comparison of proteome and antigenic proteome between two neospora caninum isolates.this study was conducted to explore the relationship between two isolates of neospora caninum (n. caninum) (kba-2 and vmdl-1) using proteomics. to achieve the goal, proteins of n. caninum tachyzoite lysates of kba-2 and vmdl-1 were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-de), stained with silver-nitrate and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) to compare protein profiles. in addition, proteins separated by 2-de wer ...200516098674
neospora caninum seropositivity and association with abortions in dairy cows in mexico.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection was estimated from a sample of 813 cattle from 20 dairy herds in five regions in mexico. the true prevalence of infection was estimated to be 42% (95% ci: 39, 46). seropositivity was associated with abortion (odds ratio (or)=2.0) and was higher among cows raised on-farm (41%), than among replacement cattle purchased outside the farm (28%). the ors relating abortion to seropositivity in individual herds ranged from 1.3 to 10. overall, 26% of the ab ...200516098675
the sylvatic cycle of neospora caninum: where do we go from here?bovine abortions due to neospora caninum infection are a major cattle-production problem worldwide. the parasite is readily maintained in cattle populations by vertical transmission. the domestic dog excretes oocysts in its feces and, after sporulation, these oocysts are infectious to cattle. current control measures are aimed at culling infected cows and limiting the access of cattle to infective oocysts. the recent revelations that coyotes (canis latrans) can excrete n. caninum oocysts in thei ...200516098812
adaptation of neospora caninum isolates to cell-culture changes: an argument in favor of its clonal population structure.neospora caninum, a recently recognized protozoan parasite of animals, is considered to be a major cause of bovine abortion worldwide. although its life cycle is not completely known, recent studies suggest that the sexual stage occurs in dogs. the prevalence of sexual reproduction in n. caninum, however, is unknown. we investigated the ability of 3 n. caninum isolates (nc-1, nc-sweb1, and nc-liverpool) to propagate asexually for approximately 250 parasite generations in a cell line in which the ...200516108539
neospora caninum antigens defined by antigen-dependent bovine cd4+ t cells.neosporosis is an important cause of pregnancy loss in cattle worldwide. the objective of the present study was to identify neospora caninum antigens as vaccine candidates using antigen-specific, short-term cd4+ t cells established from n. caninum-immunized and -challenged cows. whole n. caninum tachyzoite lysate was separated into 6 fractions by deae anion-exchange chromatography using high-pressure liquid chromatography (hplc). the cd4+ t-cell proliferation assay results indicated that antigen ...200516108548
environmental effect on the occurrence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in pampas-deer (ozotoceros bezoarticus).sera obtained from pampas-deer (ozotoceros bezoarticus) captured in two different brazilian environments were analyzed for the presence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). samples were collected from 23 animals from a savanna area in the national park of emas, in the state of goiás, brazil. this area is surrounded by cultivated lands and allows very little contact between wild and domestic animals. another batch of samples was collected from 16 a ...200516112811
nationwide seroprevalence of neospora caninum among dairy cattle in japan.serum samples from 2420 clinically healthy dairy cattle, randomly selected from stored sera in 18 districts of japan, were tested for the presence of neospora caninum antibodies using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (titer > or =1:200). nationwide seroprevalence is estimated at 5.7% (139/2420). seropositive cattle were detected in all surveyed districts despite the evidence of confirmed case reports of bovine neosporosis, showing that n. caninum is widely distributed throughout japan. age- ...200616207513
endogenous and exogenous transplacental infection in neospora caninum and toxoplasma is clear from researching the vertical transmission of neospora caninum in cattle that the terms 'vertical', 'congenital' and, indeed, 'transplacental' are inadequate for describing two extremely different situations that have fundamentally different immunological, epidemiological and control implications. a similar situation pertains to toxoplasma gondii in different hosts. we advocate the use of the terms 'endogenous transplacental infection (tpi)' to define foetal infection from a recrudes ...200516223599
association between neospora caninum antibodies and blue tongue vaccination in dairy cows. 200516244963
inhibitory activities of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase-targeted dihydroxyisoflavone and trihydroxydeoxybenzoin derivatives on sarcocystis neurona, neospora caninum, and cryptosporidium parvum development.several gene sequences of parasitic protozoa belonging to protein kinase gene families and epidermal growth factor (egf)-like peptides, which act via binding to receptor tyrosine kinases of the egf receptor (egfr) family, appear to mediate host-protozoan interactions. as a clue to egfr protein tyrosine kinase (ptk) mediation and a novel approach for identifying anticoccidial agents, activities against sarcocystis neurona, neospora caninum, and cryptosporidium parvum grown in bm and hct-8 cell cu ...200516251305
intrauterine neospora caninum inoculation of, we studied the potential of neospora caninum tachyzoites to infect heifers when administered in utero by artificial insemination via contaminated semen. eighteen primiparous cyclic heifers were hormonally synchronized and artificially inseminated. nine of them, which were inseminated with semen containing 10(7) live n. caninum nc-1 isolate-tachyzoites, reacted with seroconversion and a specific ifn-gamma response. moreover, n. caninum dna was demonstrated by a nested-pcr in the blood of al ...200616288958
seroepidemiology of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle herds in mashhad area, iran.a seroepidemiology study of neospora caninum was conducted in mashhad area, khorasan province, iran on 337 cattle from 30 dairy using elisa. all herds had seropositive cattle and antibodies were formed in 46% of the cattle. abortion was significantly associated with seropositivity of cattle. the highest risk of abortion was observed in the 1-2-year-old cows. our results indicate that neospora infection is widespread in iran.200616289861
identification and molecular cloning of the neospora caninum sag4 gene specifically expressed at bradyzoite, we identify and clone the ncsag4 gene, orthologue to the toxoplasma gondii tgsag4 gene, and the first reported gene to be expressed specifically during the neospora caninum bradyzoite stage. to isolate ncsag4, we designed degenerate oligonucleotides based on the tgsag4 protein amino acid sequence. a 312-bp dna fragment was amplified by pcr from n. caninum genomic dna, whose sequence showed 65% identity to tgsag4 gene over 257 bp. ncsag4 gene sequence was obtained by pcr genome walking. nuc ...200616303187
use of avidity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and avidity western blot to discriminate between acute and chronic neospora caninum infection in cattle.avidity serological tests (avidity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [elisa] and avidity western blot) were developed and used to differentiate between acute (primary infection, reinfection, and recrudescence) and chronic neospora caninum infection in cattle. in addition, the pattern of immunoglobulin g (igg) avidity maturation against different specific antigens of n. caninum tachyzoites was studied. sequential serum samples were collected from cattle naturally and experimentally infected with ...200516312235
persistence of neospora caninum-specific immunoglobulin g antibodies in bovine blood and lung tissue stored at room temperature.blood and tissue samples obtained at necropsy from carcasses showing varying degrees of postmortem decomposition are sometimes used as sources of antibodies for serological tests, primarily in studies involving wild animals or in examination of aborted fetuses. to test the persistence of antibodies in blood and lung tissue kept at room temperature (approximately 20degreesc) for up to 48 and 118 days, respectively, serum and lung fluid from neospora caninum-infected and uninfected cattle were tes ...200516312237
prevalence of neospora caninum infection in sardinian dairy farms (italy) detected by iscom elisa on tank bulk milk.neospora caninum is a heteroxenous cyst-forming coccidian closely related to toxoplasma gondii and is considered one of the major causes of abortions in cattle worldwide. the present work aims to update the epidemiological trend of n. caninum of dairy cattle in sardinia island, western mediterranean (italy). for this reason, we used the newest enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) methodology that exploits immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms) principle and allows us to point out the infection in th ...200616323023
proportion of abortions due to neosporosis among dairy cattle in japan.a retrospective cohort study was conducted to clarify the association between seropositive reactions to neospora caninum and subsequent reproductive disorders among dairy cattle in japan. a statistically significant association between neospora seropositive reactions and abortions was observed (p=0.016), and seropositive cattle were 6.1 times more likely to abort compared to seronegative cows. no significant differences were observed between seropositive reactions and other reproductive disorder ...200516327231
survey of neospora caninum infection by nested pcr in aborted fetuses from dairy farms in aguascalientes, mexico.the aim of this study was to determine by nested pcr probe the presence of neospora caninum in fetal brain tissue from aborted dairy fetuses in aguascalientes, a state in the central part of mexico. forty-four fetal brains from eight dairy farms were analyzed using single tube nested pcr probe with primers nf1, ns2, nr1 and sr1, with histopathology as the reference technique. from the 44 bovine fetuses studied, 35 (80%) were diagnosed as being infected by n. caninum using pcr probe and 20 (45%) ...200616332413
herd-level risk factors for neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy farms in southern brazil.a cross-sectional study was used to test the relationship between herd seroprevalence to neospora caninum and various potential herd-level risk factors in 60 dairy farms located in two distinct regions in southern brazil. thirty farms were randomly selected from within each region. a questionnaire was designed to summarize each farm's production system as it might relate to n. caninum transmission. the questionnaire contained 105 closed questions relating to general characteristics of the farms, ...200616343669
seroprevalences of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. sera from 556 animals, from 13 czech and slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: eurasian wolf (canis lupus lupus), maned ...200616387445
the prevalence of neospora caninum and co-infection with toxoplasma gondii by pcr analysis in naturally occurring mammal populations.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites associated with bovine and ovine abortion respectively. little is known about the extent of neospora/toxoplasma co-infection in naturally infected populations of animals. using nested pcr techniques, based on primers from the nc5 region of n. caninum and sag1 for t. gondii, the prevalence of n. caninum and its co-infection with t. gondii were investigated in populations of mus domesticus, rattus norvegic ...200616393351
application of repeated bulk milk testing for identification of infection dynamics of neospora caninum in thai dairy this prospective study, repeated bulk milk tests were evaluated to establish the neospora caninum antibody status and to describe infection dynamics and changes in prevalence of n. caninum in thai dairy herds. bulk milk from 418 herds in northeast thailand were collected at three consecutive samplings, in december 2002 (sampling 1), april (sampling 2) and december 2003 (sampling 3). all samples were analysed for presence of n. caninum antibodies by iscom elisa, and the optical density values ...200616406330
evaluation of an iscom elisa used for detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in bulk milk.the intracellular parasite neospora caninum is increasingly recognized as an important cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle. presence of specific antibodies indicates infection, and the immunostimulating complex (iscom) enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) has previously been evaluated for use on individual milk and sera. in the present study, this test is investigated for use on bulk milk. in this study, 124 herds were used to analyse the relationship between within-herd prevalences based on ...200616417934
supranational comparison of neospora caninum seroprevalences in cattle in germany, the netherlands, spain and sweden.herd, within-herd and animal prevalences for neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle were compared between four countries. in randomly selected herds from regions of germany, the netherlands, spain and sweden that were representative for the cattle production of these countries, all animals > or = 2 years were examined serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) with high test specificity (> 98.0%). in a previous study, the elisas had been validated against each other. single ...200616417972
serological evidence of neospora caninum in dual-purpose cattle herds in venezuela.bovine neosporosis is a parasitic disease produced by neospora caninum that induces abortion in cows, and consequently has a negative impact on the herd's reproductive efficiency. the main objective of this research was to determine the serological evidence of n. caninum in cattle herds from venezuela using an indirect antibody capture elisa test. four hundred and fifty-nine (459) serum samples from crossbred adult cows were collected to be tested for neospora antibodies. the sampled cows came f ...200616423467
the protozoan neospora caninum directly triggers bovine nk cells to produce gamma interferon and to kill infected fibroblasts.natural killer (nk) cells are considered to be key players in the early innate responses to protozoan infections, primarily indirectly by producing gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) in response to cytokines, like interleukin 12 (il-12). we demonstrate that live, as well as heat-inactivated, tachyzoites of neospora caninum, a toxoplasma-like protozoan, directly trigger production of ifn-gamma from purified, il-2-activated bovine nk cells. this response occurred independently of il-12 but was increased ...200616428740
low seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in wild canids in israel.the role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of neospora caninum as well as the relationship between n. caninum infection of farm dogs and cattle were demonstrated, however, evidence is scarce regarding the role of wild canids in domestic animal neosporosis. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of wild canids in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in israel by analyzing the prevalence of antibodies to n. caninum in wild canids. sera samples were collected from 114 free rangi ...200616436314
protecting babies: vaccine strategies to prevent foetopathy in neospora caninum-infected cattle.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that is a significant infectious abortifacient agent in cattle. despite the fact that it is a member of a well described taxonomic group, it is a relatively newly discovered parasite and its biology is not yet fully understood. cattle become infected either congenitally via transplacental transmission or post-natally by ingesting oocysts derived from the definitive host; dogs and coyotes are the only definitive hosts that have been described ...200616441503
neospora caninum: serological follow-up in dairy cows during pregnancy.we conducted a longitudinal study to follow-up the anti-neospora caninum serologic status in 30 initially seropositive and 83 initially seronegative cows during their pregnancy. study cows were blood-sampled every other month during pregnancy until parturition. blood serum samples were screened for anti-n. caninum antibodies by elisa. cows that seroconverted were re-tested by immunoblot as a confirmation test. among 30 seropositive cows, 28 cows remained seropositive during the whole pregnancy, ...200616469449
canine neosporosis in hungary: screening for seroconversion of household, herding and stray order to assess the seroprevalence of canine neosporosis 651 blood samples were collected from 586 household, 41 herding and 24 stray dogs, at small animal clinics in four large cities and other places of hungary. nineteen (2.9%) showed positivity in the ifat with titres between 1:80 and 1:10240. two dogs with high titres of antibodies to neospora caninum had neuromuscular signs (imbalance, tremor) and a further one developed papulomatous, ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis. there was no c ...200616490318
[bovine neosporosis: general concepts, immunity and perspectives for vaccination].neospora caninum causes abortions in cattle worldwide. the neospora-cycle of life is heteroxenous. dogs (canis familiaris) and coyotes (canis latrans) are the definitive hosts known at present. although, transplacental infection is an efficiently mode of transmission in cattle; there are also experimental and field data that prove horizontal transmission. several techniques are available for diagnosis since neosporosis is recognized as a disease that causes economic losses in cattle. the mechani ...200516502644
[new practice guidelines for abortion in cattle due to neospora caninum?]. 200616514978
artificial insemination of cows with semen in vitro contaminated with neospora caninum tachyzoites failed to induce neosporosis.neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle all over the world. congenital transmission as well as horizontal transmission by ingestion of oocysts has been described. the detection of neospora caninum dna in bull semen warrants the investigation of possible transmission through the use of contaminated semen. in this experiment four cows were artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed semen contaminated in vitro with viable n. caninum tachyzoites (group a) and four control cows were insem ...200616542775
incidence of neospora caninum and other intestinal protozoan parasites in populations of swiss dogs.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is one of the most important abortifacient organisms in cattle worldwide. the dog is known to act as definitive host although its potential role as infection source for bovines still remains unelucidated. the aim of the present study was to compile initial epidemiological data on the prevalence and incidence of n. caninum in swiss dogs acting as definitive hosts. thus, 249 swiss dogs were investigated coproscopically in monthly intervals over a period of 1 ...200616564131
precolostral serology in calves born from neospora-seropositive mothers.the present study was designed to exploratively determine (a) how many healthy calves, born from seropositive mothers, were also precolostrally seropositive; (b) how many precolostrally negative calves became postcolostrally positive; and (c) in these calves, how the igg1/igg2 situation developed pre- and postcolostrally. all calves were born from mothers that were determined to be seropositive in a conventional neospora caninum-elisa and by immunoblotting. when the diagnostic performance of the ...200616572335
identification of a protein disulfide isomerase of neospora caninum in excretory-secretory products and its iga binding and enzymatic activities.a protein disulfide isomerase of neospora caninum (ncpdi) with a molecular weight of 50kda was identified in tachyzoite lysate and excretory-secretory (es) products. the iga antibody in 58.0% of the individual cattle tear samples recognized the ncpdi, which suggests that the pdi-specific antibody may be involved in defense against parasites. in addition, pdi-specific inhibitors and ncpdi antiserum showed inhibitory effects on the growth of n. caninum tachyzoites. furthermore, the purified recomb ...200616574326
vaccination with gamma-irradiated neospora caninum tachyzoites protects mice against acute challenge with n. caninum.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite, is a leading cause of bovine abortions worldwide. the efficacy of gamma-irradiated n. caninum strain nc-1 tachyzoites as a vaccine for neosporosis was assessed in c57bl6 mice. a dose of 528 gy of gamma irradiation was sufficient to arrest replication but not host cell penetration by tachyzoites. female c57bl6 mice were vaccinated with two intraperitoneal inoculations of 1 x 10(6) irradiated tachyzoites at 4-wk intervals. when stimulated with n. caninum ...200616579818
a prospective study of the effect of neospora caninum and bvdv infections on bovine abortions in a dairy herd in arequipa, peru.we used a prospective seroepidemiological approach to investigate endemic abortion in a dairy herd in arequipa, peru, and its association with neospora caninum and bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (bvdv) infections. between january 2002 and march 2004, 1094 pregnancies were confirmed in 538 cows. of these, 137 pregnancies (13%) in 121 cows ended in abortion. the serological status to n. caninum was assessed using a single serological screening, whereas bvdv status was assessed at the herd level thro ...200616597470
neospora caninum in wildlife.neosporosis, which is caused by the coccidian parasite neospora caninum, is recognized as a major disease of domestic animals that causes high abortion rates in cattle and fatal neurological disease in dogs. a life cycle of n. caninum in wild animals (i.e. sylvatic) has long been suspected because neosporosis has been detected in several wildlife species. recently, the transmission of n. caninum has been confirmed in coyotes and white-tailed deer. the newly confirmed wild hosts and other wild an ...200616616642
a nationwide survey on seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in beef cattle in uruguay.bovine abortions due to neospora caninum infection have been reported worldwide and its economic impact on the beef industry has been acknowledged as a problem. uruguay has the largest export value of beef per acre in south america. however, no data on the prevalence of n. caninum infection have been available in this country. the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of n. caninum infection in beef cattle in uruguay through a nationwide survey. a two stage samp ...200616621288
humoral immune reaction of newborn calves congenitally infected with neospora caninum and experimentally treated with toltrazuril.neospora caninum is widely recognized as one of the most important infectious organisms causing abortion and stillbirth in cattle. this parasite causes severe economical losses worldwide. infection is mostly passed vertically from mother to calf during pregnancy. under certain circumstances, an infection can lead to abortion, but in most cases it results in a chronically infected calf, which itself will represent the next endogenously infectious generation. so far, no reliable therapeutic or met ...200616628455
performance characteristics and optimisation of cut-off values of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in the serum of determine the performance characteristics of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) manufactured by institut pourquier (ip) for the detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in bovine sera.200616672180
neospora caninum antibodies in commercial fetal bovine serum.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle throughout the world. in the process of propagating neospora in vitro and producing specific antibodies for development of diagnostic assays in the food supply, our laboratory identified the presence of bovine antibodies to n. caninum in fetal bovine sera. the sera were produced commercially and preferentially recommended for tissue culture use and monoclonal antibody production. seventeen different fetal bovine serum ...200616697531
pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. it is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. the pathogenesis of abortion due to neospora is complex and only partially understood. losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. parasitaemi ...200616712863
neospora caninum immunoblotting improves serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum ranges among the major causes of infectious abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to improve the serodiagnostic tools by complementing a conventional elisa with a highly sensitive and species-specific n. caninum immunoblot. to evaluate this test combination, sera from several groups of cows were tested. the first group, consisting of experimentally infected calves, showed that immunoblot antibody reactivities were detectable 1 to 3 days earlier than those ...200616718512
a clinical, evidence-based approach to infectious causes of infertility in beef cattle.infertility is the diminished or absent capacity to produce viable offspring. infections that reduce ovulation rates, fertilization rates, embryonic survival rates, fetal survival rates or perinatal survival rates result in observed infertility in beef cows. reproductive pathogens include leptospira, campylobacter, hemophilus, brucella, bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, tritrichomonas foetus, and neospora caninum. infectious infertility can be prevented or controlled with approp ...200616725187
diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. the diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. in the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable n. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.200616730126
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections of bovine endothelial cells induce endothelial adhesion molecule gene transcription and subsequent pmn adhesion.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are important, closely related coccidian parasites infecting a broad spectrum of hosts and host cells. infections underly a complex immunological regulation; however, little is known on innate immune reactions to these parasites. to investigate interactions between infected cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells (pmn), pmn adhesion to tachyzoite-infected bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (buvecs) under physiological flow conditions and adhesion ...200616730378
neospora caninum and leptospira serovar serostatus in dairy cattle in significant association existed between neospora caninum titer and serostatus to leptospira serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona in cattle on 78 dairy herds in ontario. leptospira titer increased with parity. amongst herds not vaccinated against leptospira, the proportions of herds with > or = 1 animal seropositive to serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona were 45%, 42%, and 58%, respectively.200616734373
neospora caninum igg avidity tests: an interlaboratory comparison.avidity tests can be used to discriminate between cattle that are acutely and chronically infected with the intracellular parasite neospora caninum. the aim of this study was to compare the igg avidity elisa tests being used in four european laboratories. a coded panel of 200 bovine sera from well documented naturally and experimentally n. caninum infected animals were analysed at the participating laboratories by their respective assay systems and laboratory protocols. comparing the numeric tes ...200616750301
cellular and immunological basis of the host-parasite relationship during infection with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in humans and domestic animals. however, in contrast to t. gondii, n. caninum represents a major cause of abortion in cattle, pointing towards distinct differences in the biology of these two species. there are 3 distinct key features that represent potential targets for prevention of infection or intervention against disease caused by n. caninum. firstly, tachyzoites a ...200616753081
diagnostic survey of bovine abortion with special reference to neospora caninum infection: importance, repeated abortion and concurrent infection in aborted fetuses in southern brazil.the protozoa neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion world-wide. the objective of this survey was to determine the distribution pattern of infectious abortion in southern brazil with special reference to n. caninum infection. a total of 161 bovine aborted fetuses from 149 farms were analysed during a 1.5 year period. the cause of abortion was identified in 51.5% of cases. overall, 23% (37/161) of the fetuses were considered to be infected with n. caninum. bacterial infection ac ...200616772136
immunodiagnosis of besnoitia besnoiti infection by elisa and western blot.besnoitia besnoiti, an obligate intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis. this infection may dramatically affect body condition and lead to irreversible infertility in males, resulting in important economical losses in livestock production. identification of serologically positive animals is of major relevance to elaborate appropriate measures of control. while identification of clinical cases is relatively easy to carry out, the finding of sub ...200616822616
astroglial cells in primary culture: a valid model to study neospora caninum infection in the cns.the protozoan neospora caninum has a veterinary importance because it causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular alterations in dogs. we infected rat astrocytes, in vitro, with different concentrations of n. caninum. astrocytes responded to infection by producing the pro-inflammatory cytokine tnf-alpha and the neurotoxic-free radical no, 24 and 72 h post-infection. these data suggest that astrocytes, which are essential for brain function, are targets for the parasite and this represents a prac ...200616828168
associations between neospora caninum specific antibodies in serum and milk in two dairy herds in scotland.the study evaluated the use of the mastazyme elisa for quantification of neospora caninum (n. caninum) specific igg in bovine milk and examined the relationship between serum and milk antibodies in two dairy herds. the serum and milk antibodies both had bimodal distributions in each herd. this was mainly due to between cow variation: in both herds, approximately two thirds of cows were either clearly and consistently seropositive or seronegative for n. caninum with one third consistently near th ...200616834998
variations of neospora caninum antibody levels in milk during lactation in dairy cows.a longitudinal study was performed to investigate the variations of neospora caninum antibody levels in individual milk during lactation as well as the association between antibody levels in serum and milk. serum and milk samples of 15 milking cows were collected between february 2003 and september 2004 in three smallholder dairy farms in khon kaen province in northeast thailand. all samples were analyzed for presence of antibodies by an n. caninum iscom elisa test kit and the results were given ...200616842923
prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and dogs from western amazon, brazil, in association with some possible risk factors.for evaluation of the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies and its associated risk factors, serum samples from 2109 cattle (11 beef, 50 dairy and 25 mixed farms) and 174 dogs were examined in the state of rondônia, western amazon, brazil. an inquiry was applied in each farm. sera were examined by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) using cut off dilution of 1:25 for cattle and 1:50 for dogs. statistical association between the serologic status and several variables were anal ...200616857319
prevalence of neospora caninum infection in australian (nsw) dairy cattle estimated by a newly validated elisa for determine the performance characteristics of an institut pourquier (ip) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in bovine milk and subsequent determination of the prevalence of n. caninum infection in new south wales (nsw) dairy cattle.200616876950
multilocus microsatellite analysis reveals extensive genetic diversity in neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a world-wide parasite that causes neuromuscular disorders in dogs and bovine abortion. biological diversity among isolates has been proved in both in vivo and in vitro studies. in contrast, little is known about the genetic diversity of this parasite. microsatellite sequence analysis constitutes a suitable tool that has been used for the genetic analysis of other apicomplexan parasites. in this report, we describe the identification and analysis of 13 microsatellite loci from ...200616883994
comparison of neospora caninum distribution, parasite loads and lesions between epidemic and endemic bovine abortion has been suggested that the abortion herd pattern could influence bovine foetal neosporosis. here, a comparison of (i) neospora caninum dna-detectability by pcr, (ii) n. caninum-associated lesions and (iii) parasite loads in target organs was made between epidemic and endemic abortion cases. we observed that n. caninum dna was predominantly detected in more than one organ in the foetuses from herds with epizootic rather than endemic abortion cases (p<0.05, fisher f-test). the highest parasite ...200616884852
if control of neospora caninum infection is technically feasible does it make economic sense?recent work on neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite that causes abortions in dairy cattle has focused on a number of different control options. modelling has suggested the most effective options for control but the present paper argues that the most effective option might not necessarily be optimal from an economic point of view. decision trees, using published quantitative data, were constructed to choose between four different control strategies. the costs of these interventions, such as 'te ...200616893606
dynamics of transcription of immunomodulatory genes in endothelial cells infected with different coccidian parasites.sporozoites of eimeria bovis and tachyzoites of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are able to invade and to replicate in endothelial cells. here we report on responses of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (buvec) in vitro to these coccidial infections by determining mrna levels of the cxc chemokines gro-alpha, il-8 and ip-10, the cc chemokines mcp-1 and rantes and of gm-csf, cox-2 and inos relative to the level of housekeeping gene (gapdh) transcription. t. gondii and n. caninum tachy ...200616930845
seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in manitoba.of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres > or = 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.200616933557
diagnostic significance of neospora caninum dna detected by pcr in cattle serum.a nested pcr that successfully detected neospora caninum dna in serum of cattle was used for investigation of selected abortion cases and in a study of healthy pregnant cows at an abattoir. n. caninum dna was not detected in serum from antibody positive dams that aborted due to n. caninum, but was present in serum of some antibody negative dams that aborted due to other causes. n. caninum dna was also found in the serum of about half of the animals that aborted of undetermined cause, but was not ...200616934934
effect of neospora caninum-serostatus on culling, reproductive performance and milk production in dutch dairy herds with and without a history of neospora caninum-associated abortion epidemics.we quantified the effect of neospora caninum (nc)-serostatus on culling and (re)production in 83 herds randomly selected from the dutch dairy herd population (random group) and in 17 herds that had experienced an abortion epidemic associated with nc infection (epidemic-abortion group). in the random group, a single whole-herd blood sampling was done during the spring of 2003, while in the epidemic-abortion group whole-herd blood sampling was done repeatedly at least once a year starting after th ...200616949168
simulating the impact of four control strategies on the population dynamics of neospora caninum infection in swiss dairy cattle.a dynamic deterministic simulation model was developed to assess the impact of different putative control strategies on the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in female swiss dairy cattle. the model structure comprised compartments of "susceptible" and "infected" animals (si-model) and the cattle population was divided into 12 age classes. a reference model (model 1) was developed to simulate the current (status quo) situation (present seroprevalence in switzerland 12%), taking into account avai ...200616962190
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in non-carnivorous wildlife from spain.serum samples from 1034 non-carnivorous wildlife from spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and confirmed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). high agreement was observed between results in both techniques (kappa value higher than 0.9). prevalences of n. caninum antibodies positive by both techniques were 11.8% of 237 red deer (cervus elaphus), 7.7% of 13 barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia), 6.1% of 33 ro ...200716962706
[distribution of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows at municipalities of resende and rio claro in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil].this study aimed to verify the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows from municipalities of resende and rio claro, both located at sulfluminense dairy belt. a total of 29 farms from resende and 28 from rio claro were randomly selected. to evaluate the association between herds and animals against the etiological agent χ² tests were used. seventy eight animals at resende (25.74%, confidence intervals(ic) at 95%: 15.7-25.8%) had anti-n. caninum antibodies, while 53 animals ( ...200616978473
[prevalence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in bovines from anápolis and goiânia microregions, goiás, brazil].the prevalence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in bovines was determined in 21 farms from anápolis and goiânia microregions, in goiás, brazil. out of these 11 were dairy farms (holstein and crossbred holstein-zebu), nine had beef cattle (nelore) and one was for mixed exploitation (simental). blood samples were collected from 930 animals, and sera obtained were separated and stored at -20 degrees c. serum samples were examined by the immunofluorescent antibody technique (ifat), using tachyzoi ...200616978474
financial analysis of various strategies for the control of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in switzerland.the present study was conducted to estimate the direct losses due to neospora caninum in swiss dairy cattle and to assess the costs and benefits of different potential control strategies. a monte carlo simulation spreadsheet module was developed to estimate the direct costs caused by n. caninum, with and without control strategies, and to estimate the costs of these control strategies in a financial analysis. the control strategies considered were "testing and culling of seropositive female catt ...200616982104
serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection in cattle using a recombinant tncsrs2 protein-based elisa.the truncated ncsrs2 gene (tncsrs2) by removal of the n-terminal hydrophobic sequence was cloned into the pgex-6p-1 plasmid and subsequently expressed as a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) fusion protein. the purified recombinant tncsrs2 protein was specific to neospora caninum and was used in an elisa for the diagnosis of neosporosis. there was a good agreement between tnctsrs2-based elisa and three commercially available diagnostic kits (idexx elisa, hipra elisa and vmrd ifat). three hundred da ...200716989950
comparison of serological methods for the diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in cattle.the aims of this study were to evaluate the performance and agreement of various commercial and in-house neospora caninum antibody assays used in dairy cattle in north america, and to investigate reproducibility of two assays performed in different laboratories. from 1998 to 2005, three enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisas, a competitive elisa-vmrd inc., an indirect elisa-biovet inc., and another indirect elisa-herdchek idexx corp.), two indirect fluorescent antibody tests (ifats, vmrd inc ...200716989951
characterization of the immune response in the placenta of cattle experimentally infected with neospora caninum in early gestation.a serial examination of three groups of cattle infected intravenously (iv) (group 1, n=8) or subcutaneously (sc) (group 2, n=8) with live neospora caninum tachyzoites or with vero cells (group 3, n=8) at 70 days' gestation was carried out and the nature of the inflammatory responses in the placenta and the presence of parasite antigen were analysed. immune cells expressing cd3, cd4, cd8, gamma delta (gammadelta) t-cell receptors (tcr), cd79alpha cytoplasmic (cy) (b cells) and nkp46 [natural kill ...200616997005
[reaction of bovine endothelial cells in vitro to coccidia (eimeria bovis, toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum) infections as the expression of a non-adaptive immune response].eimeria (e.) bovis sporozoites as well as toxoplasma (t.) gondii and neospora (n.) caninum tachyzoites can invade bovine endothelial cells (buvec) in vitro and develop to next stage meronts within 15-20 and 3-4 days, respectively. the latter differences suggest different immune evasion strategies, particularly concerning innate reactions. realtime rt-pcr techniques were used to determine transcript levels of genes relevant in this sense, i.e. adhesion molecule, chemokine, growth factor gm-csf, c ...200617009708
plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (pag-1) concentrations during gestation in neospora-infected dairy cows.the aim of this study was to determine whether plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (pag-1) concentrations in pregnancy are affected by persistent neospora caninum infection in dairy cows. the data analyzed were derived from 22 multiparous cows: 16 n. caninum-seropositive and 6 n. caninum-seronegative animals (used as controls). three of the 16 seropositive cows aborted during the study period and the corresponding data were analyzed separately. pregnancy diagnoses were performed on day 40 ...200717010415
seroepidemiology of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) in the people's republic of china.a seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes was carried out in the people's republic of china. serum samples were obtained from dairy (n=262, 9 herds in 9 provinces) and beef cattle (n=10, 1 herd) and water buffaloes (n=40) in china. all sera were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and t. gondii by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and an indirect agglutination test (iat), respectively. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum ...200717010521
first report of neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion in mashhad area, iran.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan which causes abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to assess the importance of bovine neosporosis for causing abortion in iranian cattle. infection was primarily diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), complemented with histopathology and immunohistochemistry (ihc). one hundred brains of aborted bovine fetuses were collected from iranian dairy herd between 2003 and 2005 in mashhad area. n. caninum was detected by pcr in t ...200717024355
the first detection of neospora caninum dna in the colostrum of infected data is available on the vertical transmission of neospora caninum via the colostrum. the results of our previous research revealed the presence of n. caninum dna in the milk of seropositive cows. the aim of the present work is to demonstrate parasite dna in colostrum samples. a polymerase chain reaction using np21 and np6 primers was applied to dna isolated from the colostrum sediment in order to amplify the corresponding genomic nc-5 region. the expected 328-bp product was obtained in ...200717024360
[search for neospora caninum dna in bull semen using pcr ].neospora caninum represents one of the most frequent abortifaciant organisms worldwide. the parasite is diaplacentally transmitted from the pregnant cow to the fetus, where it normally leads to the delivery of a healthy, however persistently infected calf. abortion thus is a relative rare event. the transmission of bovine neosporosis occurs in more than 90% of the cases vertically due to the endogenous reactivation of a persistently infected mother. exogenous infections are therefore responsible ...200617024977
the ncgra7 gene encodes the immunodominant 17 kda antigen of neospora caninum.a neospora caninum 17-19 kda antigenic protein fraction (p17) in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) is the immunodominant antigen recognized by sera from bovines naturally infected by n. caninum. to identify the proteins making up the p17 fraction, we screened a new n. caninum tachyzoite cdna library with an affinity-purified antibody against p17 (apa17). we isolated several cdna clones with 100% sequence identity to the ncgra7 gene. this previously described gene enco ...200717032479
survey of neospora caninum and bovine herpes virus 1 coinfection in cattle.a seroprevalence survey of neospora caninum and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) was conducted in cattle pasturing in an area of the southern italian apennines to investigate the coinfection of these two pathogens. blood samples were collected from 948 pastured cattle raised on 81 farms. sera were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and to bhv-1 using an elisa assay and a neutralization test, respectively. out of the 81 farms sampled, 63 (77.8%) were positive for n. caninum and 80 (98.8%) for bhv-1. ...200717053931
use of an immunodominant p17 antigenic fraction of neospora caninum in detection of antibody response in cattle.a neospora caninum 17 kda protein fraction (p17) has been described as an immunodominant antigen (ida) under reducing and non-reducing conditions. the aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic utility of p17 in cattle. in order to achieve this, p17 was purified by electroelution from whole n. caninum tachyzoite soluble extract and a p17-based western blot (wb-p17) was developed. the p17 recognition was measured by densitometry and expressed as od values to check the validity of ...200617072457
seroprevalence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, neospora caninum, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection among dairy cattle and herds in alberta and agroecological risk factors associated with seropositivity.a province-wide, cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), neospora caninum (nc), bovine leukemia virus (blv), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) genotypes 1 and 2 (bvdv1 and bvdv2) infection in dairy cattle herds in alberta was conducted. among adults, the seroprevalence of map, nc, and blv was 9.1%, 18.5%, and 26.9%, respectively. for map, based on a herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows, 58.8% ...200617078247
serosurvey of roe deer, chamois and domestic sheep in the central italian alps.roe deer (capreolus capreolus), chamois (rupicapra rupricapra rupicapra), and domestic sheep in the orobie alps, italy, were serologically tested for antibodies to selected pathogens that may be transmitted across species. antibodies against brucella spp. and bovine herpesvirus 1 (roe deer and chamois only) were not detected in any species. in roe deer, antibodies were detected against toxoplasma gondii (13%) and neospora caninum (3%). chamois tested positive for antibodies to t. gondii (5%), n. ...200617092903
presence of neospora caninum specific antibodies in three dairy farms in georgia and two in texas.neospora caninum is known to cause abortion in cattle. this study demonstrated the presence of specific igg to neospora in milk and serum samples obtained from three dairy farms in georgia and two in texas. samples from four hundred fourteen dairy cows were examined using a western blot assay of which 362 were milk and 87 were serum. samples with antibodies to neospora were identified in 32.1% (105/327) of the examined animals in georgia, whereas in texas it was identified in 10.3% (9/87). posit ...200717112670
serologic study of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms in tehran, iran.a few studies have been done on the seroepidemiology of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy and beef cattle farms in iran, which suggested the presence of n. caninum in these areas, but there is no published information directed on the presence or epidemiology of this organism in the dogs in iran. to investigate anti-n. caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in cattle farms, 100 blood samples were collected: 50 from dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms and 50 from house ...200717120042
[seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cattle in the region of kayseri].this study was carried out in order to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cattle in the region of kayseri. blood samples were collected from 186 cattle and sera were obtained from these samples. sera samples were analyzed for antibodies against n. caninum using a commercially available competitive elisa (c-elisa) kit. according to the elisa test results, seroprevalence of n. caninum in the region of kayseri was found to be 7%. three of 9 aborting cows (33.3%) were found to be se ...200617124655
intrauterine neospora caninum inoculation of heifers and cows using contaminated semen with different numbers of investigate the potential of different neospora caninum tachyzoite doses to infect heifers (experiment 1) and cows (experiment 2) when administered in utero by artificial insemination via contaminated semen.200717126895
structure-activity relationships from in vitro efficacies of the thiazolide series against the intracellular apicomplexan protozoan neospora caninum.nitazoxanide (2-acetolyloxy-n-(5-nitro 2-thiazolyl) benzamide; ntz) represents the parent compound of a novel class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compounds named thiazolides. ntz is active against a wide variety of intestinal and tissue-dwelling helminths, protozoa, enteric bacteria and a number of viruses infecting animals and humans. while potent, this poses a problem in practice, since this obvious non-selectivity can lead to undesired side effects in both humans and animals. in this study ...200717141783
immunization of cattle with live tachyzoites of neospora caninum confers protection against fetal death.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle. it is normally found as a latent infection controlled by a t-helper-cell type 1 response involving cd4(+) cytotoxic t cells and gamma interferon. cattle may be infected by two different routes: transplacentally as a result of activation of the latent infection in the mother causing congenital infection or abortion and by ingestion of oocysts, which, if it occurs during gestation, can also result in a ...200717145943
[survey of neospora caninum in cattle in some provinces in the eastern anatolian region.]this study was carried out in order to investigate the presence of neospora caninum in cattle in the elaziğ, malatya, muş and bingöl provinces from january 2003- may 2004. blood samples were collected from 513 cattle and 32 aborting cows that were of various breeds and ages in all provinces. sera were obtained from these animals and antibodies against n. caninum were investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). a commercially available competitive elisa (celisa) kit (vmrd, i ...200517167738
progesterone supplementation during mid-gestation increases the risk of abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows with high antibody titres.progesterone has been reported to reduce th1 responses during pregnancy. thus, given that an excessive th1 response could lead to abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows, we hypothesized a reduction in abortion risk following progesterone supplementation during the mid-gestation period in these animals. seropositive animals were assigned on day 120 of gestation to a control (n=33) or treatment (n=34) group. treatment consisted of progesterone supplementation by fitting a progesterone releasing ...200717182187
host/parasite relationship in the in vitro infection of rat gliocytes by neospora caninum: evaluation of cell respiration.neospora caninum is a protozoon that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular lesions in dogs, with the formation of cysts mainly in the central nervous system. since n. caninum is an intracellular parasite with tropism for the cells of nervous system, this study evaluated the respiratory metabolism of glial cells infected by this* parasite. glial cultures obtained from the cerebral cortex of newborn rats were kept in dmem enriched with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1 mm pyruvic acid and 2 mm of l- ...200717184800
neospora caninum emerges from the shadow of toxoplasma is sometimes easy to make the mistake of assuming that everything that holds true for toxoplasma gondii is also true for its relative neospora caninum. however, a recurring theme in the recent review by hemphill et al. is not the similarities but the striking differences between the two parasites.200717185039
natural killer cells act as early responders in an experimental infection with neospora caninum in calves.the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a cause of abortion and congenital disease in cattle worldwide. we have previously shown that natural killer (nk) cells produce ifn-gamma in response to n. caninum tachyzoites in vitro. this study aimed to investigate the role of nk cells and other cellular immune responses in an experimental n. caninum infection model in calves. phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a drop in the percentage of nk cells at days 4-6 after i.v. ...200717188277
distribution of antibodies against neospora caninum, bvdv and bhv-1 among cows in brazilian dairy herds with reproductive disorders.neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and bovine herpes virus 1 (bhv-1) are worldwide spread pathogens associated with reproductive problems in cattle. the present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of these three pathogens in two dairy herds with distinct reproductive managements from triângulo mineiro, minas gerais state, brazil. the herds were not vaccinated against either n. caninum, bvdv or bhv-1. blood samples were collected and analyzed for presence of specific ant ...200617196123
evaluation of bovine abortion associated with neospora caninum by different diagnostic techniques in mashhad, iran.twelve aborted foetuses (gestational ranged from 4-9 months) and dams from dairies cattle farms in (mashhad) iran were analysed to investigate the participation of neospora caninum in abortion. diagnosis of the infection was determined by histopathology, serology (indirect fluorescent antibody test [ifat]) and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a total 33% of bovine foetuses were considered to be infected by pcr technique. microscopic lesions consistent with n. caninum infection in foe ...200717206503
production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis.the primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (blv), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map), and neospora caninum (nc) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in canadian dairy cattle. serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against blv (idexx elisa; idexx corporation, westbr ...200717235141
risk factors for canine neosporosis in farm and kennel dogs in southern italy.neosporosis by neospora caninum causes losses to livestock production through abortion in cattle while, in dogs, it induces neuromuscolar disease. this study investigated neosporosis seroprevalence associated risk factors (including the seropositivity to leishmaniosis) in dogs of southern italy, determined the prevalence of n. caninum oocyst shedding and examined the relationship between seroprevalence of neosporosis in farm dogs and cattle. using an inhibition elisa, 20.9% of 306 dogs had perce ...200717257762
seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef and dairy cattle breeds in northeast order to assess the seroprevalence of bovine neosporosis with indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), blood samples were collected randomly from 1063 beef and dairy cattle belonging to 12 different breeds in northeast hungary. antibodies to neospora caninum were detected in 27 (2.5%) of the animals, kept on 19 of the 42 settlements included in this survey. since samples were collected on 50 farms, herd prevalence amounted to 38%. the percentage of cattle with seroconversion increased with ...200617278720
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