of a rapid immunochromatographic test for simultaneous serodiagnosis of bovine babesioses caused by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.with the objective of developing a simpler diagnostic alternative, a rapid immunochromatographic test (boiict) was constructed for the simultaneous detection of babesia bovis- and babesia bigemina-specific antibodies using b. bovis recombinant merozoite surface antigen-2c and b. bigemina recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1. the boiict selectively detected specific antibodies to b. bovis and b. bigemina. all sera from cattle infected with other protozoan parasites (i.e., cryptosporidium parv ...200818187794
bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum in alberta beef and dairy cattle.identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. the objective of this study was to map the risk for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map - the causative agent of johne's disease) and neospora caninum (nc - t ...200718189052
loss of infectivity of neospora caninum oocysts maintained for a prolonged time.the purpose of this study was to investigate whether sporulated neospora caninum oocysts, which had been stored for 46 mo in a 2% sulfuric acid solution at 4 degrees c, remain morphologically viable and infective to gerbils (meriones unguiculatus). six gerbils were orally inoculated with doses of 400 or 1,200 oocysts. two mo after inoculation, the animals did not show any clinical signs, had no histological lesions, and were seronegative for n. caninum at 1: 50 in an immunofluorescent antibody t ...200718165712
natural postnatal neospora caninum infection in cattle can persist and lead to endogenous transplacental infection.a serological follow-up study of 3.5 years duration was done of a dairy herd that had experienced a mass seroconversion to neospora caninum following a point source exposure shortly before the 17th of january 2000. a total of 913 blood samples of 244 animals at seven sampling dates were used to investigate the seroprevalence dynamics in the herd. most postnatally infected cattle remained seropositive during the period of investigation but 11 animals became seronegative after 6-27 months indicati ...200818280662
bovine immune response to inoculation with neospora caninum surface antigen srs2 lipopeptides mimics immune response to infection with live parasites.infection of cattle with neospora caninum protozoa, the causative agent of bovine protozoal abortion, results in robust cellular and humoral immune responses, particularly cd4(+) t-lymphocyte activation and gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) secretion. in the present study, n. caninum srs2 (ncsrs2) t-lymphocyte-epitope-bearing subunits were incorporated into dna and peptide preparations to assess cd4(+) cell proliferation and ifn-gamma t-lymphocyte-secretion immune responses in cattle with predetermin ...200818305105
parasitic infections in dairy cattle around hanoi, northern vietnam.in northern vietnam, dairy cattle are mainly managed in small-scale farms, where animals are kept confined and feeding occurs by cut and carry methods. in the present study the occurrence of parasitic infections was examined in five provinces around hanoi. a total of 201 farms were visited, and 334 stool and 239 blood samples were collected from calves younger than 3 months, animals between 3 and 24 months and adult cows. furthermore, 254 milk samples were collected from lactating animals. copro ...200818328629
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and water buffaloes in india.neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of n. caninum infection in cattle in india. serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in punjab, india, were tested for n. caninum antibodies using a commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). antibodies to n. caninum were found in 35 of 427 cattle from 6 of the 7 farms; 9.6% of cow ...200718314683
seroepidemiology of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection in yaks (bos grunniens) in qinghai, china.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite and is closely related to toxoplasma gondii, but they are antigenically different. n. caninum and t. gondii infection in a variety of animals such as cattle, dogs, and cats has been reported, but there is little information on the infection of these parasites in domestic yaks. seroprevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum in yaks (bos grunniens) from eight regions of qinghai, china were investigated by the indirect agglutination test (iat) and ...200818242860
a survey of abortifacient infectious agents in livestock in luzon, the philippines, with emphasis on the situation in a cattle herd with abortion problems.in the philippines, insufficient consideration has been given to the implementation of systematic control measures against major abortifacient infectious agents in livestock. to elucidate the epidemiology of abortifacient infectious agents in livestock, the prevalence of four abortifacient agents was assessed. initially, a total of 96 cattle including 17 cows with history of abortion were examined in a herd in luzon at the request of the farm owner. six (35.3%) of the 17 aborting cows were found ...200818243149
upregulation of cytokines is detected in the placentas of cattle infected with neospora caninum and is more marked early in gestation when fetal death is observed.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum causes fetal death after experimental infection of pregnant cattle in early gestation, but the fetus survives a similar infection in late gestation. an increase in th1-type cytokines in the placenta in response to the presence of the parasite has been implicated as a contributory factor to fetal death due to immune-mediated pathological alterations. we measured, using real-time reverse transcription-pcr and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the levels of ...200818362132
effects of re-infection with neospora caninum in bulls on parasite detection in semen and blood and immunological responses.three bulls with experimentally induced primary infection with neospora caninum were re-infected intravenously with 10(8) live n. caninum tachyzoites of the nc-1 isolate at 300 days post-infection to investigate the presence of n. caninum in semen and blood, and the associated immune responses. in parallel, three bulls with experimentally induced primary infection with n. caninum and three non-infected bulls were also monitored. re-infected and infected bulls showed an intermittent presence of n ...200818336895
encephalitis in aborted bovine fetuses associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 infection.brain tissue from 12 aborted bovine fetuses submitted to the wisconsin veterinary diagnostic laboratory revealed histologic lesions that consisted of glial nodules and variable degrees of mononuclear inflammation, microhemorrhage, neuronal necrosis, and cerebral cortical cavitation. a diagnosis of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) abortion had been made in all of these cases through multiple testing modalities. brain tissue from 8 of the 12 fetuses was immunohistochemically stained with a monoclonal ...200818460615
frequency of detectable serum igg concentrations in precolostral calves.to determine the prevalence of detectable serum igg concentrations in calves prior to ingestion of colostrum and to assess whether a detectable igg concentration was related to dam parity, calf birth weight, calf sex, season of calving, or infectious agents that can be transmitted transplacentally.200818518660
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in dogs in india.neospora caninum is one of most important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide, and dogs are an important risk factor for n. caninum infection in cattle. antibodies to n. caninum were determined in 184 (126 rural, 58 urban) dogs from the punjab state, india, using commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive elisa and found in 16.8% of the animals. the prevalence of n. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in rural dogs (21.4%, 27 of 126) than city dogs (6.9%, 4 of 58). to our knowle ...200818372658
[occurrence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in dogs of botucatu range micro region, state of são paulo, brazil].neosporosis is a parasitic disease caused by a protozoon neospora caninum, which is recognized as an important cause of bovine abortion and canine neuropathy. considering the isolation of n. caninum and the frequent serology in bovines of our region, the objectives of the present trial were to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies anti-n. caninum in dogs of the botucatu range micro region, in the state of são paulo, and its association with gender, age and origin (urban area--exclusively from th ...200818554432
seroprevalence of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and sarcocystis sp. in llamas (lama glama) from jujuy, argentina.llamas (lama glama) are south american camelids described as intermediate hosts of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and sarcocystis aucheniae. due to the potential role of these protozoan infections as a cause of economic losses, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence for t. gondii, n. caninum and sarcocystis sp. in llamas from argentina. serum samples from 308 llamas (>2 years old) were collected between 2005 and 2007. a total of 55 farms located in six departments of juju ...200818495344
models for experimental infection of dogs fed with tissue from fetuses and neonatal cattle naturally infected with neospora caninum.three models were designed to investigate the development and enteroepithelial phase of neospora caninum in dogs, and to induce oocyst production by the parasite. in the first model, three dogs were fed raw fetal bovine tissue on two occasions. the bovine fetal tissue had been stored at 4 degrees c for 14 days and 16 days, respectively, and had tested positive for neosporosis using histopathology and immunohistochemistry. in the second model, nine dogs from the beginning of the experiment until ...200818395346
[epidemiological and financial considerations for the control of neospora caninum on swiss dairy farms].neospora caninum is widely recognized as one of the most important abortifacients in cattle and causes substantial financial losses to bovine livestock production. this study aimed to calculate the losses caused by n. caninum on swiss dairy farms and to evaluate the efficacy and profitability of the control strategies culling, not breeding replacements and chemotherapy of calves on farm level. three different farm sizes with high, medium and low herd prevalences were defined. epidemiological and ...200818605018
ncgra2 as a molecular target to assess the parasiticidal activity of toltrazuril against neospora caninum.the treatment of neospora caninum infection in the bovine host is still at an experimental stage. in contrast to the in vivo situation, a wide range of compounds have been intensively investigated in cell-culture-based assays. tools to demonstrate efficacy of treatment have remained conventional including morphological and cell biological criteria. in this work, we present a molecular assay that allows the distinction between live and dead parasites. live parasites can be detected by measuring t ...200818549517
neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) and confirmed by neospora agglutination test (nat) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolve ...200818556128
canine and bovine neospora caninum control sera examined for cross-reactivity using neospora caninum and neospora hughesi indirect fluorescent antibody tests.neospora caninum is a well known protozoan parasite of domestic and wild animals. neospora hughesi is a closely related protozoan with an unknown life cycle, host range, and infection prevalence. many serologic surveys of n. caninum have been performed without consideration of potential cross-reactions with n. hughesi, which could confound results. the aim of this study was to investigate whether postexposure sera from animals experimentally infected with n. caninum exhibit significant reactivit ...200918613752
influence of neospora caninum infection in balb/c mice during pregnancy in post-natal development.the influence of neospora caninum infection during pregnancy on the post-natal period has been poorly investigated. in a previous study, we suggested that infection with n. caninum during pregnancy could affect the normal post-natal development of the offspring. for this reason, in the present work we evaluated the influence of n. caninum infection in pregnant balb/c mice at days 0, 7 and 14 of gestation (groups a, b and c, respectively) on the post-natal development of the offspring from birth ...200818586405
the role of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in spontaneous bovine abortion in argentina.the aim of the present work was to evaluate the role of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infections in spontaneous bovine abortions in argentina. based on histopathological results, 70 presumptive cases of apicomplexan protozoal abortion from a total of 666 cases of spontaneous bovine abortion submitted to the national institute of agrarian technology, balcarce, from 1999 to 2007 were included in this study. n. caninum infection was diagnosed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) ...200818691819
seroepidemiological study of neospora caninum infection in dogs found in dairy farms and urban areas of aguascalientes, mexico.the objective of this study was to describe the seroepidemiology of neospora caninum infection in dogs in close contact with dairy cattle and dogs from urban areas of aguascalientes, mexico, as well as to estimate the possible association between age, gender and size of these groups and seroprevalence. sera were obtained from samples of 152 dogs in dairy farms and 116 in the urban area, and were subjected to elisa test. general seroprevalence reached 32%, while the seroprevalence in farm dogs (4 ...200818722716
evaluation of recombinant proteins of neospora caninum as vaccine candidates (in a mouse model).abortion, resulting from infections by the parasite neospora caninum, is a major cause of economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries of cattle-producing countries of the world. vaccination as a means of preventing abortion and/or infection represents a viable control strategy; indeed a commercial vaccine is available in some countries, albeit of unknown efficacy. the commercial vaccine is based on inactivated tachyzoites of n. caninum but other approaches based on lysates and recombinan ...200818789996
neospora caninum: detection in wild rabbits and investigation of co-infection with toxoplasma gondii by pcr analysis.neospora caninum is an important pathogen of cattle causing significant economic loss. there is much current interest in wild animal reservoirs for this parasite. the role of the rabbit in this is currently unknown. dna samples from the brains of wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) collected from the malham area of the yorkshire dales were investigated by species-specific pcr for the presence of n. caninum and toxoplasma gondii. we found prevalences of n. caninum of 10.5% (6/57) and t. gondii o ...200818703054
occurrence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in dogs from pernambuco, northeast brazil.a serological survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from the state of pernambuco. a total of 625 serum samples of dogs (289 from paulista, 168 from amaraji and 168 from garanhuns) were tested by an immunofluorescence antibody assay for the detection of anti-n. caninum antibodies. a total of 177 (28.3%; ic 95%, 24.9-32.1) samples were positive. the seropositivity rates found in paulista, amaraji and garanhuns were 26% (ic 95%, 21-31.4), 26.2% ...200818723288
risk factors associated with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis seropositivity in canadian dairy cows and herds.our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with the seroprevalence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) in a large number of randomly selected canadian dairy herds, controlling for important confounding variables and co-infections with bovine leukemia virus (blv), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and neospora caninum (nc). serum samples from 30 randomly selected cows, where available, in 315 herds from seven provinces were tested for antibodies against blv, ...200918692926
natural breeding with bulls experimentally infected with neospora caninum failed to induce seroconversion in dams.four bulls and 56 heifers seronegative to neospora caninum were used to determine the feasibility of venereal transmission in bovine neosporosis under natural conditions. bulls were experimentally infected with 10(8) live n. caninum tachyzoites. two of them with the nc-1 isolate and the other two with the nc-spain-7 isolate. after 13 months of initial infection, each bull was re-infected with the same isolate and dose. the experiments were carried out from march to september during 2006 and 2007 ...200918962878
isolation and genetic characterization of neospora caninum from asymptomatic calves in spain.neospora caninum is a cyst-forming parasite that causes abortion in cattle. despite this parasite's ubiquitous distribution and wide host range, the number of n. caninum isolates obtained to date is limited. in vitro isolation of the parasite is arduous and often unsuccessful. in addition, most isolates have been obtained from clinically affected hosts and therefore could be biased towards more virulent isolates. in this report, an improved isolation approach from transplacentally infected newbo ...200818980700
studies on neospora caninum dna detection in the oocytes and embryos collected from infected cows.neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle over the world. one of the methods of preventing vertical transmission within the herd is to avoid breeding replacement heifers from infected dams. another procedure suggested and recommended by the international embryo transfer society (iets) is embryo transfer (et) from infected dams into uninfected recipients. oocytes and embryos taken from seropositive cows were examined for the presence of neospora caninum dna. a modified pcr protocol using ...200818977601
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in beef cattle in three southern states of mexico.the aims of the present study were to examine the seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef herds from three southern states of mexico and determine the association with several risk factors. a cross-sectional serological survey for neospora caninum was carried out by sampling a total of 596 animals from 31 herds in chiapas, veracruz, and yucatan states and tested using an elisa assay (idexx) to detect anti-n. caninum antibodies. the overall prevalence was 11.6%, (95% ci: 0.93-0.14), however, the pr ...200919016341
usefulness of rncgra7- and rncsag4-based elisa tests for distinguishing primo-infection, recrudescence, and chronic bovine neosporosis.bovine reproductive failure caused by the parasite neospora caninum is a major problem and is responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. currently, appropriate control measures depend on the predominant transmission route in a particular herd. therefore, the development of diagnostic tools capable of discriminating between primo-infection, recrudescence, re-infection, and chronic infection is a major challenge in the serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis. here, two recombinant protein-based ...200818814972
spatial analysis of neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from sweden.the national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of neospora caninum infected dairy herds in sweden were investigated. the study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. test-positive herds were found in all parts of sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%). the presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the moran's i test. possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying ...200819021107
neospora caninum associated with epidemic abortions in dairy cattle: the first clinical neosporosis report in turkey.neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite, has been considered as one of the most important etiological agents responsible for abortion in dairy cattle throughout the world since it was first identified in dogs in 1988. in this report, characteristics of neosporosis, detected in a dairy cow ranch having epidemic abortions as high as 18.4%, were described. blood samples were collected from 25 infertile or aborted dairy cattle, 6 calves born in 2006 and 40 heifers that were born in 2005 and raised in ...200919028014
factors affecting plasma prolactin concentrations throughout gestation in high producing dairy cows.the aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between plasma concentrations of prolactin and the following factors throughout gestation in lactating dairy cows: photoperiod, season, milk production, neospora caninum-seropositivity, twin pregnancy, and plasma concentrations of pregnancy associated glycoproteins-1 (pag-1), progesterone and cortisol. pregnancy was diagnosed by trans-rectal ultrasonography on day 40 post-insemination and by palpation per rectum on days 90, 1 ...200919036554
neospora caninum, potential cause of abortions in dairy cows: the current serological follow-up in slovakia.neosporosis is considered to be a contributing risk factor for abortions in dairy cows and other farm animals and has negative economic impact on their breeding. in respect of the rapid spread of neosporosis in herds throughout the world, our aim was to detect the prevalence of anti-neospora antibodies in cows post-abortion (pa) (pa group n=716) and in cows without any reproduction problems (control group n=247) on large breeding farms from eastern slovakia. the overall mean seropositivity in pa ...200919019551
molecular comparison of neospora caninum oocyst isolates from naturally infected dogs with cell culture-derived tachyzoites of the same isolates using nested polymerase chain reaction to amplify microsatellite markers.neospora caninum infection is an important cause of bovine abortion. the infection can be transmitted transplacentally or by ingestion of oocysts shed by definitive hosts. there are few reports of dogs naturally shedding n. caninum oocysts and only some oocyst isolates were transferred into cell culture. the aim of the present study was to analyse n. caninum oocysts from the faeces of naturally infected dogs using a microsatellite-based typing technique and to compare them with cell culture-deri ...200919084341
a four year longitudinal sero-epidemiology study of neospora caninum in adult cattle from 114 cattle herds in south west england: associations with age, herd and dam-offspring pairs.neosporosis caused by the protozoan parasite neospora caninum, is an economically important cause of abortion, stillbirth, low milk yield, reduced weight gain and premature culling in cattle. consequently, a seroepidemiological study of n. caninum antibodies was conducted in england with 29,782 samples of blood taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds visited on three occasions at yearly intervals. herds were categorised into lower (< 10%) and higher (> or = 10%) median herd seroprevalence. hiera ...200818793402
short report: prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in northern egypt.in view of the worldwide importance of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum and the limited data on the seroprevalence of these parasites in egypt, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum antibodies in rabbits, cattle, and humans. we used elisa methods based on surface antigen 2 of t. gondii (tgsag2t) and surface antigen 1 of n. caninum (ncsag1t). high seroprevalence of t. gondii (51.49%) was detected in pregnant women, and antibodies to n. caninum wer ...200919190225
isolation and characterization of a bovine isolate of neospora caninum with low virulence.neospora caninum tachyzoites were isolated from the brain of an asymptomatic naturally infected calf with precolostral-specific antibodies. the new isolate, named nc-spain 1h, was identified as a member of the n. caninum species based on its internal transcribed spacer 1 (its-1) sequence and was genetically characterized using microsatellite markers. multilocus analysis showed that nc-spain 1h was genetically different from other n. caninum isolates. we compared the in vitro tachyzoite yield and ...200919027235
some factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of neospora-associated abortions are different in cows and heifers.the aim of this study was to determine if the factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of neospora-associated abortions are different in pregnancies of cows and heifers chronically infected with neospora caninum. in heifers (n = 229), an increase in the cumulative number of days with a mean relative humidity (rh) lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increases the risk of abortion. yet, the likelihood of abortion was 7.6 times lower for pregnant he ...201019210662
risk factors associated with neospora caninum infections in cattle in argentina.from 2003 through 2007, serum samples from 5594 dairy and beef heifers and cows in argentina were assessed to quantify the association between presence of neospora caninum antibodies and history of abortion, type of exploitation, and age category of animals. animals with a history of abortion were 85% more likely (p<0.01) to be positive to n. caninum than animals without a record of abortion. for a given category (age) of animals, being in a dairy operation increased the odds of being n. caninum ...200919216028
frequency of horizontal and vertical transmission for sarcocystis cruzi and neospora caninum in dairy cattle.sarcocystis cruzi and neospora caninum infections in cattle are common throughout the world, and cause important economical losses. n. caninum can be transmitted horizontally by ingestion of oocysts or vertically from the infected dam to the fetus via the placenta. vertical transmission for s. cruzi is infrequent and horizontal transmission is considered the most important route of infection. the objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of horizontal and vertical transmission for ...200919070964
current trends in follow-up of trophoblastic function in ruminant species.during the pregnancy of ruminants, different hormones and proteins are secreted by placenta or corpus luteum allowing the follow up of gestation. among them, progesterone (p4) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (pag) were proposed as laboratory tools to establish or to confirm pregnancy diagnosis. in last years, pag assay also provided useful information for researchers working in programs focused on the follow up of trophoblastic function. concentrations of pag appeared as altered after the ...200819261972
[frequency of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cows and fetuses from municipalities of southern minas gerais].the objective of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in cows and fetuses from municipalities of southern minas gerais. a total of 559 serum samples of cows of the a bank of sera formed from of serum samples collected at 18 dairy farms, distributed for seven municipalities of the lavras micro region, southern minas gerais, and 575 serum samples of cows and 503 serum samples of fetuses were collected at slaughter house of campo belo, mg. serum samples were ...200819265576
evaluation of a srs2 sandwich commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in bovine and canine sera.neospora caninum is a parasite responsible for abortion in cows and neuromuscular disease in dogs. serology is the most widely used technique to evaluate the prevalence of n. caninum in different host populations. a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on the use of an anti-srs2 monoclonal antibody was evaluated against the indirect fluorescent antibody test for 100 canine sera and against a well-characterized elisa for 102 bovine sera. in cattle sera, the relative sensitivit ...200919139509
specific anti-neospora caninum igg1 and igg2 antibody responses during gestation in naturally infected cattle and their relationship with gamma interferon production.gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) production has been attributed a protective role against abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows. this study investigate possible relationships between plasma levels of the n. caninum-specific immunoglobulin (ig) isotypes igg1 and igg2 and ifn-gamma production throughout gestation in dairy cows naturally infected with the parasite. data were obtained from 31 pregnant neospora-seropositive animals. blood samples were collected on gestation days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 ...200919201036
neospora caninum in dairy herds in schleswig-holstein, germany.the aim of a cross-sectional survey performed between november 2005 and april 2006 was to obtain actual information on the occurrence of neospora (n.) caninum infection in dairy cows of schleswig-holstein. it was planned to examine tank-milk of about 35% of the approximately 6,000 dairy herds in schleswig-holstein for n. caninum-specific antibodies using a p38-tank-milk elisa. this test is able to detect a within-herd n. caninum-seroprevalence of > 10%. only 20 (1.0%) out of 1,950 tank-milk samp ...200919226934
crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous), a south american canid, as a definitive host for hammondia heydorni.hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. dogs and other canids as red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for h. heydorni. sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that ...200919303215
myeloid differentiation factor 88 is required for resistance to neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an intracellular parasite that causes major economic impact on cattle raising farms, and infects a wide range of warm-blooded hosts worldwide. innate immune mechanisms that lead to protection against this parasite are still unknown. in order to investigate whether myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) is required for resistance against n. caninum, genetically deficient mice (myd88(-/-)) and wild type littermates were infected with live tachyzoites and the resistance to in ...200919341611
stage-specific expression of nc sag4 as a marker of chronic neospora caninum infection in a mouse model.neospora caninum infection persists throughout the life of its intermediate host due to the conversion of tachyzoites to slowly dividing bradyzoites that encyst in the brain. this event results in persistent n. caninum infection in bovine herds and partially explains the poor efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents and vaccine formulations. thus, there is a need for greater understanding of the tachyzoite-to-bradyzoite conversion mechanisms. here we studied for the first time the transcription ...200919402941
neospora caninum and complex vertebral malformation as possible causes of bovine fetal mummification.bovine neosporosis, caused by neospora caninum is a leading cause of abortion in cattle. we postulated that neosporosis could lead to fetal death and mummification. fifteen mummified fetuses were tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the mutation in the bovine slc35a3 gene that causes complex vertebral malformation (cvm) and the pnc-5 gene which identifies n. caninum infection. dna was extracted from the mummified fetuses and the sex of the mummies was determined by pcr. the cvm mutation ...200919436446
immunogenicity of a dna vaccine expressing the neospora caninum surface protein ncsrs2 in mice.the immunogenicity of a dna vaccine expressing the surface protein ncsrs2 of neospora caninum was studied in balb/c mice. the ncsrs2-encoding dna was obtained by pcr amplification of the ncsrs2 orf gene from the p43 plasmid encoding the n. caninum surface protein ncsrs2, ligated to the mammalian expression vector pcdna3.1/zeo(+) and propagated in e. coli dh5alpha to produce the n. caninum ncsrs2 dna vaccine. balb/c mice were immunised by two intramuscular injections of the dna vaccine with or wi ...200919457773
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