bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in chadian cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb) today primarily affects developing countries. in africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for btb in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. however, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for th ...200920011046
farm husbandry and badger behaviour: opportunities to manage badger to cattle transmission of mycobacterium bovis?bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a serious disease of cattle in the uk in terms of the economic impact on the farming industry. the disease has proven difficult to control in the cattle population and the eurasian badger (meles meles) is a source of infection. in recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential to employ farm husbandry and biosecurity practices to reduce btb transmission risks. here we review the potential routes of btb transmission between badgers and cattle and explo ...201019846226
evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using milk samples as a potential screening test of bovine tuberculosis of dairy cows in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using bulk tank milk samples was evaluated as a screening test for bovine tuberculosis (tb), a contagious chronic disease of cattle. an elisa with mpb70, a major antigen of mycobacterium bovis was performed using paired sets of milk and sera samples from 33 tuberculin-positive and 43 tuberculin-negative cattle. anti-mpb70 antibodies were detected in milk samples and there was a significant correlation between seroreactivities of milk and sera samples ...201020060551
comparison of different testing schemes to increase the detection mycobacterium bovis infection in ethiopian immune responses to mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) infection are variable at the different severity stages of pathology of the disease. in countries like ethiopia, where routine screening of bovine tb is not undertaken, the use of tests which measure cellular and antibody responses may help for the maximum detection of infection. in the present study, 701 cattle were tested for bovine tuberculosis (btb) using comparative intradermal tuberculin (cidt) test, interferon (ifn)-gamma test, and l ...201019757135
tuberculosis infection in animal and human populations in three districts of western gojam, ethiopia.tuberculosis concurrent infection in cattle and their respective owners in north-western ethiopia had been investigated. two hundred and ten cattle owners and 1220 heads of their cattle were included in the study to determine degree of tuberculosis infection in cattle owned by tuberculosis patients and tuberculosis patients. comparative intradermal tuberculin test, bacteria culturing, acid fast staining and biochemical tests were used to conduct the study. the prevalence of tuberculosis was sign ...201119912606
using bcg, mpt-51 and ag85 as antigens in an indirect elisa for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.this study evaluated the mycobacterium tuberculosis protein antigen mpt-51, the trimeric antigen 85 (ag85) complex, and bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) in an indirect elisa to diagnose bovine tuberculosis (tb) from serum samples. serum was collected from 208 intra-dermal tuberculin test (itt)-positive and 54 itt-negative animals from a region where bovine tb is endemic. using the ag85 and bcg antigens, the indirect elisa was able to discriminate itt-positive from itt-negative animals. this level ...201120022773
gold nanoprobe assay for the identification of mycobacteria of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.members of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtc) are causative agents of human and animal tuberculosis. this complex encompasses several phylogenetically related species, including m. tuberculosis, the main aetiological agent of human tuberculosis, and mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, a relevant worldwide zoonosis. clear epidemiological evaluation of appropriate and effective treatment requires unambiguous differentiation between mtc members. routine diagno ...201019930276
molecular typing of mycobacterium bovis isolates in argentina: first description of a person-to-person transmission case.bovine tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium bovis, a mycobacterium highly similar to m. tuberculosis that belongs to the m. tuberculosis complex. the main host of m. bovis is cattle but it also affects many other mammalians including humans. tuberculosis in humans caused by either m. bovis or m. tuberculosis is clinically hard to distinguish. during 2004-2005, samples from 448 patients with diagnosis of tb were collected from different regions of argentina. the pra technique identified 400 is ...201019912616
intradermal tuberculin testing of wild african lions (panthera leo) naturally exposed to infection with mycobacterium bovis.african lions in the southern half of kruger national park (knp) are infected with mycobacterium bovis. historically, reliable detection of mycobacteriosis in lions was limited to necropsy and microbiological analysis of lesion material collected from emaciated and ailing or repeat-offender lions. we report on a method of cervical intradermal tuberculin testing of lions and its interpretation capable of identifying natural exposure to m. bovis. infected lions (n=52/95) were identified by detaile ...201020188497
correlation between lymph node pathology and chemokine expression during bovine tuberculosis.bovine tuberculosis is a disease of worldwide importance yet comparatively little is known about chemokine responses to infection. we report on the levels of chemokine expression within lymph nodes of cattle infected with mycobacterium bovis when infection would be well established. expression levels of a number of chemokines were increased in infected cattle and could be correlated to levels of respective chemokine receptors. several chemokines were significantly correlated to pathology within ...200919926028
production and characterization of two monoclonal antibodies to bovine tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha) and their cross-reactivity with ovine tnf-alpha.tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha) is an innate pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in protection against intracellular pathogens. existing methods for measuring tnf-alpha production and function in ruminants are limited to elisa and many rely on polyclonal antisera. with a view to developing improved detection methods for bovine (bov) tnf-alpha, monoclonal antibodies (mab) were produced by immunising mice with a plasmid encoding bov tnf-alpha. two of the resulting mab, termed cc327 and cc3 ...201020207016
evidence of genetic resistance of cattle to infection with mycobacterium bovis.anecdotal evidence points to genetic variation in resistance of cattle to infection with mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb), and published experimental evidence in deer and cattle suggests significant genetic variation in resistance and reactivity to diagnostic tests. however, such genetic variation has not been properly quantified in the united kingdom dairy cattle population; it is possible that it exists and may be a factor influencing the occurrence of btb. ...201020172243
sensitivity, specificity, and confounding factors of novel serological tests used for the rapid diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).in this study, novel serological tests were used to detect tuberculosis (tb) in groups of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) varying in disease status or possible confounding factors. groups of deer naturally or experimentally infected with mycobacterium bovis and animals vaccinated against paratuberculosis were studied, as were uninfected animals and animals naturally or experimentally infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. sera were assayed using two rapid lateral-flow tests, ...201020164247
bovine tuberculosis in buffaloes, southern africa. 201020409396
tracing the origins of mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis in humans in the usa to cattle in mexico using compare genotypes of mycobacterium bovis strains from humans in southern california with genotypes of m. bovis strains in cattle in mexico and the usa to explore the possible origins of human infections.201020399697
chicken scfvs and bivalent scfv-c(h) fusions directed against hsp65 of mycobacterium bovis.two chicken single-chain variable region antibody fragments (scfvs) that recognised the 65 kda heat-shock protein (hsp65) of mycobacterium bovis were selected from a large semi-synthetic phage displayed library. both recognised hsp65 in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and immunoblots and retained their activity during storage. neither, however, could function as the capture reagent in a sandwich elisa when immobilised on polystyrene. to establish whether they could be engineer ...201020299243
bovine tuberculosis: the genetic basis of host susceptibility.the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (btb) in the uk remains a significant economic burden and problem for the agri-food industry. much effort has been directed towards improving diagnostics, finding vaccine candidates and assessing the usefulness of badger culling. the contribution that host genotype makes to disease outcome has, until recently, been overlooked; yet, it is biologically untenable that genetic variation does not play a role. in this review, we highlight the evidence, past and pr ...201020519223
primary tooth abscess caused by mycobacterium bovis in an immunocompetent child.bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease, and although its incidence has dramatically decreased in developed countries where effective control measures are applied, it still remains a potential health hazard in the developing world. tuberculosis of the oral cavity is extremely rare and is usually secondary to pulmonary involvement. we present the unusual case of an immunocompetent 6-year-old child residing in an urban area with primary oral tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis, which was con ...201020437277
risk factors for herd breakdown with bovine tuberculosis in 148 cattle herds in the south west of england.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is caused by mycobacterium bovis. the disease has a long latent period, heterogenous spread, can infect many species and can persist in the environment. in the uk, the rate of herd breakdowns (hbd) with btb is increasing. a retrospective cohort study of 148 cattle herds was set up to investigate risk factors for hbd from october 2001 to november 2004. herds were selected from farms located in the randomised badger culling trial (rbct) and comprised holdings (24%) that w ...201020399521
[zoonotic aspects of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis].pathogens transmitting between the environment, wildlife, livestock and humans are major health concerns for human and domestic animal and in addition, for the sustainability of agriculture and the conservation of wildlife. among pathogens causing zoonosis, genus mycobacterium including mycobacterium tuberculosis, m. bovis, m. avium is thought to be important. the most important bacteria as an etiological agent of zoonosis in genus mycobacterium is m. bovis. m. bovis is the causative agent of bo ...201020229820
tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis in a camargue horse. 201020400743
development of a skin test for bovine tuberculosis for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.the tuberculin skin test has been used for the diagnosis of bovine and human tuberculosis (tb) for over a hundred years. however, the specificity of the test is compromised by vaccination with the mycobacterium bovis-derived vaccine strain bacille calmette-guérin (bcg). since current promising vaccines against bovine tb are based on heterologous prime-boost combinations that include bcg, there is a need for diagnostic tests for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva). the applica ...201020592155
time dependent expression of cytokines in mycobacterium bovis infected cattle lymph nodes.advancements in the current diagnostic and vaccination protocols employed against bovine tuberculosis rely heavily upon a sound knowledge of the bovine immunological response. central to this is the importance of timing in the cellular immune profile and how this dynamic process evolves post-mycobacterium bovis challenge. in the present study, we quantitatively analysed mrna expression of interferon gamma (ifn-γ), tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnf-α) and interleukins (il) 4 and 10 within select ...201020696483
a case of generalized bovine tuberculosis in a sheep.the present report describes a rare case of generalized bovine-type tuberculosis in a slaughtered 4-year-old ewe discovered during routine surveillance at an abattoir. a postmortem examination revealed lesions in the ewe's thoracic and abdominal cavities, ranging from encapsulated, mineralized foci to extensive, soft, caseous tissue. lesions in the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes were consistent with mycobacterial infection. a histopathological examination detected granulomatous lesions in all tis ...201020453224
an outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in an intensively managed conservation herd of wild bison in the northwest outbreak of bovine tuberculosis was detected in the hook lake wood bison recovery project captive-breeding herd in march 2005. this study investigates the most likely source of mycobacterium bovis and identifies difficulties associated with salvaging tuberculosis-free animals from an endemically infected herd.201020808568
identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in bangladesh by a species distinguishable multiplex pcr.species identification of isolates belonging to the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtc) seems to be important for the appropriate treatment of patients, since m. bovis is naturally resistant to a first line anti-tuberculosis (tb) drug, pyrazinamide, while most of the other mtc members are susceptible to this antimicrobial agent. a simple and low-cost differentiation method was needed in higher tb burden countries, such as bangladesh, where the prevalence of m. bovis among people or cattle h ...201020470432
molecular typing of mycobacterium bovis isolated from tuberculosis lesions of cattle in north eastern ethiopia.mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from tuberculosis (tb) lesions from 1138 cattle slaughtered at kombolcha abattoir in north eastern ethiopia were characterised. detailed postmortem examination, bacteriological culturing, regions of difference pcr and spoligotyping were used. at least one tb lesion was observed in 57 (5 per cent) of the cattle, of which 27 (47 per cent) yielded mycobacteria isolates. of the 27 isolates, 25 were identified as m bovis and two as mycobacterium tuberculosis. the ...201020656993
oral vaccination of badgers (meles meles) with bcg and protective immunity against endobronchial challenge with mycobacterium bovis.eurasian badgers (meles meles) are a reservoir host of mycobacterium bovis and are implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle in ireland and great britain. the development of a vaccine for use in badgers is considered a key element of any long-term sustainable campaign to eradicate the disease from livestock in both countries. the aim of this study was to investigate the protective response of badgers vaccinated orally with bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) encapsulated in a lipid form ...201020637774
screening of predicted secreted antigens from mycobacterium bovis identifies potential novel differential diagnostic date, the most promising vaccination strategies for the control of bovine tuberculosis (tb) focus on improving the efficacy of mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg). however, vaccination with bcg results in sensitization of animals to bovine tuberculin and compromises tests currently used for diagnosis of bovine tb infection. thus, the development of specific diagnostic reagents capable of discriminating between infected and uninfected vaccinated animals (diva) is of high priorit ...201020668139
expression of mpb83 from mycobacterium bovis in brucella abortus s19 induces specific cellular immune response against the recombinant antigen in balb/c mice.immunodominant mpb83 antigen from mycobacterium bovis was expressed as a chimeric protein fused to either β-galactosidase, outer membrane lipoprotein omp19 or periplasmic protein bp26 in gram-negative brucella abortus s19, in all cases driven by each gene's own promoter. all fusion proteins were successfully expressed and localized in the expected subcellular fraction. moreover, omp19-mpb83 was processed as a lipoprotein when expressed in b. abortus. splenocytes from balb/c mice immunized with t ...201020888425
bcg vaccination failed to protect yearling african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) against experimental intratonsilar challenge with mycobacterium bovis.vaccination has been discussed as a practical option to control bovine tuberculosis in countries where a wildlife reservoir of the disease is present. african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) are the main wildlife reservoir of mycobacterium bovis in certain south african game parks and vaccination is not only the most promising but the only ethically acceptable control measure currently available. the use of bacillus calmette-guérin vaccine (pasteur strain) to vaccinate fourteen african buffalo yearl ...201020684850
transcriptional profiling of immune genes in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to bacterial antigens.the involvement of toll-like receptors (tlrs) and other immune signalling genes during challenge of bovine macrophages with bacterial products derived from disease-causing bacteria in cattle was investigated. an in vitro cell culture model of bovine monocyte derived macrophages (mdm) was established and these cells were exposed to purified protein derivative (ppd-b) derived from mycobacterium bovis and to lipopolysaccharide (lps) derived from escherichia coli. following 24h incubation, total rna ...201021242003
bacillus calmette-guerin vaccination reduces the severity and progression of tuberculosis in badgers.control of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in cattle has proven particularly challenging where reservoirs of infection exist in wildlife populations. in britain and ireland, control is hampered by a reservoir of infection in eurasian badgers (meles meles). badger culling has positive and negative effects on bovine tb in cattle and is difficult, costly and controversial. here we show that bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) vaccination of captive badgers reduced the progression, severity and excretion of myc ...201021123260
controlling bovine tb. 201021257472
use of the intradermal tuberculin test in a herd of captive elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) naturally infected with mycobacterium the united states, tuberculosis of captive cervids, caused by mycobacterium bovis, attracted attention in 1991 when investigations, prompted by the identification of a tuberculous elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) of u.s. origin exported to canada, revealed tuberculosis in 10 different elk herds in 8 different states. based on methods used in cattle, official regulations pertaining to testing and eradication of tuberculosis in captive cervids were added to the u.s. department of agriculture bovine ...201121398465
molecular characterization of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtbc) isolated from cattle in northeast and northwest china.we studied throat swabs and corresponding serum samples collected from 1067 protein purified derivative (ppd)-tuberculin skin test (tst) positive cattle from different regions of china. the 1067 throat swabs were inoculated onto modified löwenstein-jensen medium for the isolation and culture of mycobacteria. acid-fast bacilli were identified using traditional biochemical methods, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification and multiplex pcr. they were distinguished as mycobacterium tuberculosi ...201120797738
genetic correlations between measures of mycobacterium bovis infection and economically important traits in irish holstein-friesian dairy cows.mycobacterium bovis is the primary agent of tuberculosis (tb) in cattle. the failure of ireland and some other countries to reach tb-free status indicates a need to investigate complementary control strategies. one such approach would be genetic selection for increased resistance to tb. previous research has shown that considerable genetic variation exists for susceptibility to the measures of m. bovis infection, confirmed m. bovis infection, and m. bovis-purified protein derivative (ppd) respon ...201020965357
[statistical analysis of distribution of antibody level against mycobacterium bovis antigens for bovine tuberculosis diagnostics].antibody responses to purified protein derivate ppd of tuberculin and to antigens mpb63 and mpb83 of mycobacterium bovis were determined in bovine herd (94 adult animals). statistical approach based on approximation by multiple gaussians with levenberg-marquardt algorithm for analysis of antibody level distribution against antigens examined was provided. our results confirm that indirect elisa with recombinant mpb83 and mpb63 as well as conventional ppd could be used for test-systems development ...201021061689
advances in molecular diagnostics for mycobacterium bovis.the two most important molecular diagnostic techniques for bovine tuberculosis are the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) because of its rapid determination of infection, and dna strain typing because of its ability to answer important epidemiological questions. pcr tests for mycobacterium bovis have been improved through recent advances in pcr technology, but still lack the sensitivity of good culture methods, and in some situations are susceptible to giving both false negative and false positive ...201121420257
use of recombinant proteins mpb70 or mpb83 as capture antigens in elisas to confirm bovine tuberculosis infections in brazil.the objective was to evaluate the use of two indirect igg-elisa tests (with recombinant proteins mpb70 or mpb83, respectively, as capture antigens) as confirmatory tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a herd of naturally infected dairy cows. results for elisa-mpb70 and elisa-mpb83 were similar (kappa statistic=0.92) on days 0 (day of intradermal injection with purified protein derivatives, ppd), 7, and 21. the kappa statistic between elisa and the comparative intradermal tuberculin test ...201121420374
antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mycobacterium bovis isolates from michigan white-tailed deer during the 2009 hunting season.michigan has had an ongoing outbreak of endemic mycobacterium bovis which has been recognized within and sustained by its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. worldwide, organisms within the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have exhibited the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents, resulting in both the multidrug-resistant (mdr) and extensively drug-resistant (xdr) strains of human tuberculosis. michigan's bovine tuberculosis working group has conducted active a ...201021151656
molecular genotyping and epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis strains obtained from cattle in iran.restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) genotyping was employed to analyze the population genetics of mycobacterium bovis in iran. one hundred and twenty-three isolates collected from slaughtered tuberculosis-suspect cattle and one clinically asymptomatic buffalo were subjected to rflp analysis with probes of the polymorphic gc-rich sequence (pgrs) and the direct repeat sequence (dr) using dna digested with pvuii and alui. all these methods detected a large homogeneous population in whic ...201121501934
why has zoonotic tuberculosis not received much attention? 201020819248
exploring the use of molecular epidemiology to track bovine tuberculosis in nigeria: an overview from 2002 to 2004.tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in nigeria. while human to human transmission of mycobacterium tuberculosis is clearly of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic in nigeria, the impact of mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. molecular epidemiology of m. bovis in nigeria will increase our understanding of this endemic disease and provide tools to assess cattle-to-human transmission. between 2002 and 2004, molecular techniques i ...201121420254
evidence for genetic variance in resistance to tuberculosis in great britain and irish holstein-friesian, we jointly summarise scientific evidence for genetic variation in resistance to infection with mycobacterium bovis, the primary agent of bovine tuberculosis (tb), provided by two recent and separate studies of holstein-friesian dairy cow populations in great britain (gb) and ireland.201121645294
analysis of the spatial variation of bovine tuberculosis disease risk in spain (2006-2009).in this study we explored the spatial variation of bovine tuberculosis (btb) risk of being positive, new positive or persistently positive, as well as the risk of eliminating btb in positive herds throughout spain from 2006 to 2009 by means of hierarchical bayesian models. the results of the models showed that the risk of infection (positive or new positive herds), persistence and elimination was lower in counties located in north and north-eastern of spain, and in the balearic and canary island ...201121429605
tuberculosis in cattle herds are sentinels for mycobacterium bovis infection in european badgers (meles meles): the irish greenfield ireland badgers are removed in response to tuberculosis (tb) breakdowns in cattle herds (focal culling). prevalence studies, conducted using a detailed post mortem and bacteriological examination, showed that 36-50% of badgers were infected with mycobacterium bovis. focal culling forms part of the medium term national strategy for the control of bovine tb in cattle and is based on the premise that badgers in areas with herd breakdowns have a higher prevalence of infection than the badger popu ...201121444162
progress in the control of bovine tuberculosis in spanish wildlife.despite the compulsory test and slaughter campaigns in cattle, bovine tuberculosis (btb) is still present in spain, and the role of wildlife reservoirs is increasingly recognized. we provide an update on recent progress made in btb control in spanish wildlife, including aspects of epidemiology, surveillance, host-pathogen interaction and wildlife vaccination. at the high densities and in the particular circumstances of mediterranean environments, wild ungulates, mainly eurasian wild boar and red ...201121440387
farm-scale risk factors for bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds during the randomized badger culling trial.summarywe analysed the incidence of cattle herd breakdowns due to bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) in relation to experimental badger culling, badger populations and farm characteristics during the randomized badger culling trial (rbct). mixed modelling and event history analysis were used to examine the individual risk factors. the interdependencies of covariates were examined using structural equation modelling. there were consistent findings among the different analyses demonstrating ...201121439101
bovine tuberculosis and the establishment of an eradication program in the united states: role of veterinarians.the significance of the identification of mycobacterium bovis as a zoonotic pathogen in 1882 was not initially recognized. after years of research by veterinarians, and other scientists, the importance of m. bovis as a pathogen and the public health ramifications, were appreciated. veterinarians played pivotal roles in the creation of improved meat and milk inspection, diagnosis of m. bovis infected cattle, and in time, a bovine tuberculosis eradication program that would impact every cattle pro ...201121647341
preliminary data of different methods for the indirect diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection.we compared the response induced by quantiferon-tb gold antigens to that obtained with the intradermal comparative tuberculin test and bovigam assay. our results showed that the quantiferon-tb gold technique used in humans could also be applied for the diagnosis of tb infection in cattle.201121811754
primary mycobacterium bovis infection revealed by erythema nodosum.mycobacterium bovis is responsible for a zoonosis originating in cattle. this disease has rarely affected man in industrialised countries since the establishment of veterinary surveillance in cattle. we report the case of a young female patient who developed a mycobacterium bovis primary infection revealed by erythema nodosum. infection was probably due to the consumption of non-pasteurised milk in morocco. this clinical manifestation is rare and physicians ought to be aware of this imported pat ...201121740681
mycobacterium bovis in swine: spoligotyping of isolates from argentina.a total of 143 mycobacterium bovis isolates of pigs, from the most productive swine area in argentina, were typed by spoligotyping. twenty-two different spoligotypes were identified, and 133 (93%) isolates were grouped into 12 clusters. one of them, designed sb0140, was the most frequent because it held 83 (58%) isolates. this spoligotype also grouped 362 (43%) out of 841 isolates from previously typed cattle and, thus, constitutes the most frequent in our country. in addition, 135 (94%) isolate ...201121547236
Regulation of Mycobacterium-specific mononuclear cell responses by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.The active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), has been shown to be an important regulator of innate and adaptive immune function. In addition, synthesis of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25(OH)D(3)) by the enzyme 1+¦-hydroxylase in monocytes upon activation by TLR signaling has been found to regulate innate immune responses of monocytes in an intracrine fashion. In this study we wanted to determine what cells expressed 1+¦-hydroxylase in stimulated ...201121738762
evaluation of two mutants of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as candidates for a live attenuated vaccine for johne's disease.control of johne's disease, caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, has been difficult because of a lack of an effective vaccine. to address this problem we used targeted gene disruption to develop candidate mutants with impaired capacity to survive ex vivo and in vivo to test as a vaccine. we selected rela and pkng, genes known to be important virulence factors in mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium bovis, for initial studies. deletion mutants were made in a wild type ma ...201121565243
tuberculosis in alpaca (lama pacos) on a farm in ireland. 1. a clinical report.this case report describes tuberculosis (tb) due to infection with mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) in alpaca (lama pacos) on a farm in ireland. two severely debilitated alpaca were presented to the university veterinary hospital, university college dublin in november 2004. bloods were taken, and haematology and biochemistry results were indicative of chronic infection. radiological examination showed evidence of diffuse granulomatous pneumonia suggestive of tuberculosis. on necropsy there were gr ...200821851719
adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: response to early vaccination with mycobacterium bovis strain bacille calmette guerin and ovalbumin.responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are frequently characterized by marginal antibody (ab) responses. the present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. colostrum-fed (cf) and colostrum-deprived (cd) calves were vaccinated at 2 d of age with mycobacterium bovis, pasteur strain of bacille calmette guerin (bcg), and ovalbumin (ova) to track development of the adaptive immune response during the first 8 w ...201222192201
phosphatidylinositol di-mannoside and derivates modulate the immune response to and efficacy of a tuberculosis protein vaccine against mycobacterium bovis infection.mycobacterium bovis infects a wide range of hosts, including domestic livestock, wildlife, and humans. development of an effective vaccine protecting against bovine tuberculosis would provide a cost-effective tuberculosis control strategy. the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of phosphatidylinositol di-mannoside (pim(2)) and its derivatives to modulate cell-mediated immunity in vivo in a bovine tuberculosis mouse model in response to a relevant antigen, namely a fusion prot ...201222120192
Cytokine responses of Holstein and Sahiwal zebu derived monocytes after mycobacterial infection.Recently, we found that Holstein cattle (Bos taurus taurus) displayed higher skin test prevalence and disease severity compared to zebu (Bos taurus indicus) herd-mates kept under identical husbandry conditions in Ethiopia. To determine whether these susceptibility differences were patent at the level of the innate immune system, we infected monocytes from na+»ve Holstein or Sahiwal zebu cattle with either live virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis. The cytokine profile follo ...201121842135
evaluation of a lateral flow assay for the diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy cattle.a commercially available multi-antigen lateral flow assay (lfa) for detection of antibodies to mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by testing dairy cattle in baja california, méxico. sera and tissue samples were obtained from 268 dairy cattle at a slaughterhouse and were tested by lfa, bacteriological culture, and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). of 107 culture positive samples, 70 (65.4%) were positive by pcr and 49 (45.8%) were positive by lfa. the pcr and lfa gave positive results with an addit ...201222181821
The global distribution and phylogeography of Mycobacterium bovis clonal complexes.The consequences of the clonality of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are described and, in particular, the identification of clonal complexes. Clonal complexes are groups of strains all descended from a single cell that was the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the clonal complex and all bearing characteristics derived from the MRCA. Three clonal complexes of Mycobacterium bovis have been identified and called African 1, African 2 and European 1. Members of each clonal complex have a ...201121945588
Protection against bovine tuberculosis induced by oral vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG is not enhanced by co-administration of mycobacterial protein vaccines.Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) delivered to calves by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce protection against bovine tuberculosis. A study was conducted in cattle to determine if a combination of a low dose of oral BCG and a protein vaccine could induce protective immunity to tuberculosis while not sensitising animals to tuberculin. Groups of calves (10 per group) were vaccinated by administering 2 × 10(7)colony forming units (CFU) of ...201122005585
study of peripheral blood cell populations involved in the immune response of goats naturally infected with mycobacterium caprae.tuberculosis in goats caused by mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium caprae has noteworthy sanitary and economic implications. current diagnostic assays are based on cellular immunity and although they have demonstrated a high sensitivity, some animals remain undetected. in the present study, flow cytometry has been used to determine changes in cd4+, cd8+ and cd25+ t cell populations in peripheral blood from naturally infected goats. proportion of lymphocytes producing ppd-specific interferon-g ...201121689835
genome-wide transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood leukocytes from cattle infected with mycobacterium bovis reveals suppression of host immune genes.abstract: background: mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb), a pathological infection with significant economic impact. recent studies have highlighted the role of functional genomics to better understand the molecular mechanisms governing the host immune response to m. bovis infection. furthermore, these studies may enable the identification of novel transcriptional markers of btb that can augment current diagnostic tests and surveillance programmes. in the pr ...201122182502
characterization of the long-term immune response to vaccination against mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in danish dairy cows.vaccination of cattle against mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) provides partial protection by delayed shedding of map and reduced numbers of clinically affected animals. the duration of vaccine induced immune response is not known. the primary objective of this study was therefore to characterize the long-term effect of whole-cell based vaccination against map on the immune response. a secondary objective was to evaluate whether immunodiagnosis of map and mycobacterium bovis inf ...201122188784
Isolation and molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk in Tunisia.Consumption of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products is common in Tunisia where bovine tuberculosis remains enzootic. We herein investigated the frequency of M. bovis isolation from raw milk.201122135638
high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle in central ethiopia: implications for the dairy industry and public health.ethiopia has the largest cattle population in africa. the vast majority of the national herd is of indigenous zebu cattle maintained in rural areas under extensive husbandry systems. however, in response to the increasing demand for milk products and the ethiopian government's efforts to improve productivity in the livestock sector, recent years have seen increased intensive husbandry settings holding exotic and cross breeds. this drive for increased productivity is however threatened by animal ...201223285202
shorter-term risk of mycobacterium bovis in irish cattle following an inconclusive diagnosis to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin ireland, new cases of bovine tuberculosis (btb) are detected using both field and abattoir surveillance (more and good, 2006). field surveillance is conducted through annual testing of all cattle using the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (sictt). an animal may be deemed a 'standard inconclusive reactor' (sir) to the sictt if the bovine response is >2mm and between 1 and 4mm>the avian response. the herdowner then has three choices for the management of the sir: option 1 is to ha ...201121855153
Reduced spillover transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to feral pigs (Sus scofa) following population control of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).SUMMARYIn New Zealand, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is present in domestic cattle and deer herds primarily as the result of on-going disease transmission from the primary wildlife host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). However, bTB is also present in other introduced free-ranging mammalian species. Between 1996 and 2007, we conducted a series of studies to determine whether poison control of possum populations would have any effect on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in ...201121849098
post-mortem examination and laboratory-based analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis among dairy cattle in ecuador.veterinary inspection in slaughterhouses allows for the detection of macroscopic lesions reminiscent of bovine tuberculosis, but the presence of mycobacterium bovis must be confirmed by laboratory methods. this study aimed at comparing the performances of the standard diagnostic tools used to identify m. bovis in tissue specimens sampled from suspicious animals. during a two years period, 1390 cattle were inspected at the machachi abattoir in the mejia canton - ecuador. a total of 33 animals wit ...201121645934
wild boar tuberculosis in iberian atlantic spain: a different picture from mediterranean habitats.infections with mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtc) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (tb) eradication efforts. the eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) is a mtc maintenance host in mediterranean iberia (spain and portugal). however, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in atlantic regions. we describe the p ...201324010539
tuberculosis in alpaca (lama pacos) on a farm in ireland. 2. results of an epidemiological investigation.tuberculosis (tb), due to infection with mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in ireland in 2004. an epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of tb for farmed alpaca where tb is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. the investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice), the disease episode (inclu ...200821851720
admixture mapping of tuberculosis and pigmentation-related traits in an african-european hybrid cattle population.admixture mapping affords a powerful approach to genetic mapping of complex traits and may be particularly suited to investigation in cattle where many breeds and populations are hybrids of the two divergent ancestral genomes, derived from bos taurus and bos indicus. here we design a minimal genome wide snp panel for tracking ancestry in recent hybrids of holstein-friesian and local arsi zebu in a field sample from a region of high bovine tuberculosis (btb) endemicity in the central ethiopian hi ...201526124773
Characterization of tuberculous lesions in naturally infected African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).Tuberculosis pathology was studied on 19 African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) from a herd in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park in South Africa. The animals tested positive with the comparative intradermal tuberculin test and were euthanized during a test-and-cull operation to decrease prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the park. The lymph nodes and lungs were examined grossly for presence of tuberculous lesions, which were scored on a 0-5 scale for macroscopic changes. The gross lesions were exami ...201121908368
fasciola hepatica is associated with the failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a significant and intractable disease of cattle caused by mycobacterium bovis. in the united kingdom, despite an aggressive eradication programme, the prevalence of btb is increasing with an unexplained, exponential rise in cases year on year. here we show in a study involving 3,026 dairy herds in england and wales that there is a significant negative association between exposure to the common, ubiquitous helminth parasite, fasciola hepatica and diagnosis of btb. the ...201222617293
relationship of bovine tnf-α gene polymorphisms with the risk of bovine tuberculosis in holstein cattle.many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis), the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. tnf-α promotes inflammation and induces apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tnf-α gene on bovine tuberculosis (btb) susceptibility. we genotyped the tnf-α gene in 74 btb-infected holstein cows and ...201626876219
a genome-wide association study for genetic susceptibility to mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy cattle identifies a susceptibility qtl on chromosome 23.bovine tuberculosis (btb) infection in cattle is a significant economic concern in many countries, with annual costs to the uk and irish governments of approximately €190 million and €63 million, respectively, for btb control. the existence of host additive and non-additive genetic components to btb susceptibility has been established.201626960806
the potential for transmission of bcg from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) to cattle (bos taurus) through a contaminated environment: experimental findings.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. the risk of transmission of m. bovis bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. in order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×10(9) colony form ...201323565211
rna-seq transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood leukocytes from cattle infected with mycobacterium bovis.bovine tuberculosis, caused by infection with mycobacterium bovis, is a major endemic disease affecting cattle populations worldwide, despite the implementation of stringent surveillance and control programs in many countries. the development of high-throughput functional genomics technologies, including gene expression microarrays and rna-sequencing (rna-seq), has enabled detailed analysis of the host transcriptome to m. bovis infection, particularly at the macrophage and peripheral blood level ...201425206354
whole-transcriptome, high-throughput rna sequence analysis of the bovine macrophage response to mycobacterium bovis infection in vitro.mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, is an intracellular pathogen that can persist inside host macrophages during infection via a diverse range of mechanisms that subvert the host immune response. in the current study, we have analysed and compared the transcriptomes of m. bovis-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (mdm) purified from six holstein-friesian females with the transcriptomes of non-infected control mdm from the same animals over a 24 h period using stran ...201323565803
genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with resistance to bovine tuberculosis.tuberculosis (tb) caused by mycobacterium bovis is a re-emerging disease of livestock that is of major economic importance worldwide, as well as being a zoonotic risk. there is significant heritability for host resistance to bovine tb (btb) in dairy cattle. to identify resistance loci for btb, we undertook a genome-wide association study in female holstein-friesian cattle with 592 cases and 559 age-matched controls from case herds. cases and controls were categorised into distinct phenotypes: sk ...201424496092
mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody response, fecal shedding, and antibody cross-reactivity to mycobacterium bovis in m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cattle herds vaccinated against johne's disease.vaccination for johne's disease with killed inactivated vaccine in cattle herds has shown variable success. the vaccine delays the onset of disease but does not afford complete protection. johne's disease vaccination has also been reported to interfere with measurements of cell-mediated immune responses for the detection of bovine tuberculosis. temporal antibody responses and fecal shedding of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of johne's disease, were measured in 2 ...201424623626
cost-benefit analysis of vaccination against mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle, given its cross-reactivity with tuberculosis tests.johne's disease (jd), or paratuberculosis, is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants, caused by infection with mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map). johne's disease causes considerable economic losses to the us dairy industry, estimated to be over $200 million annually. available control strategies include management measures to improve calf hygiene, test-and-cull strategies, and vaccination. although the first 2 strategies have shown to reduce the prevalence of map, they require dedi ...201526117348
vaccination of calves with mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guerin reduces the frequency and severity of lesions of bovine tuberculosis under a natural transmission setting in ethiopia.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is highly prevalent in intensive dairy farms of the urban "milk-sheds" in ethiopia, and vaccination could be a cost-effective disease control strategy. in the present study, the efficacy of bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg) to protect against btb was assessed in holstein-friesian calves in a natural transmission setting. twenty-three 2-week-old calves were subcutaneously vaccinated with bcg danish ssi strain 1331, and matched 26 calves were injected with placebo. six weeks ...201728168855
genetic evaluation for bovine tuberculosis resistance in dairy cattle.genetic evaluations for resistance to bovine tuberculosis (btb) were calculated based on british national data including individual animal tuberculin skin test results, postmortem examination (presence of btb lesions and bacteriological culture for mycobacterium bovis), animal movement and location information, production history, and pedigree records. holstein cows with identified sires in herds with btb breakdowns (new herd incidents) occurring between the years 2000 and 2014 were considered. ...201727939547
effect of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) infection on the diagnostic accuracy for mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) infection under field conditions in cattle belonging to low m. bovis prevalence herds.currently, the chilean authority has implemented a national eradication program for bovine tuberculosis (btb), aimed at controlling and eradicating the disease in chile. the area under study has a low within-herd prevalence, has a relatively low number of infected herds, and is one of the major milk and beef producing areas in the country. however, so far, no attempts at eradicating the disease have been successful. it has been suggested that the diagnostic tests used were either not sensitive o ...201728281163
epidemiological tracing of bovine tuberculosis in switzerland, multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis of mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium caprae.after 15 years of absence, in 2013 bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium (m.) bovis and m. caprae, reemerged in the swiss dairy cattle population. in order to identify the sources of infection as well as the spread of the agents, molecular-epidemiologic tracing by miru-vntr analysis in combination with spoligotyping was performed. a total of 17 m. bovis and 7 m. caprae isolates were cultured from tuberculous bovine lymph nodes and analyzed with a set of 49 genetic markers by using a ...201728222182
limited antibody evidence of exposure to mycobacterium bovis in feral swine (sus scrofa) in the usa.bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium mycobacterium bovis . efforts have been made in the us to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. in particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some midwestern states. infection has also been documented in feral swine ( sus scrofa ) on the hawaiian island ...201727809647
responses to diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis in dairy and non-dairy cattle naturally exposed to mycobacterium bovis in great britain.field surveillance of british cattle using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (sicct) test shows a higher incidence rate of bovine tuberculosis (btb) in dairy compared to beef herds, but a lower probability of post-mortem examination confirmed (pmc) mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy herds. a cross-sectional study was conducted to compare animal level differences in btb detection between dairy and non-dairy cattle in great britain. during the period from 2002 to 2005, 200 ...201627687920
oral vaccination of cattle with heat inactivated mycobacterium bovis does not compromise bovine tb diagnostic this study we investigated whether oral uptake of a heat inactivated m. bovis wildlife vaccine by domestic cattle induced systemic immune responses that compromised the use of tuberculin or defined antigens in diagnostic tests for bovine tb. positive skin test and blood-based ifn-γ release assay (igra) results were observed in all calves vaccinated via the parenteral route (i.e. intramuscular). in contrast, no positive responses to tuberculin or defined antigens were observed in either the sk ...201627863556
isolation of mycobacterium bovis from free-ranging wildlife in south korea.we demonstrate mycobacterium bovis infection in wild boar ( sus scrofa ) in south korea. during 2012-15, we attempted to isolate m. bovis from 847 wild animals, mainly korean water deer ( hydropotes inermis argyropus), raccoon dogs ( nyctereutes procyonoides ), and wild boar, from 11 regions in south korea. we isolated m. bovis from three of 118 wild boar (2.5%) captured in gyeonggi province, where bovine tuberculosis (btb) outbreaks have also occurred in livestock. spoligotypes and mycobacteria ...201727809648
genetic analysis of the 3' untranslated region of the bovine slc11a1 gene reveals novel polymorphisms.polymorphisms in microsatellites at the 3' untranslated region (3'utr) of the slc11a1 (solute carrier family 11 member a1) gene have been associated with natural resistance to brucella abortus and mycobacterium bovis infection in livestock species. here, we carried out an individual genetic analysis of the two microsatellites present at the 3'utr slc11a1 gene in 254 bos taurus purebred, 125 b. indicus purebred and 54 b. taurus × b. indicus crossbred cattle. the genotyping by capillary electropho ...201323065223
molecular detection of mycobacterium bovis in cattle herds of the state of pernambuco, brazil.the present study aimed to direct detect mycobacterium bovis in milk (n = 401) and blood (n = 401) samples collected from 401 dairy cows of 20 properties located in the state of pernambuco, brazil, by real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) targeting the region of difference 4 (rd4). risk factors possibly associated with bovine tuberculosis (btb) were also evaluated.201626897524
knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding risk to human infection due to mycobacterium bovis among cattle farming communities in western uganda.a cross-sectional study involving multistage cluster sampling was undertaken in kashari county, mbarara district, western uganda, in which quantitative and qualitative approaches were utilized to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding risk of human infection with zoonotic tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis among cattle farmers. of 496 respondents, 50% were farm owners and 50% herdsmen. males were 70.9% of all the study participants. among these, 37.5% had good knowledge, ...201627178229
[mycobacterium bovis in wildlife of the dairy regions of santa fe (argentina)].control eradication campaigns of bovine tuberculosis based on the «test and slaughter» approach were successful in many countries and regions; however, in some areas the infection persists and one of the main reasons is mycobacterium bovis infection in wild life species. argentina has applied the same approach since 1999, achieving progress in dairy cattle herds. nonetheless, the wildlife role has never been investigated. the objective of this study was to determine if wildlife from the santa fe ...201526376835
extent of mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in south korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.identifying sources of mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (tb), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. as an effort to determine the extent of m. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (miru)-variable-number tandem repeats (vntr) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 m. bovis isolates from 59 holstein dairy cattle, ...201525676210
the evaluation of candidate biomarkers of cell-mediated immunity for the diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection in african buffaloes (syncerus caffer).we evaluated commercially available bovine enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) and a human ip-10 elisa to measure ip-10, mig, mcp-1, mcp-2, mcp-3 and il1-ra in buffalo plasma in order to identify sensitive markers of the immune response to mycobacterium bovis-specific peptides. additionally, we found that all coding mrna sequences of these cytokines showed very high homology with their homologues in domestic cattle (97-99%) as did the derived amino acid sequences (97-99%). this high seque ...201425464825
epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of tuberculosis in domestic cattle and deer in new zealand in the face of a wildlife reservoir.the control of tuberculosis (tb) in cattle and farmed deer in new zealand has been greatly influenced by the existence of a wildlife reservoir of mycobacterium bovis infection, principally the australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). the reduction in possum numbers in areas with endemic m. bovis infection through vigorous vector control operations has been a major contributor to the marked reduction in the number of infected cattle and farmed deer herds in the past two decades. manag ...201524992203
comparison of intervention methods for reducing human exposure to mycobacterium bovis through milk in pastoralist households of tanzania.bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, is a disease of zoonotic concern, especially in countries with no control programs in livestock and where routine pasteurization of milk is not practiced. in tanzania, btb is widespread in livestock and has been diagnosed in humans; however, herd btb testing is primarily carried out for btb-free certification in commercial dairy herds at the expense of the dairy cattle owner. for rural livestock holders, such an expense is prohibitive, an ...201424853050
evidence of increasing intra and inter-species transmission of mycobacterium bovis in south africa: are we losing the battle?tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis is recognized worldwide as a significant health risk in domestic cattle, farmed and wild animal species as well as in humans. we carried out spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeat (vntr) typing methods to characterize 490 m. bovis isolates from livestock (cattle, n=230; pig n=1) and wildlife species (n=259) originating from different farms and regions in south africa, with the aim to further establish the genetic diversity of the isolates, s ...201424703246
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