associations of neospora caninum seropositivity with gestation number and pregnancy outcome in danish dairy herds.the prevalence and distribution of seropositivity towards the protozoan parasite neospora caninum were studied in single blood samples from 1561 cows from 31 danish dairy herds. blood samples were analysed by an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay and an indirect fluorescent-antibody test. seroprevalence in 15 herds with previous abortions assigned to neosporosis ranged from 1% to 58%, with a mean frequency of 22%. in eight out of 16 herds without a history of n.caninum related abortions, no sero ...199910423771
in vitro isolation of neospora caninum from a stillborn calf in the uk.neospora caninum was isolated in vero cell culture from the brain of a stillborn calf. this isolate (designated nc-livb1) is the first to be obtained from cattle in the united kingdom and was confirmed as n. caninum by immunofluorescence with specific antibodies and by internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) sequence analysis. differences were found between nc-livb1, other bovine isolates and canine isolates of n. caninum and closely related protozoal parasites, using random amplified polymorphic d ...199910425249
recent advances in neospora and neosporosis.neospora caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. this paper reviews recent advances in the life cycle and biology of neospora with the emphasis on bovine neosporosis. the role of the recently discovered oocyst stage of n. caninum in the epidemiology of neosporosis is discussed. progress made in serologic diagnosis of n. caninum infection is discussed. there is no vaccine for preventing neospora-induced abortions in cattle or to prevent oocyst shedding in dog ...199910456423
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and abortion in dairy cows in northern spain.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection was estimated from a sample of 889 cattle from 43 dairy herds in three counties in the asturias region of spain. the true prevalence of infection was estimated to be 30.6 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval (ci) 27.6 to 33.6). seropositivity was associated with abortion during the previous year (odds ratio (or)=3.31, p<0.001) and was slightly higher among purchased cattle (37.6 per cent), than among cattle raised on the farm (29.1 per cent) ...199910460027
serological differences in neospora caninum-associated epidemic and endemic abortions.a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the sensitive and specific detection of bovine antibodies to neospora caninum was developed and evaluated using sera from cattle experimentally infected with n. caninum, toxoplasma gondii, sarcocystis cruzi, sarcocystis hominis, sarcocystis hirsuta, eimeria bovis, cryptosporidium parvum, babesia divergens, and field sera from naturally exposed animals. field sera were classified using a gold standard that included the results from an indir ...199910461950
serum antibody profile and reproductive performance during two consecutive pregnancies of cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.the objective of this study was to record how the antibody levels change over time during pregnancy in dairy cows naturally infected with the protozoan parasite neospora caninum, and relate this to the reproductive performance. eighteen cows with antibodies to n. caninum were serum sampled monthly during their first pregnancy and 13 of them were also followed for a second pregnancy. in all, five pregnancies ended in abortion and two in stillbirth. antibodies to n. caninum in serum were demonstra ...199910488725
seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum and associated abortion in dairy cattle from central thailand.a total of 904 sera from dairy cattle in 11 provinces of central thailand were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum employing the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). fifty four (6%) cattle were positive in ifat, titres of 1:200 (16 cattle), 1:400 (9 cattle), 1:800 (14 cattle), 1:1600 (7 cattle), 1:3200 (6 cattle) and two positives. no significant difference was observed among the provinces. the seropositivity for toxoplasma gondii by a commercial latex agglutination test was 4% (2 ou ...199910489202
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in bahia, brazil.sera collected from 447 dairy cattle on 14 dairy farms were tested for neospora caninum antibodies by use of an immunofluorescent antibody technique. positive reactions with titres > or =1:200 were found in 63 (14.09%) of animals. neospora positive sera were also tested for toxoplasma gondii antibodies by using a commercial latex agglutination test. antibodies to t. gondii were detected in 3 (4.76%) of 63 n. caninum positive sera. these results indicate that n. caninum infection is widespread am ...199910489205
estimation of neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy cattle from normandy, epidemiological study was conducted in orne (france) on randomly selected dairy herds (42 herds including 1,924 cows and heifers, which were at least 15 months old). the aim was primarily to estimate the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection from two blood samples per cow, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for n. caninum (one positive result indicating infection). the second aim was to test the association between some individual and herd factors and n. caninum seropos ...199910543387
detection by pcr of neospora caninum in fetal tissues from spontaneous bovine abortions.the routine diagnosis of neospora caninum abortion is based upon histopathologic changes in fetal tissues and identification of tissue parasites by immunohistochemistry. confirmation of n. caninum infection by immunohistochemistry has low sensitivity. in the present study, we examined the utility of pcr in detecting n. caninum infection in fetal tissues from spontaneous bovine abortion. dna was obtained from fresh and formalin-fixed tissues from 61 bovine fetuses submitted for abortion diagnosis ...199910565932
comparison of the ifat and iscom-elisa response in bovine foetuses with neospora caninum infection.the study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of foetal serology in the diagnosis of neospora-associated bovine abortions. fluids from 14 foetuses of cows with confirmed neosporosis (group a), seven foetuses with confirmed bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvd infection) (group b) and 11 aborted foetuses without demonstrable infection (group c) were examined. the age of the foetuses ranged from 4.5 months to 9 months. albumin concentration (measured by rocket immunoelectrophoresis) was not sign ...199910576568
the antigenic composition of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite which causes neosporosis, namely stillbirth and abortion in cattle, and neuromuscular disease in dogs. although n. caninum is phylogenetically and biologically closely related to toxoplasma gondii, it is antigenically clearly distinct. in analogy to t. gondii, three stages have been identified. these are: (i) asexually proliferating tachyzoites; (ii) tissue cysts harbouring slowly dividing bradyzoites; and (iii) oocysts containing sporozoites. the sex ...199910576569
significance of neospora caninum in british dairy cattle determined by estimation of seroprevalence in normally calving cattle and aborting cattle.a case control study was conducted to evaluate the significance of neospora caninum infections in cattle in england and wales. the prevalence of n. caninum in normally calving cattle (the control group; n = 418) and aborting cattle (n = 633) was estimated using a commercial antibody-detection elisa. prevalence estimates for bovine virus diarrhoea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and leptospira hardjo were also obtained by serology. the prevalence of n. caninum was significantly hig ...199910576570
towards evaluating the economic impact of bovine spite of the global importance of neosporosis as a cause of bovine abortion, there is very little information about its economic consequences. the economic costs are a product of estimations of the quantity of the effects attributable to neospora infection, and the particular unit costs of those effects. in this brief review, which arose from a workshop on the economics of coccidiosis held at the cost 820 meeting, toledo 1998, we discuss the possible effects of neosporosis which are of econom ...199910576571
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy and beef cattle in recent years, neosporosis has been identified as a major cause of abortion in dairy and beef cattle. although the disease has been described worldwide, there is a jack of information concerning the prevalence of this infection in different cattle production systems. the aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in a representative area of beef and dairy cattle production in spain. a cross-sectional study was undertaken in which herds constituted the ...199910576572
outbreak of abortion associated with neospora caninum infection in a beef herd.abortion outbreaks caused by infection with neospora caninum in beef cattle have not been well documented. neospora caninum infection was confirmed in 4 fetuses that were aborted by cattle in a 350-head beef herd; an additional 58 cattle aborted during the next 2.5 months. overall, 44.4% (157/354) of the cattle in the herd did not become pregnant or experienced fetal loss during this period. initially, 81.3% (282/347) of the herd was seropositive for antibodies to n caninum, and seropositive cow ...199910579048
evaluation of a commercial elisa for detecting serum antibody to neospora caninum in cattle.a commercially available serum antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for neospora caninum in cattle was evaluated against an immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) by applying it to 397 sera from normal adult cattle, 352 sera from cattle which had recently aborted, and 422 sera from two herds which had a history of n caninum-associated abortions. it was evaluated in two laboratories and showed high reproducibility, repeatability and almost perfect or substantial agreement with the ...199910606017
serological diagnosis of neospora caninum infection.since the first isolation of the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum, a range of serological assays have been developed for use in dogs, cattle and a variety of other potential host species. the tests include the indirect fluorescent antibody test, the direct agglutination test and different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. this article reviews the principles and properties of the available tests which are discussed in relation to different applications.199910608435
comparative ultrastructure of tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and tissue cysts of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii.the ultrastructure of tachyzoites, bradyzoites and tissue cysts of the nc-1, nc-5 and nc-liverpool strains of neospora caninum are reviewed and compared with those of the veg and me-49 strains of toxoplasma gondii. while each stage of n. caninum and t. gondii shared many ultrastructural characteristics, each parasite stage also had certain features or organelles that could be used to distinguish the two parasites. some of the most prominent ultrastructural differences occurred in the number, app ...199910608436
a structural study of the neospora caninum oocyst.oocysts of neospora caninum were collected from the faeces of a dog fed mouse brains containing tissue cysts of the nc-beef strain of n. caninum. sporulated oocysts were spherical to subspherical, and were 11.7x11.3 microm. the length/width ratio was 1.04. no micropyle or oocyst residuum was present. polar granules were not present, although occasionally tiny refractile granules were seen among sporocysts. sporocysts were ellipsoidal, did not contain a stieda body, and were 8.4x6.1 microm. the l ...199910608437
experimental inoculation of domestic pigeons (columbia livia) and zebra finches (poephila guttata) with neospora caninum tachyzoites.dogs are a definitive host of neospora caninum and cattle are intermediate hosts. alternative life-cycles have not been investigated. foxes are frequently seropositive, but may not commonly prey upon cattle; therefore, other intermediate hosts may exist that are frequent prey of foxes. three domestic pigeons (columbia livia) and three zebra finches (poephila guttata) were inoculated with n. caninum tachyzoites, to determine if they could serve as intermediate hosts. tissue culture, pcr, serology ...199910608438
ingestion of neospora caninum tissue cysts by mustela species.dogs are a definitive host of neospora caninum, a protozoal parasite that causes abortion in cattle. mustelids were tested to determine if they could also be definitive hosts. the procedures used were the same as those previously used to test dogs. ermine (mustela erminea), weasels (mustela frenata) and ferrets (mustela putorius) were fed n. caninum-infected mice. neospora caninum oocysts were not observed. mustelid faeces were fed to mice. the mice did not seroconvert and n. caninum was not det ...199910608439
phylogenetic analysis based on full-length large subunit ribosomal rna gene sequence comparison reveals that neospora caninum is more closely related to hammondia heydorni than to toxoplasma gondii.since its first description in the late 1980s, neospora caninum has been recognised as a prominent tissue cyst-forming parasite due to its ability to induce congenital disease and abortion in animals, especially cattle. it is found worldwide and is a cause of significant economic losses for the livestock industry. however, its place within the family sarcocystidae, like that of several other taxa, remains unresolved. neospora caninum shares several morphological and life cycle characters with ha ...199910608441
differentiation of neospora hughesi from neospora caninum based on their immunodominant surface antigen, sag1 and srs2.neospora hughesi is a newly recognised parasite that is closely related to neospora caninum, and is a cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. we have characterised two n. hughesi immunodominant tachyzoite antigens which exhibit antigenic and molecular differences from the homologous tachyzoite antigens on n. caninum. these antigens on n. hughesi are referred to as nhsag1 and nhsrs2, using the same mnemonics as used for the n. caninum antigens (ncsag1 and ncsrs2), and are homologous to toxop ...199910608444
development of a single tube nested polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of neospora caninum dna.sensitive detection techniques are required to study the life cycle of neospora caninum and to diagnose infections. in this study, we describe the development of a pcr assay for n. caninum based on two successive amplification steps within a single tube. this technique, called single tube nested pcr, was sensitive to a single copy of target sequence, and able to amplify parasite dna from biological specimens such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of naturally infected dogs and cattle. ...199910608446
immunogenicity of a killed whole neospora caninum tachyzoite preparation formulated with different adjuvants.a killed whole neospora caninum tachyzoite preparation was formulated with various adjuvants and tested for its immunogenicity in cattle. the adjuvants used were: havlogen, a polymer of acrylic acid cross-linked with polyallylsucrose; polygen, a non-particulate copolymer; a mixture of havlogen and bay r-1005, which is a preparation of free base synthetic glycolipids; and montanide isa 773, a water-in-oil emulsion made with a mixture of metabolisable and mineral oils. immune responses in immunise ...199910608448
oral infection of calves with neospora caninum oocysts from dogs: humoral and cellular immune responses.neospora caninum has been identified as a major cause of abortion in cattle in a number of countries throughout the world. until the recent demonstration that dogs can serve as a definitive host of this parasite, it was not possible to study the infection in cattle orally exposed to oocysts. the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of n. caninum oocysts to infect calves, and to define initial immune responses that arise after oral infection. seven calves were fed approximately 10(4 ...199910608451
bovine neosporosis: comparison of serological methods using outbreak sera from a dairy herd in new zealand.serological methods developed to detect neospora caninum specific bovine antibodies were compared using sera from an abortion outbreak on a dairy farm in new zealand. these methods included four elisas, ifat and immunoblot. the abortions (n = 16) on the farm were restricted to one of two groups of the herd which consisted of 194 adult dairy cows. all elisas, ifat and immunoblot (applying stringent cut-off levels) revealed a statistically significant association between seropositivity and abortio ...199910608452
postnatal neospora caninum transmission and transient serologic responses in two dairies.cattle on two typically managed drylot dairies were serologically monitored from birth through year 1 to year 4 of life to characterise congenital and postnatal neospora caninum transmission. of the 456 calves enrolled, 284 were classified as n. caninum negative and 172 were classified as n. caninum positive. ninety-six percent of congenitally infected calves were seropositive for all samples tested. seven (4%) of the 172 congenitally infected animals had a period that persisted for 9 to 18 mont ...199910608453
seroepidemiological evidence for a relationship between neospora caninum infections in dogs and cattle.dogs from dairy farms with a known prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in the cattle were examined for the presence of n. caninum antibodies using an elisa. data of farm dogs were compared with those of dogs examined at a university clinic, which originated mainly in urban areas. of the 152 farm dogs, 36 (23.6%) were seropositive to n. caninum, which was significantly higher than the proportion of seropositives in the clinic dog population (19 of 344, 5.5%). seroprevalence was significantl ...199910608454
estimation of vertical and horizontal transmission parameters of neospora caninum infections in dairy cattle.transmission parameters of neospora caninum infections in dairy cattle were determined in six herds with a history of neospora-associated abortions, using an antibody-detection elisa to detect evidence of infection. a total of 124 seropositive dams and their calves were tested at calving to estimate vertical transmission, and 154 seronegative heifers were monitored prospectively from birth for evidence of post-natal infection. the probability of vertical transmission was very high; 95.2% (95% co ...199910608455
mathematical models of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle: transmission and options for control.the transmission and control of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle was examined using deterministic and stochastic models. parameter estimates were derived from recent studies conducted in the uk and from the published literature. three routes of transmission were considered: maternal vertical transmission with a high probability (0.95), horizontal transmission from infected cattle within the herd, and horizontal transmission from an independent external source. putative infection via po ...199910608456
neospora caninum infections in bovine foetuses and dairy cows with abortions in argentina.antibodies to neospora caninum were measured in bovine foetuses, dairy cows and beef cows in argentina using the ifat, the n. caninum agglutination test, and the recombinant ncdg1 and ncdg2 elisa. serum antibodies (ifat titre 1:80) were found in 20 of 82 (24.4%) dairy cow foetuses and one of 22 (4.5%) beef cow foetuses. microscopic lesions suggestive of neosporosis were seen in brains of seven of eight foetuses with ifat titres of 1:80. antibodies (ifat) were found in 122 of 189 (64.5%) dairy co ...199910608457
prevention of vertical transfer of neospora caninum in balb/c mice by vaccination.neosporosis is an important cause of abortion and neonatal morbidity in dairy cattle. the disease is caused by neospora caninum, an intracellular protozoan parasite. in this report, we describe the use of a mouse model in the preliminary evaluation of vaccination as a means to prevent vertical transfer of n. caninum. parasites present in the tissues of the offspring were detected using an n. caninum-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. immunization of dams with a single inoculation of a cru ...199910647039
progress in the serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infections of cattle.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that has become the focus of significant research attention worldwide. this organism infects a range of host species, including dogs, from which it was originally reported in 1984, but it is most important as a major cause of bovine abortion. as a result of the global importance of n. caninum, researchers have developed a number of serological tests to investigate the epidemiology of infection and disease. in this article, robert atkinson, peter harp ...200010689330
determination of the activity of diclazuril against sarcocystis neurona and sarcocystis falcatula in cell cultures.diclazuril is a benzeneacetonitril anticoccidial that has excellent activity against the extraintestinal stages of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. it also is highly active against intestinal coccidia of poultry. the present study examined the efficacy of diclazuril in inhibiting merozoite production of sarcocystis neurona and sarcocystis falcatula in bovine turbinate cell cultures. diclazuril inhibited merozoite production by more than 80% in cultures of s. neurona or s. falcatula treate ...200010701584
neospora caninum and bovine virus diarrhoea virus infections in swedish dairy cows in relation to abortion.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv) are recognized as important causes of bovine abortion and congenital disease worldwide. in this study, serological investigations were performed to estimate the prevalence of n. caninum infection in swedish dairy cattle, to assess to what extent it may affect abortion rates, and to determine possible effects of coinfection with bvdv. the overall n. caninum seroprevalence in swedish dairy cows was estimated at 2% (16/ ...200010712809
increased risk of abortion following neospora caninum abortion outbreaks: a retrospective and prospective cohort study in four dairy herds.explosive abortion outbreaks in 4 dutch dairy herds during 1992 to 1994 are reported. in 50 of 51 fetuses submitted during the first 3 wk of the outbreaks characteristic histological lesions compatible for infection with neospora caninum were seen. diagnosis of infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in 40 fetuses (78%). no evidence for other abortifacients was found. the abortion risk of the herds was investigated in a prospective and retrospective cohort study. the prospective study sh ...199810732067
abortion risk in progeny of cows after a neospora caninum epidemic.a study was done of the descendants of cows from 4 dairy herds in which there had been n. caninum abortion outbreaks. precolostral antibodies to n. caninum were demonstrated in 34 of 50 (68%) f1 calves and in 14 of 17 (82%) f2 calves from cows that aborted during the outbreaks. in 214 f1 progeny, n. caninum seroprevalence was nearly 50%, and there was a significant association between serostatus of the offspring and serostatus of dams. these observations indicated that congenital infection was a ...199810732068
characteristics of neospora caninum-associated abortion storms in diary herds in the netherlands (1995 to 1997).abortion storms in 50 dairy herds in the netherlands were reported in which there was a strong association with neospora caninum-infection. the duration of the abortion storms ranged from 6 to 65 d (mean 41.5 d). the cumulative proportion of aborting cows ranged from 0.11 to 0.57 (mean 0.26) of the animals at risk. an apparent seasonal influence was noted as most abortion storms occurred during the summer and early autumn. the prevalence of antibodies to n. caninum in 50 herds which had had an a ...199910734391
risk factors for neospora caninum-associated abortion storms in dairy herds in the netherlands (1995 to 1997).a 2 to 1 matched case control study design was used to analyze herd level risk factors for neospora caninum-associated abortion storms in 47 dairy herds. data were obtained using a questionnaire regarding the state of affairs at the farms over the 2 years prior to the abortion storm. the questionnaire included 120 variables considered to be potential risk factors for either introduction of infection or recrudescence of chronic infection. the relationship between risk factors and case control pai ...199910734392
[the occurrence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum as regards meat hygiene].toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are phenotypically and phylogenetically closely related cyst-forming coccidia, both of which may cause abortion in livestock animals. t. gondii exhibits also zoonotic potential by causing diaplacental infections in the human fetus and harmful infections in immunosuppressed individuals. humans get infected either by consuming inappropriately prepared cyst-containing meat or by ingesting oocysts originating from cat feces. therefore, in order to assess infect ...200010748708
the inhibitory effect of interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha on intracellular multiplication of neospora caninum in primary bovine brain cells.primary culture of bovine brain cells was examined for its susceptibility to neospora caninum infections, and this model was used to investigate the effects of bovine interferon gamma (ifn-gamma) and tumor necrosis factors alpha (tnf-alpha) on tachyzoite growth. tachyzoites of n. caninum grew well in this culture, and tachyzoite growth in astroglia and microglia were confirmed by immunocytochemical staining. ifn-gamma inhibited the tachyzoite growth, and this inhibition was not reversed by the a ...200010770613
neospora caninum infection in a clinically healthy calf: parasitological study and serological this study a case of congenital infection in a clinically healthy calf is reported. the mother showed high antibody levels (ifat) at 230 days of gestation (igg titres > or = 1:1600, igm titres > or = 1:320) and the parasite was isolated from placental cotyledonary villi at calving. the igm values are indicative of a recent infection in the third trimester of gestation. the calf was monitored serologically for igm and igg from birth until slaughtering, at 8 months of age. igm titre showed a pe ...200010780172
diagnosis and epidemiology of bovine neosporosis: a review.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that was first described in dogs in 1988. subsequently the parasite has been associated with abortion in cattle. evidence is accumulating that neosporosis is a major cause of reproductive failure in cattle all over the world. recent knowledge of neosporosis is reviewed with emphasis on the diagnosis and epidemiology of the disease in cattle. in addition, attention is paid to strategies for disease control and prevention.200010789513
isolation, characterization and expression of a gra2 homologue from neospora caninum.a cdna library derived from mrna of tachyzoites of neospora caninum (nc-liverpool strain) was screened with antisera from a cow naturally infected with n. caninum. the dna sequence of 1 recombinant isolated predicted a significant protein sequence homology of the gene product to the 28 kda (gra2) antigen of toxoplasma gondii. studies on the n. caninum gene coding for this antigen demonstrated the presence of a single intron flanked by 2 exons; the gene was also highly expressed in culture-derive ...200010811279
neospora caninum seroprevalence and associated risk factors in beef cattle in the northwestern united states.a neospora caninum seroprevalence and risk factor survey of 2585 cows was conducted in 55 beef cow-calf herds located in five northwestern states of the usa. blood samples were collected by private veterinary practitioners and management practices were surveyed using a mail questionnaire. producers were randomly selected from those that employed these veterinarians to perform annual herd pregnancy examinations. questions were asked about animal management, grazing and feeding, immunization and r ...200010828508
serological survey and first finding of neospora caninum in taiwan, and the detection of its antibodies in various body fluids of cattle.a serological survey for antibodies against neospora caninum in cattle, goats and farm dogs in taiwan was carried out. sera of 613 cattle from 25 dairy farms, 24 goats from six goat farms and 13 dogs from six dairy cattle farms were tested for antibodies against n. caninum using indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat). the same sera were also tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii using latex agglutination test. of the 613 cattle sera, 44.9% (275/613) were found to have antibodies ag ...200010828511
in vitro isolation and characterization of bovine neospora caninum in korea.the brains of nine aborted bovine fetuses and two newborn calves born from dams suspected to be infected with neospora caninum were homogenized and inoculated into vero cells. all fetuses and calves were from cows determined as seropositive to n. caninum by an ifa test. sera and thoracic fluids of all fetuses and calves also revealed high antibody titer to n. caninum by ifat ranging from 1:800 to 1:3200. n. caninum was isolated from the brains of one aborted fetus and one newborn calf when the b ...200010828521
neospora caninum infections in australia and new review the current state of knowledge of neospora caninum infections with particular reference to australia and new zealand.200010840573
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection following an abortion outbreak in a dairy cattle investigate the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in a commercial dairy cattle herd, 15 months after detection of an abortion outbreak.200010840574
serologic survey of neospora caninum infection in a closed dairy cattle herd in maryland: risk of serologic reactivity by production groups.prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum was determined in a cross-sectional consensus survey of 1029 bovines in a dairy herd with endemic neospora-induced abortion. sera were screened by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). the prevalence of n. caninum antibody in the ifat was 17.9% in 107 neonates, 26.2% in 233 yearling heifers and steers, 39.07% in 218 mature heifers, and 26.9% in 465 milking cows. serologic reactivity was associated with production grouping on the farm with the gre ...200010841997
isolation of neospora caninum from the brain of a naturally infected adult dairy cow.neospora caninum was isolated from the brain of a 2-year-old dairy cow that had aborted confirmed n. caninum-infected fetuses on two occasions. the cow had an indirect fluorescent antibody titer of 1:1600 to n. caninum. the cow was killed 24 days after its second abortion and the brain was bioassayed for n. caninum in nude mice. multifocal areas of perivascular cuffing and glial nodules were observed in the cerebrum and mesencephalon of the cow, but n. caninum was not identified in histological ...200010842005
neosporosis in cattle.during the past decade, neospora caninum infection has emerged as an important reproductive disease in cattle throughout the world. abortion, occurring during the middle of gestation, is the primary clinical sign of the infection in cattle. surveys in several countries from three continents have identified n. caninum infection as the major diagnosed cause of bovine abortion. both endemic and epidemic patterns of abortion may occur in herds. an important feature of this disease is that the protoz ...200010844212
neospora caninum infected the alimentary tract of nude mice and was transmitted to other mice by intraperitoneal inoculation with the intestinal contents.neospora caninum (bt-2 strain) that originated from the brain of a holstein calf was serially passaged through 10 generations of balb/c nude mice by intraperitoneal inoculation. histological examination of the mice revealed that numerous clusters of tachyzoites appeared in the pancreas, stomach and small intestine as well as in the central nervous system (cns) and skeletal muscles. intestinal contents of the infected mice were inoculated intraperitoneally into uninfected nude mice and 3 of the 1 ...200010852403
vertical and horizontal transmission of neospora caninum in dairy herds in québec.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle. the objective of this observational study was to estimate the rate of vertical transmission of n. caninum in dairy herds in québec and to investigate horizontal transmission in the same herds. the genealogy of cows from 23 dairy herds were examined. prevalence of seropositive animals in herds studied varied from 4.3% to 61.8% (average, 21.9%). the overall rate of vertical transmission was estimated to be 44.4%, varying from 0% t ...200010857030
a european perspective on neospora caninum.since the identification of neospora caninum in 1984 as a parasite separate from toxoplasma gondii by bjerkas et al., and its subsequent characterization and classification in 1988 by dubey and co-workers, this parasite has attracted increasing attention, primarily as an important causative agent of abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs, but also as a complementary model system to t. gondii for investigating the basic biology of intracellular parasitism. during november 11-14, 199 ...200010927081
a polygen-adjuvanted killed neospora caninum tachyzoite preparation failed to prevent foetal infection in pregnant cattle following i.v./i.m. experimental tachyzoite challenge.cattle immunised with a polygen-adjuvanted killed neospora caninum tachyzoite preparation were previously shown to produce interferon (ifn)-gamma at levels similar to those of tachyzoite-infected cattle. in view of the critical role of ifn-gamma in resistance of mice to n. caninum infection, these results prompted us to test the polygen-adjuvanted preparation in pregnant cattle to determine whether it will be able to prevent foetal infection following an experimental tachyzoite challenge. seven ...200010980287
use of purified tachyzoite surface antigen p38 in an elisa to diagnose bovine neosporosis.affinity-purified 38 kda surface antigen of neospora caninum tachyzoites was used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to diagnose n. caninum-associated abortion in cattle. the specificity of this antigen was demonstrated by using sera from cattle experimentally infected with other apicomplexan parasites. in a panel of field sera, serological differences could be demonstrated between herds with epidemic and endemic abortions. optimal elisa cut-offs were determined for the dete ...200010996331
evidence of point-source exposure to neospora caninum and protective immunity in a herd of beef determine whether cows with evidence of previous infection with neospora caninum were less likely to abort or give birth prematurely during an outbreak of neosporosis, compared with herdmates with evidence of primary infection.200010997162
[clinical neosporosis in the dog: a review].neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that was first recognized in dogs in 1988. n. caninum may cause neuromuscular disease in dogs. later, it was discovered that n. caninum has a wide host range and is an important cause of abortion in cattle. in this article, the literature on n. caninum in the dog is reviewed, with emphasis on clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.200011060927
[the role of the dog in the epidemiology of neosporosis in cattle].neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that was discovered in a dog in 1988. since then, n. caninum has been demonstrated in a variety of animal species and it has been recognized as an important cause of abortion in cattle. an infection with n. caninum can be maintained in cattle herds for several generations by transplacental transmission from cow to calf. recently, it was demonstrated that dogs can act as definitive hosts of n. caninum and therefore may be a source of infecti ...200011060928
association of serologic status for neospora caninum with postweaning weight gain and carcass measurements in beef determine the seroprevalence for neospora caninum in a population of beef calves in a feedlot and the association of serologic status with postweaning weight gain and carcass measurements.200011061390
spatial associations among density of cattle, abundance of wild canids, and seroprevalence to neospora caninum in a population of beef determine the epidemiologic plausibility of a sylvatic transmission cycle for neospora caninum between wild canids and beef cattle.200011061391
neospora caninum-associated abortion in cattle: the time of experimentally-induced parasitaemia during gestation determines foetal survival.the parasite, neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle. it is transmitted vertically or horizontally and infection may result in abortion or the birth of a live, healthy but infected calf at full-term. only a proportion of infected cattle abort and the pathogenesis of abortion is not understood. groups of cattle were infected with 10(7) n. caninum tachyzoites intravenously at different times relative to gestation. intravenous inoculation was chosen to reproduce the putative h ...200011072897
serological investigation of an outbreak of neospora caninum-associated abortion in a dairy herd in southeastern united outbreak of neospora caninum-associated abortion occurred in a south carolina dairy wherein greater than 10% of the herd aborted over a 4-month period. of the total number of cows at mid-late gestation, nearly 40% (28/71) aborted while the remaining 60% (43/71) gave birth to normal calves. immunohistochemical examination of brain tissue from a subset of aborted fetuses confirmed n. caninum as the causative agent of abortion in these animals. a variety of serological assays, including indirect ...200011078940
delivery of neospora caninum surface protein, ncsrs2 (nc-p43), to mouse using recombinant vaccinia order to develop a vaccine against neospora caninum in dogs and cattle, we constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the n. caninum surface protein, ncsrs2 (nc-p43). monoclonal antibodies to ncsrs2 and anti-n. caninum tachyzoite mouse serum recognized the ncsrs2 expressed by the recombinant vaccinia virus. in addition, recombinant ncsrs2 was transported to the cell surface. mice infected with the recombinant virus predominantly produced igg1 antibody (ab) to n. caninum, rather than ...200011097303
postnatal neosporosis in dairy cattle in northeast thailand.a total of 83 dairy cows in loei province (muang) and nong bua lamphu (nbl) province, northeast thailand were sampled three times within 6 months in 1998 and their sera were examined for antibodies to neospora caninum at a dilution of 1:100 in the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). in muang the seroprevalence of n. caninum was 37.5% (june), 60% (august), and 62.5% (november). in nbl the prevalence was 50% (august) and 70% (november). in both areas abortions were observed between 1 and 3 ...200111113552
neospora caninum in cattle. m. mcallister et al. (2000) evidence of point-source exposure to neospora caninum and protective immunity in a herd of beef cows. j. am. vet. med. assoc. 217, 881-887 200011121844
neospora then and now: prevalence of neospora caninum in maritime canada in 1979, 1989, and 1998.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum was compared among new brunswick, nova scotia, and prince edward island in 1998, 1989, and 1979. in 1998, the seroprevalence was lowest in prince edward island, where it was the same as in 1989. neospora caninum was present in 1979, but at a lower prevalence.200011126492
do cows protect fetuses from neospora caninum transmission? 200111137733
detection of igg antibody against neospora caninum in cattle in korea.a total of 492 cattle sera was screened by igg-elisa against neospora caninum (nc-1 strain and a korean isolate, kba-2) and toxoplasma gondii. out of 492, 113 sera (23.0%) reacted positively to either nc-1 or kba-2 strains of n. caninum. among the 113 positive sera, 92 sera (81.4%) reacted with antigens of both strains, but 6 sera (5.3%) with nc-1 and 15 sera (13.3%) with kba-2 strain only. and with t. gondii antigen, 6 sera (1.2%) were positive but all reacted with n. caninum antigen also. west ...200011138317
isolation of neospora caninum genes detected during a chronic murine order to isolate genes coding for antigens of neospora caninum which are recognised by the host immune system during a chronic murine infection, a cdna library was immunoscreened with pooled sera from mice which survived three independent infections by n. caninum. two new genes from n. caninum were isolated and expressed in escherichia coli. the genes identified include one homologous to gra1 of toxoplasma gondii, plus another (ncp20) previously unknown in any taxon. both genes encode small p ...200111165273
prevention of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in balb/c mice by recombinant vaccinia virus carrying ncsrs2 gene.neospora caninum infection is the major cause of bovine abortion. to develop a vaccine against n. caninum infection, recombinant vaccinia viruses carrying ncsrs2 and ncsag1 genes (vv/nc-p43 and vv/nc-p36, respectively) were constructed and were tested in a mouse model. vaccination of dams with vv/nc-p43 appeared to confer effective protection against vertical transmission to offspring, though that with vv/nc-p36 only provided partial protection. moreover, the vv/nc-p43 vaccination provoked cellu ...200111166895
serological analysis of calves experimentally infected with neospora caninum: a 1-year study.a serological study was conducted with calves experimentally infected with the protozoan parasite neospora caninum. the animals were inoculated with either a low or high dose of n. caninum tachyzoites and temperature responses monitored daily for the first 2 weeks after inoculation. blood samples were collected before inoculation, and at regular intervals thereafter for 1 year. serological analysis was achieved using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent as ...200111182233
neosporosis. aspects of epidemiology and host immune response.neospora caninum is a recently recognized protozoan parasite which has been described as causing a neuromuscular paralysis in dogs and is emerging as a major cause of bovine infertility and abortion worldwide. the parasite is known to infect a range of warm blooded animals but the disease predominates in dogs and cattle. it is not yet known if n. caninum can infect and cause disease in people. the dog has recently been identified as the definitive host and the parasite may be transmitted through ...200011193706
efficacy of toltrazuril and ponazuril against experimental neospora caninum infection in mice.neosporosis is a disease affecting predominantly fetal development in cattle and dog hosts; and it may cause neuromuscular disfunction in infected newborn calves and pups. predispositions--including, e.g. transient immunosuppression during pregnancy--may result in an increased dissemination of the parasite within the host or its offspring. chemotherapeutic treatment of neosporosis may be an issue, provided that an appropriate drug is made available. in this respect, we describe the use of a mous ...200111199848
evidence of post-natal transmission of neospora caninum in dutch dairy herds.eighteen dairy herds with neosporosis-associated abortions were analysed for antibodies against neospora caninum. blood samples of all cows, heifers and calves were collected on the same day for each farm. a total of 2430 heads of cattle were examined. for each herd, the seropositive and seronegative animals were plotted against month of birth. analysis of seroprevalence in relation to age showed an equal distribution of seropositives in all age-groups in 10 herds. in contrast, in eight herds an ...200111239942
immunity to experimental neosporosis in pregnant sheep.neospora caninum is an important cause of fetal loss in cattle but has also infrequently been shown to cause disease in sheep and goats. experimental infection of pregnant sheep with n. caninum causes clinical and pathological changes very similar to those of neosporosis in cattle. an experiment in sheep was undertaken to examine whether infection with n. caninum before pregnancy conferred immunity to subsequent challenge with the parasite during pregnancy. primary inoculation of nc1 tachyzoites ...200111240899
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in beef cattle in northern alberta.blood samples were collected from 1806 pregnancy-tested cows from 174 herds at a northern alberta auction mart in the fall of 1998. one hundred sixty-two (9.0%) of these samples were positive for antibodies to n. caninum. thirty-five of 260 samples (13.5%) collected from the same region in the 1980s were also serologically positive for n. caninum.200111272457
rare detection of neospora caninum in placentas from seropositive dams giving birth to full-term calves.neospora caninum is thought to be transmitted to cattle by dogs, the only known definitive host. although aborted fetuses seem the most likely source of infective material for dogs, placentas from seropositive dams appear also as a potential source of infective material. the objective of the study was to evaluate the presence of n. caninum organisms in placentas of full-term calves born to seropositive cows. sixteen placentas, 11 from neospora-seropositive cows, were examined histologically and ...200111289218
a stochastic model for disease transmission in a managed herd, motivated by neospora caninum amongst dairy cattle.a stochastic model for the spread of neospora caninum infection within a herd of dairy cattle is studied, in particular the long-term (equilibrium) behaviour of the model. the model incorporates the interesting feature that total herd size is constrained to lie within a fairly small interval, but not held exactly constant. approximations for the joint distribution of numbers of susceptible and infected individuals present in equilibrium are derived based upon a diffusion approximation to the inf ...200111292494
characterization of the oregon isolate of neospora hughesi from a horse.neospora hughesi was isolated in cell cultures inoculated with homogenate of spinal cord from a horse in oregon. tachyzoites of this oregon isolate of n. hughesi were maintained continuously by cell culture passage and tachyzoites were infective to immunosuppressed mice. gamma interferon gene knockout (ko) mice injected with tachyzoites developed fatal myocarditis and numerous tachyzoites were seen in lesions. gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) inoculated with tachyzoites developed antibodies (> or ...200111318565
experimental studies on the transmission of neospora caninum between cattle.three studies were conducted to investigate the transmission of neospora caninum between cattle by the oral route. in the first study, six calves were dosed with 10(7)n caninum tachyzoites (nc livb1) in colostrum and/or milk replacer on four occasions. in the second study, two calves and two cows were fed placental tissues from n caninum -infected cows, and, in the third study, seven uninfected calves were fostered onto n caninum -infected dams. in the first study, all six calves developed antib ...200111356096
failure of dogs to shed oocysts after being fed bovine fetuses naturally infected by neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan that causes abortion in cattle. the dog has recently been identified as a definitive host for n. caninum. to verify if bovine fetuses can infect dogs, nine 2-4-month-old dogs were fed bovine fetuses naturally infected by n. caninum. none of the dogs excreted oocysts, seroconverted, had clinical signs or lesions compatible with n. caninum infection. additional studies will be necessary to determine the natural mode of infection of dogs by n. caninum.200111358630
reproductive performance of a cow-calf herd following a neospora caninum-associated abortion epidemic.this study examines the long-term impact of a neospora caninum-associated abortion outbreak in a large cow-calf herd in northern alberta. blood samples were collected 4 times from all bred females and heifer calves born during the spring before the outbreak: (1) at the time of the outbreak, (2) the following spring, (3) the subsequent fall, and, finally, (4) the second spring after the outbreak. the samples were analyzed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for n. can ...200111360856
evaluation of the embryo transfer procedure proposed by the international embryo transfer society as a method of controlling vertical transmission of neospora caninum in evaluate efficacy of embryo transfer into seronegative recipients, using the procedure proposed by the international embryo transfer society (iets), for preventing vertical transmission of neospora caninum in cattle.200111394835
bovine abortion associated with neospora caninum in hungary.the authors report the first case of bovine neosporosis in hungary based on investigations made on an aborted fetus. the diagnostic methods included traditional as well as molecular techniques. this record extends further the geographic range of the disease.200111402646
dogs shed neospora caninum oocysts after ingestion of naturally infected bovine placenta but not after ingestion of colostrum spiked with neospora caninum experiment was carried out to determine whether bovine colostrum or placenta could be a source of infection of neospora caninum for dogs. for this purpose, two dogs were fed bovine colostrum to which culture-derived n. caninum tachyzoites were added and two other dogs were fed placental cotyledonary tissue from n. caninum seropositive cows. one dog served as a negative control during the start of the experiment but this control dog was fed cotyledonary tissue later on. none of the dogs did pr ...200111403764
first isolation of neospora caninum from the feces of a naturally infected dog.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. cattle become infected with n. caninum by ingesting oocysts from the environment or transplacentally from dam to fetus. experimentally, dogs can act as definitive hosts, but dogs excrete few oocysts after ingesting tissue cysts. a natural definitive host was unknown until now. in the present study, n. caninum was isolated from the feces of a dog. gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) fed feces from the dog developed antibodies to n. ca ...200111426726
immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evidence for neospora caninum tissue cysts in skeletal muscles of naturally infected dogs and cattle.protozoan stages were detected in the skeletal muscles of four dogs suffering from neosporosis and two neonatal calves with confirmed neospora caninum- infection which could be immunohistochemically labelled by an antiserum against the bradyzoite-specific antigen bag-5. in one calf, a tissue cyst was labelled by an antiserum against the n. caninum isolate nc-1. ultrastructurally, a 0.3-1 microm-thick cyst wall surrounded the labelled parasites. the cysts were located within myofibres and contain ...200111429181
neosporosis in mexican dairy herds: lesions and immunohistochemical detection of neospora caninum in fetuses.of 211 aborted bovine fetuses collected from mexican dairy herds between january 1996 and march 1999, 73 showed microscopical lesions consistent with neosporosis. of these 73 fetuses, 58 (79%) showed lymphocytic myocarditis, 39 (53%) showed microgliosis and multifocal necrosis in the brain, 39 (53%) showed lymphocytic hepatitis, and 19 (26%) showed lymphocytic myositis. immunohistochemical examination of brain, myocardium and liver from 53 of the same 73 fetuses demonstrated neospora caninum ant ...200111437517
genetic and biological diversity among isolates of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes bovine abortion. the epidemiology of n. caninum is poorly understood and little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite, or whether individual isolates differ in virulence. such diversity may, among other factors, underlie the range of pathologies seen in cattle. in this study we analysed biological and genetic variation in 6 isolates of n. caninum originating from canine and bovine hosts by measurement of growth rate in vitro, we ...200111467779
prevalence of neospora caninum infection in dogs from beef-cattle farms, dairy farms, and from urban areas of argentina.prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies was determined in sera of 320 dogs from argentina using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). antibodies to n. caninum were found in 121 of 320 (37.8%) sera with titers of 1:50 (21 dogs), 1:100 (23 dogs), 1:200 (23 dogs), 1:400 (17 dogs), 1:800 (23 dogs), and > or = 1:1.600 (14 dogs). the seropositivity (ifat, > or = 1:50) was higher in dogs from dairy (48% of 125) and beef (54.2% of 35) farms than in dogs from urban areas (26.2% of 160). p ...200111534656
oocyst excretion in dogs fed mouse brains containing tissue cysts of a cloned line of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neonatal neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. bovine neosporosis is a major production problem worldwide. the parasite is transmitted to cattle via oocysts excreted by dogs or by transplacental transmission. dogs are the only proven definitive host for n. caninum. one of 3 dogs fed mouse brains containing tissue cysts of a wild-type n. caninum strain ck0160sc3b (cko) excreted oocysts in its feces. two of 3 dogs fed mouse ...200111534658
association between exposure to neospora caninum and milk production in dairy determine association between exposure to neospora caninum and milk production in dairy cows.200111549092
ranch-management factors associated with antibody seropositivity for neospora caninum in consignments of beef calves in texas, usa.a study was conducted with a 1998 retained-ownership population of texas (usa) beef calves to determine the ranch-management practices associated with calf seroprevalence to neospora caninum. management practices of 76 texas ranches that consigned 760 calves to a retained-ownership feedlot program were reviewed from a mailed questionnaire. ninety-nine of 760 (13%; 95% ci, 9.4%, 17.7%) calves were positive to n. caninum and 59% of the ranches consigned at least one positive calf. in the logistic ...200111566378
epidemiological pattern and risk factors associated with bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (bvdv) infection in a non-vaccinated dairy-cattle population from the asturias region of spain.a survey of bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (bvdv) infection was carried out in a non-vaccinated cattle population from the asturias region of spain in 1997 to assess seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with infection. twenty-eight herds were included; 529 cows were bled. information regarding the herd and each animal sampled were recorded through a personal interview with the farmer. the true prevalence was estimated to be 21%. according to the antibody-age profiles and the herd-ma ...200111566379
seroprevalence study of bovine neosporosis in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to obtain epidemiologic information on bovine neosporosis in dairy herds of the mexican central plateau. sera were collected from 1,003 cows from 50 dairy herds. forty-three herds (group a) had been experiencing a high abortion rate. the abortion rates for the remaining 7 herds (group b) were within normal limits for mexico. five-hundred sixty-one (56%) of the 1,003 sera were positive. the seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies was 72 ...200111580063
determination of antigenic domain in gst fused major surface protein (nc-p43) of neospora caninum.the antigenic domain of the major surface protein (nc-p43) of neospora caninum was examined by polymerase chain reaction of its gene fragments and recombinant expression as gst fusion proteins. the fragments of nc-p43 were as follow: a total open reading frame (ofr), t; ofr without signal sequence and c-terminal hydrophobic sequence, s; n-terminal 2/3 parts of s, a; c-terminal 2/3 parts, p; n-terminal 1/3 part, x; middle 1/3 part, y; and c-terminal 1/3 part, z, respectively. the dna fragments we ...200111590914
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