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low-dose mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle results in pathology indistinguishable from that of high-dose infection.to understand the relevance of aerogenic transmission for bovine tuberculosis, it is important to study cattle experimentally infected with low doses of mycobacterium bovis that result in pathology of the lower respiratory tract resembling that of most naturally infected cattle. in this study, we have compared and contrasted granuloma distribution and formation from cattle infected with low doses (1-1000 colony-forming units (cfu)) of m. bovis over 24 weeks. we also studied the expression of the ...200716723276
bovine tuberculosis infection in wild mammals in the south-west region of england: a survey of prevalence and a semi-quantitative assessment of the relative risks to cattle.in the united kingdom, badgers are implicated in the transmission of mycobacterium bovis to cattle, but little information is available on the potential role of other wild mammals. this paper presents the results of the largest systematic uk survey of m. bovis infection in other wild mammals. mammal carcasses (4715) from throughout the south-west region of england were subjected to a systematic post mortem examination, microbiological culture of tissues and spoligotyping of isolates. infection w ...200716434219
mycobacterium bovis identification by a molecular method from post-mortem inspected cattle obtained in abattoirs of mato grosso do sul, brazil.the presence of mycobacterium bovis in bovine carcasses with lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was evaluated. seventy-two carcass samples were selected during slaughter inspection procedures in abattoirs in the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil. seventeen (23.6%) of samples showed colonies suggestive of mycobacteria that were confirmed to be acid-fast bacilli by ziehl-neelsen staining. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers specific for m. bovis identified m. bovis in 13 (76.5%) isolat ...200616410964
cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis in a child with interleukin-12 receptor beta-1 deficiency.we report a patient with complete interleukin-12 receptor beta-1 deficiency associated with cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. the patient experienced bacille calmette guérin, mycobacterium chelonae, and salmonella enteritidis infection. vasculitis affecting both small arteries and postcapillary venules due to deposition of immune complexes was probably caused by s. enteritidis and/or m. chelonae infection.200616615980
differential response of splenic monocytes and dc from cattle to microbial stimulation with mycobacterium bovis bcg and babesia bovis merozoites.both bovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (dc) and myeloid dc from afferent lymph have been described, but resident dc from other bovine tissues have not been fully characterized. the spleen as a secondary lymphoid organ is central to the innate and acquired immune response to various diseases particularly hemoprotozoan infections like babesiosis. therefore, we developed methods to demonstrate the presence of myeloid dc from the spleen of cattle and have partially characteriz ...200717161869
selective delivery of rifampicin incorporated into poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres after phagocytotic uptake by alveolar macrophages, and the killing effect against intracellular mycobacterium bovis calmette-guérin.macrophages and their phagocytotic abilities play a dominant role for defense against infected organisms. however, mycobacterium tuberculosis can survive in the phagosomes of macrophages. in this study, the effective delivery of a drug and the killing effect of tubercle bacilli within macrophages were investigated utilizing the phagocytotic uptake of rifampicin (rfp) that had been incorporated into poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (plga) microspheres. the microspheres were composed of plga that ...200616879999
pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis: the role of experimental models of infection.in many countries, test-and-slaughter policies based on tuberculin skin testing have made a significant impact on the control of bovine tuberculosis (caused by infection with mycobacterium bovis). however, in some countries these policies have not proved as effective and improved disease control strategies are required (including improved diagnostic tests and development of vaccines). the host pathogen interactions in bovine tuberculosis are very complex. while studies of the disease in naturall ...200616384665
preliminary observations on mycobacterium spp. in dairy cattle in ecuador.this study evaluated bovine tuberculosis in mejia canton, a major dairy cattle production region in ecuador. randomly selected cattle (1,012 from 59 farms) classified according to herd size were tested by the single tuberculin test (stt). sixty days later, positive reactors were tested again by the comparative tuberculin test (ctt). in addition, tissue samples from two stt-ctt-positive reactors detected on a farm were obtained in a local slaughterhouse and analyzed bacteriologically. a total of ...200616896141
positive and negative effects of widespread badger culling on tuberculosis in cattle.human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. for three decades, european badgers (meles meles) have been culled by the british government in a series of attempts to limit the spread of mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (tb), to cattle. despite these efforts, the incidence of tb in cattle has risen consistently, re-emerging as a primary concern for britain's cattle industry. recently, badger culling has at ...200616357869
a survey of brucellosis and tuberculosis in bison in and around wood buffalo national park, canada.examinations of complete or partial remains of 72 bison found dead in and around wood buffalo national park, canada, revealed evidence of brucellosis in 18 (25%) and tuberculosis in 15 (21%), with a combined prevalence of 42%. urease-positive and ureasenegative strains of brucella abortus biovar 1, and strains of biovar 2, were isolated from tissues of bison, including synovium and exudate from severe arthritic lesions. mycobacterium bovis was isolated from a range of granulomatous lesions that ...199017423532
experimental fasciola hepatica infection alters responses to tests used for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.fasciola hepatica is a prevalent helminth parasite of livestock. infection results in polarization of the host's immune response and generation of type 2 helper (th2) immune responses, which are known to be inhibitory to th1 responses. bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a bacterial disease of economic and zoonotic importance. control polices for this disease rely on extensive annual testing and a test-and-slaughter policy. the correct diagnosis of btb relies on cell-mediated immune responses. we estab ...200717194810
field evaluation of a novel differential diagnostic reagent for detection of mycobacterium bovis in cattle.in the search for improved tools with which to control bovine tuberculosis, the development of enhanced immunodiagnostic reagents is a high priority. such reagents are required to improve the performance of tuberculin-based reagents and allow the discrimination of vaccinated cattle from those infected with mycobacterium bovis. in this study, we identified the immunodominant, frequently recognized peptides from rv3873, rv3879c, rv0288, and rv3019c, which, together with peptides comprising the cur ...200616943346
effects of pre-culture holding time and temperature on interferon-gamma responses in whole blood cultures from mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle.the bovigam assay is approved for use within the united states as a complementary tuberculosis test. prior to whole blood culture and the ensuing elisa to detect interferon-(ifn)-gamma, samples are subjected to various holding time/temperature combinations due, in part, to practical constraints associated with shipment of samples to approved laboratories. to evaluate these effects, 5-month-old holstein calves (n = 7) received 10(3) cfu mycobacterium bovis by aerosol. heparinized blood was collec ...200716973310
is mycobacterium bovis in the environment important for the persistence of bovine tuberculosis?mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb) in cattle and wildlife. direct aerosol contact is thought to be the primary route of infection between conspecifics, whereas indirect transmission via an environmental reservoir of m. bovis is generally perceived not to be a significant source for infection. here, we report on the application of molecular technology (pcr) to quantify the prevalence of m. bovis in the environment and to explore its epidemiological significanc ...200617148430
social organization and movement influence the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in an undisturbed high-density badger meles meles population.1. the culling of european badgers meles meles has been a central part of attempts to control bovine tuberculosis (tb) in british cattle for many years. recent results, however, indicate that this approach could in practice enhance disease spread. 2. this paper looks at the relationship between tb incidence and badger ecology in a high-density population in south-west england, which has been the subject of a long-term intensive study. the principal aims were to relate the probability of tb incid ...200717302842
effect of recombinant mce4a protein of mycobacterium bovis on expression of tnf-alpha, inos, il-6, and il-12 in bovine alveolar macrophages.the pathogenesis of tuberculosis-causing mycobacterium bovis is largely due to its ability to enter and survive in alveolar macrophages. its mechanism of entry, mediated by proteins encoded by mammalian cell entry (mce) genes, is important for its pathogenesis. here we focussed on the role of the mce4a protein in the pathogenesis of m. bovis in cattle. cell livability decreased in a dosage-dependent manner when mce4a proteins were used to stimulate alveolar macrophages, which suggested that the ...200717530193
oral vaccination against bovine tuberculosis with mycobacterium bovis bcg.the use of a bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg)-based vaccine could represent a viable strategy for controlling bovine tuberculosis (tb), principally in those cases where a wildlife disease vector exists. this article focuses on recent progress in animal tb vaccinology, outlining that oral-route vaccination represents the most feasible means of distributing a vaccine to control disease in wildlife. drawing on historical successes of previous wildlife vaccination programs, the article suggests how, a ...200717542748
bcg-related granulomatous hepatitis.the development of granulomatous lesions in distant organs is an uncommon complication of the immunotherapy with bcg vaccine. we report a case of granulomatous hepatitis after the 12th bcg intravesical instillation (6 weekly followed by 6 monthly) in a 58-year-old man with superficial bladder cancer. the patient was admitted because of fever and jaundice. disseminated bcg infection was suspected on the basis of history, clinical examination and a liver biopsy that showed noncaseating granulomato ...200717491206
detecting emerging strains of tuberculosis by using spoligotypes.the w-beijing strain of tuberculosis has been identified in many molecular epidemiological studies as being particularly prevalent. this identification has been made possible through the development of a number of genotyping technologies including spoligotyping. highly prevalent genotypes associated with outbreaks, such as the w-beijing strain, are implicitly regarded as fast spreading. here we present a quantitative method to identify "emerging" strains, those that are spreading faster than the ...200617015836
bovine tuberculosis in wild boar (sus scrofa), red deer (cervus elaphus) and cattle (bos taurus) in a mediterranean ecosystem (1992-2004).during the last 12 years, an increasing frequency in condemnation of hunted red deer and wild boar carcasses due to the presence of tubercle-like lesions has been observed in extremadura (western spain). before 1993, tuberculosis was a very rare finding in hunted animals. the current tuberculosis regional prevalence in cattle approaches 0.4% after years of expensive test and slaughter campaigns. it is imperative to investigate the epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis infection in red deer and wil ...200616297475
immunohistochemical markers augment evaluation of vaccine efficacy and disease severity in bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg) vaccinated cattle challenged with mycobacterium bovis.development of necrotic granulomas in response to mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle is pathognomonic for bovine tuberculosis. previously our laboratory reported on m. bovis granuloma classification by stage of lesion advancement within bovine lymph nodes and developed immunohistochemical markers to further characterize these granulomas. in this study of bovine lymph node granulomas we applied this classification system to assess the dynamics of vaccination challenge. lymph nodes collected ...200616540176
mycobacteria and allergies.exposure to mycobacteria was inevitable throughout mammalian evolution. most mycobacteria are saprophytic environmental organisms that are enormously abundant in soil and untreated water and evoke immune responses in the residents of developing countries. a few species are pathogens. for example mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (tb), infects approximately 1/3 of the world's population. many individuals also receive vaccination with the bacille calmette guérin (bcg) ...200717544831
vaccination of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) with mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette guerín.wildlife reservoirs of mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. in michigan, usa tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit m. bovis to cattle. one approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt the cycle of deer to deer and deer to cattle transmission. thirty-one white-tailed deer were assigned to one of three groups; 2 sc doses of 10(7)cfu of m. bovis bcg (n=11); 1 sc dose of 10(7)cfu of m ...200717688976
[application of the molecular test pcr multiplex for identification of mycobacterium bovis bcg strains].in our last paper (18) we described the problem of proper microbiological identification of bcg strains and how important is distinguishing vaccine strain from virulent strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. we have suggested the modern algorithm of bcg strains identification including mycolic acids profile by hplc and 14c pza resistance methods. these methods allowed us to made fast and accurate microbiological identification of side effects of bcg vaccine in the children. identificatio ...200516989158
failure of a mycobacterium tuberculosis deltard1 deltapancd double deletion mutant in a neonatal calf aerosol m. bovis challenge model: comparisons to responses elicited by m. bovis bacille calmette guerin.an attenuated mycobacterium tuberculosis rd1 knockout and pantothenate auxotroph (mc(2)6030) vaccine administered at 2 weeks of age failed to protect calves from low dose, aerosol m. bovis challenge at 2.5 months of age. in contrast, m. bovis bacille calmette guerin (bcg)-vaccinates had reduced tuberculosis-associated pathology as compared to non- and mc(2)6030-vaccinates. mycobacterial colonization was not impacted by vaccination. positive prognostic indicators associated with reduced pathology ...200717931755
workshop cluster 1+ gammadelta t-cell receptor t cells from calves express high levels of interferon-gamma in response to stimulation with interleukin-12 and -18.gammadelta t-cell receptor(+) t lymphocytes are an important element of the innate immune system. early production of interferon (ifn)-gamma by gammadelta t cells may have a role in linking innate and adaptive immune responses and contribute to t helper-1 bias. we investigated the role of cytokines in the activation and induction of ifn-gamma secretion by bovine workshop cluster 1(+) (wc1(+)) gammadelta t cells. the effects of culture with interleukin (il)-12, il-18, il-15 and il-2 were investig ...200717034425
mycobacterium bovis bcg vaccination induces memory cd4+ t cells characterized by effector biomarker expression and anti-mycobacterial activity.the effector mechanisms used by cd4+ t cells to control mycobacteria differ between humans and rodent models of tb and should be investigated in additional animal models. in these studies, the bovine model was used to characterize the mycobactericidal cd4+ t cell response induced by vaccination with the attenuated mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg). antigenic stimulation of peripheral blood cd4+ t cells from bcg-vaccinated cattle enhanced expression of perforin and ifngamma in ce ...200717996992
high growth rate fails to enhance adaptive immune responses of neonatal calves and is associated with reduced lymphocyte viability.the objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of 3 targeted growth rates on adaptive (i.e., antigen-specific) immune responses of preruminant, milk replacer-fed calves. calves (9.1 +/- 2.4 d of age) were assigned randomly to one of 3 dietary treatments to achieve 3 targeted daily rates of gain [no growth (maintenance) = 0.0 kg/d, low growth = 0.55 kg/d, or high growth = 1.2 kg/d] over an 8-wk period. the nrc nutrient requirements of dairy cattle calf model computer program was used to e ...200717183108
perturbing implications of wildlife ecology for disease control.britain's randomised badger culling trial provides robust evidence of the role badgers have in transmission of mycobacterium bovis to cattle. culling badgers perturbed their social structure, and brought positive and negative effects for bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle, leading to the conclusion that culling could not make a meaningful contribution to disease control. the rbct highlights the complexities of disease transmission in social animals and the importance of host ecology for con ...200818191282
[tuberculosis as a zoonosis].there are more than 700 different kinds of major zoonosis. among them, tuberculosis is important, since mycobacteriosis, including tuberculosis, is common among non-human primates and ruminants. although the natural host of tubercle bacilli is human, many kinds of animals are susceptible to mycobacterium spp., including mycobacterium bovis and other non-tuberculous mycobacteria. in japan, the prevalence of the recurrent infection between human and pet animals leads to increasing trends of, and m ...200617094584
development and evaluation of a gamma-interferon assay for tuberculosis in badgers (meles meles).in this paper we report the development of a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of tuberculosis (tb) in european badgers (meles meles), based on the stimulation of lymphocytes in whole-blood culture and the subsequent detection of gamma-interferon (ifngamma) by sandwich elisa. the comparative levels of ifngamma produced to bovine and avian tuberculin (b-a) was used as the basis of determining the tb status of badgers, resulting in a more sensitive test than that based on the defined ...200818083067
an experimental intratonsilar infection model for bovine tuberculosis in african buffaloes, syncerus caffer.an infection model for mycobacterium bovis in african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, was developed, using the intratonsilar route of inoculation. two groups of 11 buffaloes each, aged approximately 18 months, were infected with either 3.2 x 10(2) cfu (low dose) or 3 x 10(4) cfu (high dose) of m. bovis strain isolated from a buffalo. a control group of six buffaloes received saline via the same route. the infection status was monitored in vivo using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, and i ...200617283730
an esat-6:cfp10 dna vaccine administered in conjunction with mycobacterium bovis bcg confers protection to cattle challenged with virulent m. bovis.the potency of genetic immunization observed in the mouse has demonstrated the utility of dna vaccines to induce cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. however, it has been relatively difficult to generate comparable responses in non-rodent species. the use of molecular adjuvants may increase the magnitude of these suboptimal responses. in this study, we demonstrate that the co-administration of plasmid-encoded gm-csf and cd80/cd86 with a novel esat-6:cfp10 dna vaccine against bovine tuberc ...200717499400
a novel dna vaccine for protective immunity against virulent mycobacterium bovis in mice.mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb). the proteins ag85b, mpb64, and esat-6 are the major immunogenic antigens of m. bovis; these proteins play important roles in inducing immune responses that confer resistance against infections. in the present study, we used pcdna3.1(+) as a vector and constructed various dna vaccines with the genes encoding the three antigens mentioned above. this procedure involved the following steps: fusion of two genes (pcdna-mpb64-ag85 ...200818339431
surveillance of coyotes to detect bovine tuberculosis, michigan.bovine tuberculosis (tb) is endemic in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of michigan's lower peninsula. bovine tb in deer and cattle has created immense financial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. surveillance identified coyotes (canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of mycobacterium bovis, a finding that generated interest in their potential to serve as sentinels for monitoring disease risk. we sampled 175 coyotes in the bovi ...200819046508
outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild animal park.an outbreak of tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis occurred in a wild animal park. three pot-bellied pigs (sus scrofa vittatus), one red deer (cervus elaphus), one buffalo (bison bonasus) and two european lynxes (lynx lynx) were affected and showed clinical signs including weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes and paralysis of the hindlimbs. postmortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions in various organs, including the lymph nodes, lungs, intestines, kidneys and the central n ...200717766809
absence of mycobacterium bovis infection in dogs and cats residing on infected cattle farms: michigan, 2002.a cross-sectional field study was performed to evaluate infection in dogs and cats living on farms with mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. the purpose was to determine pet infection status and assess their risk to farm families and/or tuberculosis-free livestock. data and specimens were collected from 18 cats and five dogs from nine participating farms. elisa testing for m. bovis and m. avium was conducted. fifty-one biological samples were cultured; all were negative for m. bovis, although ot ...200818325127
a new attenuated mycobacterium bovis vaccine protects brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) against experimental tuberculosis infection.vaccination of wildlife against bovine tuberculosis is being actively considered in countries that have wildlife reservoirs of mycobacterium bovis infection. a newly attenuated strain of m. bovis (wag533) was produced as part of a programme to develop a better vaccine than bcg to control tuberculosis in brushtail possums in new zealand. the vaccine efficacy of wag533 in possums was compared to bcg using three different methods of inoculation (conjunctival/intranasal, oral and sub-cutaneous) foll ...200717498852
a novel fusion protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine tuberculosis.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis has been widely explored over the years. three mycobacterium bovis-specific antigen genes, namely, mpb70, mpb83, and esat-6 were recombined in tandem by spliced overlap extension technology and expressed in escherichia coli to obtain the fusion protein (rm70-83-e6). western blot analysis showed that rm70-83-e6 can specifically react with bovine tuberculosis-positive sera but not those from cattle infected with other b ...200717023217
recovery of mycobacterium bovis from soft fresh cheese originating in mexico.recent outbreaks of human tuberculosis in the united states caused by mycobacterium bovis have implicated cheese originating in mexico as a source of these infections. a total of 203 samples of cheese originating in mexico were cultured, and m. bovis was recovered from one specimen. therefore, m. bovis can be recovered from cheese and may be a source of human infections.200717142354
innate gene repression associated with mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle: toward a gene signature of disease.bovine tuberculosis is an enduring disease of cattle that has significant repercussions for human health. the advent of high-throughput functional genomics technologies has facilitated large-scale analyses of the immune response to this disease that may ultimately lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic targets. analysis of mrna abundance in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from six mycobacterium bovis infected cattle and six non-infected controls was performed. a targeted immunospeci ...200717974019
improvement of spoligotyping with additional spacer sequences for characterization of mycobacterium bovis and m. caprae isolates from spain.spoligotyping is a typing tool used worldwide for epidemiological studies on mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms; however it has received little attention regarding improvement of its discriminatory power (dp). in this study, we have evaluated a spoligotyping membrane prepared with 25 novel spacer sequences selected from a previous study [van der zanden ag, kremer k, schouls lm. improvement of differentiation and interpretability of spoligotyping for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex i ...200717569586
trace micro-nutrients may affect susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a continuing problem in british herds. micro-nutrients are important for the maintenance of well-functioning immune system. the aim of this study was to determine whether the selenium, copper and vitamin b12 status of cattle was associated with mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) infection. between 2002 and 2005, 200 cattle (43% dairy, mean age 4.6 years), reactors according to the standard interpretation of the tuberculin test, and 200 in-contacts (41% dairy, mean age 4. ...200818599138
experimental exposure of cattle to a precise aerosolised challenge of mycobacterium bovis: a novel model to study bovine tuberculosis.non-aerosol models of bovine tuberculosis are limited in reproducibility and relevance to natural cases seen in farmed animals. therefore, there is a need for aerosol models of infection in cattle that can reproduce bovine tuberculosis as seen in natural cases of the disease. this manuscript describes a cattle tuberculosis model based on the inhalation of a precisely defined dose of mycobacterium bovis in aerosol form, and defines those sites of m. bovis deposition following aerosol inhalation. ...200717602870
blood-based assays to detect mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle missed by tuberculin skin testing. 200818359932
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis: usefulness in international trade.tuberculosis (tb) represents a barrier for free trade of livestock between mexico and the united states of america (us). in spite of efforts from mexico to export tb-free animals, some of those found with tb lesions in slaughterhouses in the us are traced back to that country. therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine, through molecular epidemiology, the most probable source of infection for cattle found with tb lesions in the us. ninety m. bovis isolates, 50 from mexico obtained fro ...200818524398
the prevalence, distribution and severity of detectable pathological lesions in badgers naturally infected with mycobacterium bovis.the randomized badger culling trial (rbct) began in 1998 to determine the impact of badger culling in controlling bovine tuberculosis in cattle. a total of 1166 badgers (14% of total) proactively culled during the rbct were found to be tuberculous, offering a unique opportunity to study the pathology caused by mycobacterium bovis in a large sample of badgers. of these, 39% of adults (approximately 6% of all adults culled) had visible lesions (detectable at necropsy) of bovine tuberculosis; cubs ...200818047751
antigen stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from mycobacterium bovis infected cattle yields evidence for a novel gene expression program.bovine tuberculosis (btb) caused by mycobacterium bovis continues to cause substantial losses to global agriculture and has significant repercussions for human health. the advent of high throughput genomics has facilitated large scale gene expression analyses that present a novel opportunity for revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying mycobacterial infection. using this approach, we have previously shown that innate immune genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from btb-infecte ...200818823559
enhanced secretion of interferon-gamma by bovine gammadelta t cells induced by coculture with mycobacterium bovis-infected dendritic cells: evidence for reciprocal activating signals.evidence suggests that gammadelta t cells form part of the innate immune response to mycobacterium bovis infection. dendritic cells (dcs) are capable of secreting high levels of interleukin-12 (il-12) following infection with mycobacteria and can induce interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) secretion by natural killer and gammadelta t cells we investigated the innate interactions occurring between wc1(+)gammadelta t cells and m. bovis-infected dcs. following coculture with m. bovis-infected dcs, secretio ...200918657206
vaccination of european badgers (meles meles) with bcg by the subcutaneous and mucosal routes induces protective immunity against endobronchial challenge with mycobacterium bovis.mycobacterium bovis is endemic in badger (meles meles) populations of ireland and the united kingdom and infected badgers are a potential source of infection for cattle. in domestic livestock tuberculosis causes economic losses from lost production and the costs associated with eradication programmes, and in addition there is a risk of zoonotic infection. whereas culling is currently used to control tuberculous badger populations in ireland, vaccination, if it were available, would be preferred. ...200818468490
rescuing valuable genomes by animal cloning: a case for natural disease resistance in cattle.tissue banking and animal cloning represent a powerful tool for conserving and regenerating valuable animal genomes. here we report an example involving cattle and the rescue of a genome affording natural disease resistance. during the course of a 2-decade study involving the phenotypic and genotypic analysis for the functional and genetic basis of natural disease resistance against bovine brucellosis, a foundation sire was identified and confirmed to be genetically resistant to brucella abortus ...200717179549
cytokine mrna expression in cattle infected with different dosages of mycobacterium bovis.cytokine mrna expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and anti-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interleukin-4 (il-4), interleukin-10 (il-10) was quantified using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qrt-pcr) in cattle infected with different doses (1-1000 colony-forming units (cfu)) of mycobacterium bovis. rna was extracted from the hepes glutamic acid buffer mediated organic solvent protection ef ...200818674970
identification and functional characterization of a bovine orthologue to dc-sign.dendritic cell-specific icam-3-grabbing nonintegrin (dc-sign) c-type lectin is almost exclusively expressed at the cell surface of dc. in addition to its normal function facilitating contact of dc with t cells, dc-sign has been shown to bind a variety of pathogens, including mycobacterium bovis, and hiv-1 envelope protein gp120. in this study, we identified the bovine ortholog of the human dc-sign gene within the bovine genome, which exists as a single copy. pcr amplified a product, showing a 10 ...200818319290
pharmaceutical proteins in plants. a strategic genetic engineering approach for the production of tuberculosis antigens.tuberculosis (tb) is a re-emerging disease that is considered a major human health priority as well as an important disease of livestock. tb is also a zoonosis, and mycobacterium tuberculosis and m. bovis, the human and bovine causative agents, respectively, are very closely related. protection against tb is essentially achieved through vaccination with the bacille calmetle-guerin (bcg) strain of m. bovis. protection is, however, incomplete, and novel improved vaccines are currently under invest ...200819120228
variable number tandem repeat analysis of mycobacterium bovis isolates from gyeonggi-do, korea.bovine tuberculosis (tb) is a major zoonosis that's caused by mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis). being able to detect m. bovis is important to control bovine tb. we applied a molecular technique, the variable number tandem repeat (vntr) typing method, to identify and distinguish the m. bovis isolates from gyeonggi-do, korea. from 2003 to 2004, 59 m. bovis clinical strains were isolated from dairy cattle in gyeonggi-do, korea, and these cattle had tuberculosis- like lesions. twenty-four published mi ...200818487935
appraisal of interpretation criteria for the comparative intradermal tuberculin test for diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle in central ethiopia.accurate detection and removal of infected cattle, using immunodiagnostic tests such as the comparative intradermal tuberculin (cidt) test, are the basis of control strategies for bovine tuberculosis (tb). according to the office des internationale epizooties recommendation, the cutoff point for positivity of the cidt test, calculated as the difference between skin thicknesses after bovine tuberculin (b) and avian tuberculin (a) injections (b - a), is >4 mm. this cutoff point is used worldwide, ...200818495847
accuracy of three diagnostic tests for determining mycobacterium bovis infection status in live-sampled wild meerkats (suricata suricatta).accurate diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection (bovine tuberculosis [btb]) in live animals is notoriously problematic. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of 2 new serologic tests (multiantigen print immunoassay [mapia] and lateral flow immunoassay rapid test [rt]) in comparison with mycobacterial culture of tracheal washes for determining m. bovis infection status in a free-ranging population of wild meerkats (suricata suricatta). during a longitudinal stu ...200919139498
comparison of histologic techniques for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in the framework of eradication programs.rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle reacting positive in antemortem assays is crucial in countries where eradication programs are operated to confirm the presence of the infection in tuberculosis-free herds. this study evaluated the accuracy of histopathologic examination by hematoxylin and eosin and ziehl-neelsen (zn) staining applied in this framework, when suspected lesions are caused by low infectious doses and are detected in early stages of the disease. for this purpose, histologic m ...200818319428
immunotherapy with combined dna vaccines is an effective treatment for m. bovis infection in cattle.mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis in cattle. because current therapies inadequately prevent disease spread, new therapies for m. bovis infections are urgently needed. we treated m. bovis-infected cattle with combinations of dna vaccines, resulting in significantly reduced pulmonary bacterial loads compared with the untreated group. further, the pathological changes of lungs were also slight and the lesions were limited in animals treated with the combined dna vaccines, whereas untreated an ...200919162110
first report of mycobacterium bovis dna in human remains from the iron age.tuberculosis has plagued humankind since prehistoric times, as is evident from characteristic lesions on human skeletons dating back to the neolithic period. the disease in man is due predominantly to infection with either mycobacterium tuberculosis or mycobacterium bovis, both members of the m. tuberculosis (mtb) complex. a number of studies have shown that when conditions permit, surviving mycobacterial dna may be amplified from bone by pcr. such ancient dna (adna) analyses are subject to stri ...200717379733
vaccination of calves with mycobacteria bovis bacilli calmete guerin (bcg) induced rapid increase in the proportion of peripheral blood gammadelta t cells.changes in the proportion of peripheral blood t cell subsets after subcutaneous inoculation of cattle with mycobacterium bovis bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) were studied. calves were injected with approximately 8 x 10(6) bcg bacillus and blood samples collected at weekly intervals for flow-cytometric analyses to determine the proportion of cd4+, cd8+ and gammadelta t cells. in addition, whole blood samples were stimulated in vitro with m. bovis purified protein derivative (ppd) and the secreted ...200919178951
spoligotype diversity of mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium caprae animal isolates.the genetic diversity of 283 mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) and 10 mycobacterium caprae (m. caprae) strains, isolated between 2002 and 2007 from cattle, goat, red deer and wild boar from six different geographical regions of portugal was investigated by spoligotyping. the technique showed a good discriminatory power (hunter-gaston index, h=0.9) for the strains, revealing 29 different patterns. one pattern (sb0121) was clearly predominant, accounting for 26.3% of the isolates; ten patterns, repre ...200818417301
disseminated bacillus calmette-guerin infection after bcg vaccination.the bcg is administered to all the newborns at birth in iran. systemic adverse reactions to bcg vaccine such as osteomyelitis and disseminated bcg infection are rare. this is a retrospective study of 15 cases <72 months who were admitted with systemic syndrome compatible with disseminated mycobacterial disease during 2004-07. disseminated bcg disease occurred in eight children younger than 6-months old and 12 patient younger than 12-months old. twelve patients were male. nine of 15 patients had ...200818593737
influence of bovine lactoferrin on expression of presentation molecules on bcg-infected bone marrow derived macrophages.the current vaccine for tuberculosis (tb), caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb), is an attenuated strain of mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg). bcg has proven to be effective in children, however, efficacy wanes in adulthood. lactoferrin, a natural protein with immunomodulatory properties, is a potential adjuvant candidate to enhance efficacy of bcg. these studies define bovine lactoferrin as an enhancer of the bcg vaccine, functioning in part by modulating macrophage abili ...200918486627
a novel recombinant human lactoferrin augments the bcg vaccine and protects alveolar integrity upon infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.lactoferrin, an iron binding glycoprotein, possesses multiple immune modulatory activities, including the ability to promote antigen specific cell-mediated immunity. previous studies showed that adding bovine lactoferrin to the bcg vaccine (an attenuated strain of mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette guerin) resulted in increased host protective responses upon subsequent challenge with virulent erdman mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb) in mice. the studies outlined here investigate utility of a n ...200919428915
effect of paratuberculosis on the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a cattle herd with a mixed infection using interferon-gamma detection assay.interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) detection assay is being applied as an ancillary test to tuberculin tests in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis to detect the maximum number of infected animals. among possible factors influencing the performance of tuberculosis-diagnostic tests, paratuberculosis, a widespread disease in spain and other european countries, has been pointed out as a cause of false positive reactions. still, its effect on the sensitivity of these tests in cattle has yet to be fully c ...200918986776
evaluation of blood assays for detection of mycobacterium bovis in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in michigan.surveillance and control activities related to bovine tuberculosis (tb) in free-ranging, michigan white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. however, foci of higher tb prevalence on private lands and limited agency ability to eliminate them using broad control strategies have led to development and trial of new control strategies, such as live trapping, testing, and culling or release. such strategies require a prompt, accurate liv ...200919204344
the calf model of immunity for development of a vaccine against tuberculosis.tuberculosis (tb) remains a major threat to public health. the identification of safe tb vaccine candidates beyond mycobacterium bovis bcg, is an exciting prospect for control of human tb and necessary in the context of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) pandemic. selection of vaccine candidates for human trials which are ultimately targeted for use in children less than 5 years of age or in newborns will require an animal model that closely approximates immune function and disease. we propo ...200919027175
mycobacterium bovis infection in holstein friesian cattle, iran.to identify strains of mycobacterium bovis circulating in iran, we used region of difference, spoligotypes, and variable number tandem repeats to genotype 132 m. bovis isolates from holstein friesian cattle. despite wide geographic origins, the strains were genetically homogeneous. increased distribution of cattle herds and inadequate control measures may have contributed to strain dispersion.200819046521
potential challenges to the stop tb plan for humans in china; cattle maintain m. bovis and m. tuberculosis.thirty-eight cows in a herd were determined to be positive for bovine tuberculosis (tb). the bacterial isolation and characterization with multiplex pcr identified six mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. the mycobacterium bovis and m. tuberculosis infection induced comparable pathology in cattle in both gross pathology and histopathology based on the qualitative assessment of the sampled lung tissues. the spoligotyping demonstrated that cow m. tuberculosis isolates belonged to beijing family st ...200919056318
efficacy and immunogenicity of mycobacterium bovis deltard1 against aerosol m. bovis infection in neonatal calves.an attenuated mycobacterium bovisrd1 deletion (deltard1) mutant of the ravenel strain was constructed, characterized, and sequenced. this m. bovis deltard1 vaccine strain administered to calves at 2 weeks of age provided similar efficacy as m. bovis bacillus calmette guerin (bcg) against low dose, aerosol challenge with virulent m. bovis at 3.5 months of age. approximately 4.5 months after challenge, both deltard1- and bcg-vaccinates had reduced tuberculosis (tb)-associated pathology in lungs an ...200919135497
field evaluation of the protective efficacy of mycobacterium bovis bcg vaccine against bovine tuberculosis.the protective efficacy of mycobacterium bovis bcg (1 x 10(6) single dose) was evaluated under field conditions. a total of 140 male holstein friesian calves, one to two week-old were selected. two groups of 70 each were formed, one group was vaccinated and the other was injected with a placebo during their second week of age and followed until 12 months of age. the study considered a positive case of tuberculosis to be an animal that had a positive reaction to the three following tests in a row ...201019564029
screening of highly expressed mycobacterial genes identifies rv3615c as a useful differential diagnostic antigen for the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.tuberculous infections caused by mycobacteria, especially tuberculosis of humans and cattle, are important both clinically and economically. human populations can be vaccinated with mycobacterium bovis bacille calmette-guérin (bcg), and control measures for cattle involving vaccination are now being actively considered. however, diagnostic tests based on tuberculin cannot distinguish between genuine infection and vaccination with bcg. therefore, identification of differential diagnostic antigens ...200818519559
human-to-human transmission of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in immunocompetent patients.human-to-human transmission of mycobacterium bovis in two immunocompetent patients from the same family was confirmed by spoligotyping (pattern f35, which was only observed in cattle from the same area in france). a single allelic difference between animal and human isolates was observed with mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units containing variable-number tandem repeats, suggesting a jump across the species barrier.200919171683
identification of novel mycobacterium bovis antigens by dissection of crude protein fractions.culture filtrate and cell extracts from mycobacterium bovis cultures contain molecules which could promote protective immunity to tuberculosis in animals. different protein fractions of m. bovis cultures were obtained by elution electrophoresis and were tested in experimentally infected cattle. the fractions that elicited gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) responses were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and individual proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionizat ...200919641100
comparative field evaluation of two rapid immunochromatographic tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in african buffaloes (syncerus caffer).panels of sera from african buffalo with confirmed bovine tuberculosis and from known uninfected controls were used to evaluate the performance of two commercial rapid chromatographic immunoassays (a and b) for the detection of antibodies to mycobacterium bovis. the sensitivity was 33% and 23%, respectively, while the specificity was determined at 90% and 94%, respectively. overall the performance of both diagnostic tests under field conditions was not found sufficiently high to support their us ...200919007999
development of a simple, sensitive, rapid test which discriminates bcg-vaccinated from mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is increasing in incidence in the uk. effective control strategies could involve vaccination; bcg, either alone or in prime-boost strategies, remains the most effective vaccine against bovine tuberculosis. however, bcg vaccination of cattle would require development of diagnostic tests able to accurately discriminate mycobacterium bovis-infected from bcg-vaccinated animals. herein, we demonstrate that the detection of secreted ifn-gamma following short term culture (4h) ...200818692540
mycobacterium bovis with different genotypes and from different hosts induce dissimilar immunopathological lesions in a mouse model of tuberculosis.with the hypothesis that genetic variability of mycobacterium bovis could influence virulence and immunopathology, five m. bovis strains were selected from an epidemiological study in argentina on the basis of their prevalence in cattle and occurrence in other species. we then determined the virulence and the immunopathology evoked by these strains in a well-characterized mouse model of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis. the reference strain an5 was used as a control. balb/c mice infected with ...200919659779
risk factors for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children from economic migrant populations of two dominican republic bateyes.the objective of the current study was to identify risk factors for intrathoracic tuberculosis among children living in migrant populations in the dominican republic.200919654565
lipid-formulated bcg as an oral-bait vaccine for tuberculosis: vaccine stability, efficacy, and palatability to brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand.bovine tuberculosis (tb), due to infection with virulent mycobacterium bovis, represents a threat to new zealand agriculture due to vectorial transmission from wildlife reservoir species, principally the introduced australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). an oral-delivery wildlife vaccine has been developed to immunize possums against tb, based on formulation of the human tb vaccine (m. bovis bcg) in edible lipid matrices. here bcg bacilli were shown to be stable in lipid matrix form ...200919617486
isolation of mycobacterium bovis from brushtail possums with non-visible lesions.to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) that did not have macroscopic lesions of bovine tuberculosis, and to evaluate culture of pooled tissues from multiple possums as a method for determining the m. bovis-infection status of wildlife populations in new zealand.200919649016
evaluation of a combination of sift-ms and multivariate data analysis for the diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis in wild badgers.the currently accepted 'gold standard' tuberculosis (tb) detection method for veterinary applications is that of culturing from a tissue sample post mortem. the test is accurate, but growing mycobacterium bovis is difficult and the process can take up to 12 weeks to return a diagnosis. in this paper we evaluate a much faster screening approach based on serum headspace analysis using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (sift-ms). sift-ms is a rapid, quantitative gas analysis technique, with ...200919684920
the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in and around morogoro, tanzania.a study was conducted to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in different cattle herd management systems in and around morogoro, tanzania. between april and june 2005, a total of 728 bovines from 49 herds were tested for m. bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses. milk samples were taken from tuberculin positive animals and analysed for the presence of mycobacteria. total prevalences of 2.5% and 10.1% were found for m. bovis-infection and a ...200919437127
mycobacterium bovis in korea: an update.this paper reports changes in the cattle population and the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in the republic of korea between 1960 and 2007, and discusses potential factors contributing to the recently observed increase in disease incidence, particularly in beef cattle and deer. although there have been ongoing refinements to the existing programme, further improvements in current strategies are needed, including surveillance of susceptible animal species, both domestic and wild, and ongoing sur ...201019713136
characterization of the apa antigen from m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a conserved mycobacterium antigen that elicits a strong humoral response in cattle.johne's disease or paratuberculosis is widespread in almost all countries and remains difficult to eradicate. nowadays, diagnosis of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (mptb) infection is one of the main concerns. in this work, we evaluated the expression, biochemical properties and antigenicity of the apa antigen, encoded by the gene annotated as map1569, in the mptb genome. we confirmed its expression in mptb and its glycosylation by the cona binding assay. although the mptb-apa is no ...200919616313
gene expression profiling of the host response to mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, continues to pose a threat to livestock worldwide and, as a zoonotic infection, also has serious implications for human health. the implementation of comprehensive surveillance programmes to detect btb has been successful in reducing the incidence of infection in many countries, yet btb has remained recalcitrant to eradication in several eu states, particularly in ireland and the uk. there are well-recognized limitations in the use of the ...200919486308
mycobacterium microti: more diverse than previously thought.mycobacterium microti is a member of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of bacteria. this species was originally identified as a pathogen of small rodents and shrews and was associated with limited diversity and a much reduced spoligotype pattern. more recently, specific deletions of chromosomal dna have been shown to define this group of organisms, which can be identified by the absence of chromosomal region rd1(mic). we describe here the molecular characteristics of 141 strains of the myco ...200919535520
review of the diagnosis and study of tuberculosis in non-bovine wildlife species using immunological methods.the infection of a variety of free-ranging wildlife species with mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (tb), can cause problems for biodiversity and species conservation. in some notable cases, particular species act as a reservoir of infection that can spill over into domestic livestock with economic and zoonotic consequences. immunological methods for the detection of tb infection in wildlife are important for diagnostic and research purposes, especially where post-mo ...200919486311
prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in ethiopian slaughter cattle based on post-mortem examination.a study aimed at describing the magnitude and distribution of gross lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis (btb) in ethiiopian slaughter cattle in five abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in various cattle husbandry systems in ethiopia was carried out from july 2006 to january 2007 using detailed meat inspection procedure. five representative abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in distinct livestock management systems were selected. a total of 3322 cattle; 2876 ( ...200919058024
[differentiation of species within the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by molecular techniques].the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes the following species: mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterium africanum, mycobacterium bovis, mycobacterium bovis-bcg, mycobacterium microti, mycobacterium caprae, mycobacterium pinnipedii, and mycobacterium canettii. these species cause tuberculosis in humans and animals. identification of mycobacterial strains has classically been performed by phenotype study. over the last years, laboratories have developed several molecular techniques to dif ...200919409673
the burden of mycobacterial disease in ethiopian cattle: implications for public health.bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. furthermore, ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary tb in the world, a clinical presentation that is often associated with transmission of m. bovis from cattle to humans.200919352493
the use of a gamma-interferon assay to confirm a diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in brazil.control of bovine tuberculosis (tb) is currently based on slaughter of cattle deemed positive on the basis of tuberculin testing; although the test has been broadly used for several years, there are some disadvantages such as the need for holding animals for 72 h. besides it, test can lack both sensitivity and specificity depending on the interpretation and the site of the ppd inoculation. therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of the gamma-interferon (ifn) assay a ...201019819213
evidence-based semiquantitative methodology for prioritization of foodborne zoonoses.to prioritize an extended list of food- and water-borne zoonoses to allow food safety authorities to focus on the most relevant hazards in the food chain.200919715429
coinfection of a cow with bovine leukemia virus and mycobacterium bovis.bovine leukosis associated with infection with the delta retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (blv) is endemic in many cattle herds in the united states. infection has been associated with immunosuppression and decreased productivity. cases of tuberculosis in cows due to infection with mycobacterium bovis reemerged in michigan in 1998, and despite intensive eradication attempts, new cases of bovine tuberculosis are sporadically identified. the present report details a coinfection with blv and m. bov ...200919901295
detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples of cattle and buffaloes.tissue samples were collected at random from cattle (bos taurus) and buffalo (bubalus bubalis) from an abattoir of the district of lahore and were analyzed for the presence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium bovis through acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). body condition of animals and diarrhea were recorded. most of the animals were emaciated. diarrhea was noticed in 15.6% of buffaloes and 19.2% of cattle. intestinal pathology was observed in 2 ...201019816784
genetics of tuberculosis in irish holstein-friesian dairy herds.information is lacking on genetic parameters for tuberculosis (tb) susceptibility in dairy cattle. mycobacterium bovis is the principal agent of tuberculosis in cattle. the objective of this study was to quantify the genetic variation present among irish holstein-friesian dairy herds in their susceptibility to m. bovis infection. a total of 15,182 cow and 8,104 heifer single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (sictt, a test for m. bovis exposure and presumed infection) records from november ...200919528623
positive skin and serologic test results of diagnostic assays for bovine tuberculosis and subsequent isolation of mycobacterium interjectum in a pygmy hippopotamus (hexaprotodon liberiensis).a 20-yr-old male pygmy hippopotamus (hexaprotodon liberiensis), weighing 250 kg, arrived at zoological society london whipsnade zoo (united kingdom) from a captive collection in portugal. a quarantine health check was performed including a comparative intradermal tuberculosis (idtb) test. assessment of the comparative idtb test at 72 hr revealed a strong positive reaction at the bovine site. serum was tested with a rapid immunochromatographic assay (tb stat-pak) and was positive for tuberculosis ...200919746870
farm husbandry and badger behaviour: opportunities to manage badger to cattle transmission of mycobacterium bovis?bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a serious disease of cattle in the uk in terms of the economic impact on the farming industry. the disease has proven difficult to control in the cattle population and the eurasian badger (meles meles) is a source of infection. in recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential to employ farm husbandry and biosecurity practices to reduce btb transmission risks. here we review the potential routes of btb transmission between badgers and cattle and explo ...201019846226
tuberculosis in european badgers (meles meles) and the control of infection with bacille calmette-guérin vaccination.the eradication of tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis infection) from cattle herds may be compromised if infected wildlife species, such as european badgers (meles meles), share the same environment and contribute to transfer of infection. options for dealing with tuberculosis in this wild reservoir host are limited by conservation and social concerns, despite a clear implication that infected badgers are involved with the initiation of tuberculosis in cattle herds. vaccination of badgers against ...200919901380
molecular typing of mycobacterium bovis isolates in argentina: first description of a person-to-person transmission case.bovine tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium bovis, a mycobacterium highly similar to m. tuberculosis that belongs to the m. tuberculosis complex. the main host of m. bovis is cattle but it also affects many other mammalians including humans. tuberculosis in humans caused by either m. bovis or m. tuberculosis is clinically hard to distinguish. during 2004-2005, samples from 448 patients with diagnosis of tb were collected from different regions of argentina. the pra technique identified 400 is ...201019912616
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