a guinea pig model of low-dose mycobacterium bovis aerogenic order to develop a model of mycobacterium bovis infection with pathogenetical relevance, a modified version of the henderson apparatus was used to deliver infectious aerosols directly to the snouts of guinea pigs. aerosols generated from 10(6), 10(7), 10(8)cfu/ml m. bovis suspensions established disease in every animal, with estimated retained doses of 10, 100, 1000 cfu, respectively. for comparison, other guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 cfu m. bovis intramuscularly (i.m.). pathology and ...200111337137
in vitro effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 on interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by blood leukocytes from young and adult cattle vaccinated with mycobacterium bovis bcg.interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) are critical in the development of an effective immune response. vitamin d, essential in short-term calcium homeostasis and recently shown to modulate proliferation and function of blood mononuclear cells from adult dairy cattle, may be an effective modulator of the calf's immune system. effects of antigen sensitization and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3[1,25-(oh)2d3] on cytokine secretion by cells from calves vaccinated with bac ...200312951895
a review of m. bovis bcg protection against tb in cattle and other animals species.bovine tuberculosis (tb) causes severe economic losses in livestock due to low production, animal deaths and condemnation of carcasses. it is also an important constraint in international trade of animals and animal products. a scientific committee in great britain in 1997 concluded that the development of a cattle vaccine would be the best option for long-term control of tb. however, vaccination of cattle currently is not accepted because the vaccine interferes with the skin reaction to the tub ...200312628767
immunogenicity of mycobacterium tuberculosis rd1 region gene products in infected cattle.current immuno-diagnostic tests for the detection of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle rely on the use of tuberculin ppd as antigens. however, the use of a cattle vaccine is effectively prohibited because bcg, the only potentially available cattle tb vaccine, compromises the current tuberculin test. the main objective of this study was to identify specific antigens, which could increase the test sensitivity to levels achieved with tuberculin. our approach utilized the availability of the g ...200212296851
cultivation of mycobacterium bovis bcg in bioreactors.the mycobacterium bovis bcg vaccine for commercial use is classically produced as surface pellicles by culture on synthetic medium. under these conditions, reproducibility of the cultures and quality assessment are hampered by slow growth of the bacilli, the formation of bacterial aggregates and a high proportion of dead bacilli after processing and final formulation of the vaccine. here, we established dispersed cultures of m. bovis bcg in synthetic media in small-scale bioreactors. these cultu ...200212044554
wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis infection in the european badger (meles meles) and other british mammals.mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. the european badger (meles meles) and the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the uk and new zealand respectively. the risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife population and domestic animals will be determined by both the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of the host. in the uk, surveys by the ...200111463223
towards more accurate diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis using defined antigens.diagnostic accuracy is of paramount importance in test-and-slaughter programmes for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis (tb). currently applied methods, such as in vivo skin testing and in vitro interferon-gamma (ifn- gamma) testing, utilize purified protein derivatives (ppds), which are poorly-defined mixtures containing many individual antigenic components. it is known that false-positive responses to these reagents can occur in cattle which are not infected with tb, largely because of that ...200111463225
optimal models to evaluate the protective efficacy of tuberculosis has been used widely as a vaccine to prevent tuberculosis (tb) for 80 years, yet there is still considerable controversy about its efficacy. many experimental variables have obscured the true efficacy of bcg. the absence of appropriate animal models for the study of protective efficacy and the lack of in vitro correlates of protective immunity have impeded progress. laboratory animal studies, which have contributed to understanding the pathogenesis, heritability of resistance and immunology ...200111463234
pcr-based method to differentiate the subspecies of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex on the basis of genomic deletions.the classical mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtbc) subspecies include mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterium africanum (subtypes i and ii), mycobacterium bovis (along with the attenuated m. bovis bacillus calmette-guérin [bcg]), and mycobacterium microti; increasingly recognized mtbc groupings include mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae and "mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. canettii." previous investigations have documented each mtbc subspecies as a source of animal and/or human tuberculo ...200312682155
mycobacterium nonchromogenicum in nasal mucus from cattle in a herd infected with bovine test negative cattle from a herd containing an unusually high proportion (194/382) of tuberculin skin test positive cattle were investigated for remaining mycobacterium bovis infected animals. blood samples from the skin test negative cattle, analysed by an antibody elisa and an interferon-gamma assay, were mostly test negative for m. bovis. radiometric culture of nasal mucus samples from 48 of the cattle yielded 22 culture positives with acid-fast bacilli and cording in 6 of these. subcult ...200415066730
association of tuberculin-boosted antibody responses with pathology and cell-mediated immunity in cattle vaccinated with mycobacterium bovis bcg and infected with m. bovis.vaccine development and our understanding of the pathology of bovine tuberculosis in cattle would be greatly facilitated by definition of the immunological correlates of protection and/or pathology. in this study we analyzed humoral immune responses in mycobacterium bovis bcg-vaccinated and control cattle (in particular, the relationship between the intradermal comparative tuberculin skin test and serum immunoglobulin g [igg] responses) against a range of mycobacterial antigens (mpb59, mpb64, mp ...200415102752
estimating the true prevalence of mycobacterium bovis in hunter-harvested white-tailed deer in michigan.apparent prevalence, although useful as a consistent index, may underestimate the true prevalence of disease. in michigan, the ability to estimate the true prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (tb; caused by mycobacterium bovis) in free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) will become increasingly important to accurately assess progress towards eradication. our objectives were threefold: to estimate the true prevalence of m. bovis in free-ranging deer in michigan, to evaluate the effe ...200415137487
specific delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to esat-6 identify tuberculosis-infected cattle.human and bovine tuberculosis have long been detected by skin testing with purified protein derivative (ppd), a complex mix of partly denatured mycobacterial antigens with suboptimal specificity. in the present study, skin tests based on esat-6, a recombinantly produced antigen highly specific for tuberculosis infection, were investigated. although esat-6 was strongly recognized in vitro and induced high levels of gamma interferon, initial investigations demonstrated that higher doses of esat-6 ...200312734217
bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife in spain.mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife and feral species is a potential source of infection for livestock and a threat to protected and endangered species. the aim of this study was to identify spanish wild animal species infected with m. bovis through bacteriological culture and spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) of isolates for epidemiological purposes. this study included samples from red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (dama dama), wild boar (sus scrofa), iberian lynx (lynx ...200415184440
expression of l-selectin (cd62l), cd44, and cd25 on activated bovine t cells.mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle represents a natural host-pathogen interaction and, in addition to its economic and zoonotic impact, represents a model for human tuberculosis. extravasation and trafficking of activated lymphocytes to inflammatory sites is modulated by differential expression of multiple surface adhesion molecules. however, effects of m. bovis infection on adhesion molecule expression have not been characterized. to determine these changes, peripheral blood mononuclear ce ...200312496181
gelatinase activity in mycobacterium bovis protein extract.proteases are well-recognized as virulence factors in different pathologies, resulting in tissue damage potential. despite efforts over the past few years to identify mycobacterial protein antigens, there is little information regarding the role of mycobacterial proteinase activities. in this study, by zymography techniques, we have detected and partially studied some biochemical properties of mycobacterium bovis proteases, such as ph dependency of activity and susceptibility to classical protei ...200212768927
mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus): detection of immunoglobulin specific to crude mycobacterial antigens by elisa.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) have recently emerged as a source of mycobacterium bovis infection for cattle within north america. the objective of this study was to evaluate the antibody response of m. bovis-infected deer to crude mycobacterial antigens. deer were experimentally inoculated with m. bovis strain 1315 either by intratonsilar instillation or by exposure to m. bovis-infected (i.e., in contact) deer. to determine the time course of the response, including the effects of a ...200212423028
vaccinating badgers (meles meles) against mycobacterium bovis: the ecological considerations.bovine tuberculosis (tb) is a serious zoonotic disease, which despite a largely successful test and slaughter programme has persisted in cattle herds in parts of the uk. the badger (meles meles) is widely considered to represent a significant wildlife reservoir for the transmission of mycobacterium bovis to cattle, and has been the subject of a variety of culling strategies since the mid 1970s. nevertheless, the incidence of herd breakdowns has continued to rise, and the efficacy of culling is c ...200312788016
mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae caused one-third of human m. bovis-associated tuberculosis cases reported in germany between 1999 and 2001.the prevalence of the mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae and m. bovis subsp. bovis among german tuberculosis cases caused by the bovine tubercle bacillus from 1999 to 2001 was determined. isolates from 166 patients living in germany and 10 animals were analyzed by conventional laboratory procedures, spoligotyping, and partly by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the gyrb gene. by spoligotyping, 55 of 176 isolates (31%) could be identified as m. bovis subsp. caprae, and 121 ( ...200312843046
an immunohistochemical study on the neuropeptide-producing endocrine cells in the alimentary tract of wrinkled frog, rana rugosa (ranidae).the regional distribution and relative frequency of neurohormonal peptides-producing endocrine cells were demonstrated in the alimentary tract of wrinkled frog, rana rugosa, using eight types of specific antisera raised against mammalian regulatory peptides. the alimentary tract of frog was divided into six portions from esophagus to rectum. most of the cells in the epithelial lining portion, between epithelial cells, were generally spherical or spindle shaped having long cytoplasmic process tha ...200312620241
development of vgamma2vdelta2+ t cell responses during active mycobacterial coinfection of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques requires control of viral infection and immune competence of cd4+ t cells.vgamma2vdelta2+ t cells play a role in antimicrobial responses. it is unknown whether adaptive vgamma2vdelta2+ t cell responses during active mycobacterial coinfection of human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans can be generated during effective antiretroviral treatment. here, simian immunodeficiency virus (siv)mac-infected macaques previously exposed to bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) were reinfected with bcg, were treated either with tenofovir or tenofovir plus indinavir, and were assessed f ...200415378436
use of a macrophage cell line for rapid detection of mycobacterium bovis in diagnostic samples.mycobacterium bovis isolation on bacteriological media from suspected cases of bovine tuberculosis (tb) demands laborious and time-consuming procedures. even polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and radiometric analyses are secondary procedures and not alternatives to bacteriological procedures. therefore, there is a need to develop new techniques aimed at rapid m. bovis detection in diagnostic samples. the human macrophage cell line thp-1 was thus investigated in experiments of m. bovis propagation ...200312781479
effect of diesel exhaust particulate on bacillus calmette-guerin lung infection in mice and attendant changes in lung interstitial lymphoid subpopulations and ifngamma response.the effect of exposure to diesel exhaust particulate (dep) on bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg) lung infection in mice was studied. c57bl/6j female mice were infected with bcg (2.5 x 104 bacteria/mouse) by intrapulmonary instillation, with or without coadministration of dep (100 microg/mouse). five weeks later, mice exposed to dep + bcg had about a four-fold higher bcg load in the lungs than mice exposed only to bcg (p < 0.05). dep treatment alone had no effect on the total number of lung lymphocyt ...200312700415
dna injection in combination with electroporation: a novel method for vaccination of farmed ruminants.injection of plasmid dna encoding antigens into rodents followed by electroporation improved the immune response when compared with injection without electroporation (widera et al. j immunol 2000;164:4635-40; zucchelli et al. j virol 2000;74:11598-607; kadowaki et al. vaccine 2000;18:2779-88). the present study describes the extension of this technology to farm animals, by injecting plasmid dna encoding mycobacterial antigens (mpb70, ag85b and hsp65) into the muscles of goats and cattle using tw ...200312641651
drug susceptibility of brazilian strains of mycobacterium bovis using traditional and molecular techniques.transmission of mycobacterium bovis from cattle to humans has been reported and can cause tuberculosis (tb) and a problem in certain risk populations. therefore, knowledge of resistance of m. bovis towards antibiotics used for therapy of human tb could help avoiding cure delay and treatment cost increase when dealing with drug resistant organisms. we therefore evaluated the susceptibility of m. bovis isolates towards streptomycin, isoniazide, rifampicin, ethambutol, and ethionamide, the first li ...200415654433
genomic approach to identification of mycobacterium bovis diagnostic antigens in cattle.differential delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing with tuberculin purified protein derivatives from mycobacterium bovis and m. avium is the standard for diagnosing bovine tuberculosis. however, improved tests based on defined, specific antigens are urgently needed. in the present study, a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, and bovine models of infection were used to screen mycobacterial proteins for their potential as diagnostic reagents which could be used in a whole-blood ...200312904381
studies on differentiation of tubercle bacilli isolated from human beings, cattle and poultry.i. morphologic and cultural characteristics. 196314066016
implications of tuberculosis in african wildlife and most countries, tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis is mainly a disease of domestic cattle and can be controlled successfully by means of a test-and-slaughter program. once the infection spills over into a wild animal species with maintenance host potential, conventional measures are no longer sufficient to provide effective control. in south africa, african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) represent the most important maintenance host for m. bovis. apart from transmitting the disease to pr ...200212381600
bovine tuberculosis in michigan wildlife and livestock.since 1994, the state of michigan has recognized a problem with bovine tuberculosis (tb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, in wild white-tailed deer from a 12-county area in northeastern lower michigan. a total of 65,000 free-ranging deer have been tested, and 340 have been found to be positive for m. bovis. the disease has been found in other wildlife species, and, in 1998, in domestic cattle, where to date 13 beef cattle and 2 dairy cattle herds have been diagnosed with bovine tb. unfortunately, ...200212381603
evaluation of susceptibility of mycobacterium bovis to antituberculous drugs by radiometric bactec 460tb system.susceptibility of mycobacterium bovis strains to antituberculous drugs (isoniazid and rifampin) was detected by radiometric bactec 460tb system. m.bovis strains were isolated from tissue samples showing tuberculous lesions collected at an abbattoir from cattle belonging to 47 tuberculosis outbreaks occurring in northern italy in 1995-1999. forty-six out of 61 strains (75.4%) resulted susceptible to both isoniazid and rifampin. thirteen strains (21.3%) were resistant to isoniazid only. no strains ...200312737201
polymorphic nucleotide within the promoter of nitrate reductase (narghji) is specific for mycobacterium tuberculosis.mycobacterium tuberculosis rapidly reduces nitrate, leading to the accumulation of nitrite. this characteristic served for the past 40 years to differentiate m. tuberculosis from other members of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtbc), such as mycobacterium bovis (non-bcg [referred to here as simply "m. bovis"]), mycobacterium bovis bcg, mycobacterium africanum, or mycobacterium microti. here, a narg deletion in m. tuberculosis showed that rapid nitrite accumulation of m. tuberculosis is ...200312843072
the wc1(+) gammadelta t-cell population in cattle: a possible role in resistance to intracellular infection.intracellular infections are important in veterinary medicine and detailed understanding of the associated immune responses is needed for optimal development of strategies based on diagnosis and vaccination. it is generally accepted that cell-mediated immune responses are of greatest importance in intracellular infections and recent studies from several bovine models of infection indicate that wc1(+) gammadelta t-cells have a number of possible levels of involvement, which remain incompletely de ...200212383642
cytotoxic t-cell responses to mycobacterium bovis during experimental infection of cattle with bovine tuberculosis.cytotoxic t-cell responses are thought to play a significant role in the host defence against mycobacterial infections. little is understood about such responses of cattle to mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. the work described in this report demonstrates the activity of cytotoxic cells during experimental infection of cattle with m. bovis. the cytotoxic cells were found to have the ability to specifically lyse macrophages infected with m. bovis and were detected i ...200314511237
experimental infection of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) with mycobacterium bovis by conjunctival new zealand, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is the major wildlife reservoir of mycobacterium bovis. procedures for experimentally infecting possums are required to study the pathogenesis of the disease and to challenge possums in vaccine efficacy studies. conjunctival instillation of a suspension of m. bovis was effective in producing bovine tuberculosis in captive possums. the experimental disease progressed slowly with the development of palpable lesions in superficial lymph n ...200312902183
mycobacterium bovis (bovine tb) exposure as a recreational risk for hunters: results of a michigan hunter survey, 2001.tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis (bovine tb) is endemic in the white-tailed deer population of north-eastern michigan. hunters may be exposed to m. bovis via cutaneous inoculation while field dressing deer or by ingestion of undercooked venison. michigan hunters have received inconsistent messages about their risk of acquiring tuberculosis from recreational exposure to deer. the most common health advice offered has been to wear gloves while field dressing deer and to cook venison prod ...200314552572
modulation of the bovine delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to defined mycobacterial antigens by a synthetic bacterial lipopeptide.the use of defined protein and peptide antigens can overcome specificity limitations of purified protein derivatives in the detection of bovine tuberculosis when the antigens are used in blood-based tests. since the use of these specific antigens as skin test reagents could have practical advantages, we investigated the potential of mycobacterium bovis-specific antigens to stimulate delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) responses in cattle experimentally infected with m. bovis. a cocktail of the r ...200314573663
effect of pasteurization on survival of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk.mycobacterium paratuberculosis (mptb) is the causative agent of johne's disease of ruminant animals including cattle, goats, and sheep. it has been suggested that this organism is associated with crohn's disease in humans, and milk is a potential source of human exposure to this organism. a total of 18, including 7 regular batch and 11 high temperature short time (htst) pasteurization experiments, were conducted in this study. raw milk or ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk samples were spik ...200212512593
prevalence and spatial distribution of bovine tuberculosis in brushtail possums on a forest-scrub margin.tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in 36 of 68 (53%) brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) trapped in august 1992 from a population of exceptionally low density (trap catch <3%) on a forest-scrub margin in westland, new zealand. the prevalence of tuberculosis in possums, based solely on gross lesions, was at least twice that previously recorded in new zealand, and was about seven times that recorded from the same population in 1980. more male (66%) than female (33%) pos ...199416031762
functional analysis of the mycobacterium tuberculosis mprab two-component signal transduction system.the mechanisms utilized by mycobacterium tuberculosis to establish, maintain, or reactivate from latent infection in the host are largely unknown but likely include genes that mediate adaptation to conditions encountered during persistence. previously, a two-component signal transduction system, mprab, was found to be required in m. tuberculosis for establishment and maintenance of persistent infection in a tissue- and stage-specific fashion. to begin to characterize the role of this system in m ...200314638785
induction of protective cellular immunity against mycobacterium tuberculosis by recombinant attenuated self-destructing listeria monocytogenes strains harboring eukaryotic expression plasmids for antigen 85 complex and mpb/mpt51.we report here the induction of specific protective cellular immunity against mycobacterium tuberculosis by the employment of vaccination with recombinant attenuated listeria monocytogenes strains. we constructed self-destructing attenuated l. monocytogenes delta 2 strains carrying eukaryotic expression plasmids for the antigen 85 complex (ag85a and ag85b) and for mpb/mpt51 (mycobacterial protein secreted by m. bovis bcg/mycobacterial protein secreted by m. tuberculosis) molecules. infection of ...200415039321
breakdown severity during a bovine tuberculosis episode as a predictor of future herd breakdowns in ireland.a retrospective cohort study of irish cattle herds investigated whether the severity of a herd's bovine tuberculosis (btb) breakdown was a predictor of the hazard of a future btb breakdown in that herd. data on 10,926 herds not having had btb in 1995 (the "non-exposed" group) were obtained using a 10% random sample from all herds without btb in 1995. data on 6757 herds that had a new btb breakdown in 1995 (the "exposed" group) were obtained and categorized into five increasing exposure-severity ...200415158568
immune response to postprimary tuberculosis in mice: mycobacterium tuberculosis and miycobacterium bovis bacille calmette-guérin induce equal protection.we addressed the question of whether protective immunity induced by natural infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis and that induced by vaccination with mycobacterium bovis bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) differ in the murine model. we infected mice with m. tuberculosis erdman, cured them by chemotherapy, and subsequently reinfected them with a low dose of m. tuberculosis h37rv. the course of tuberculosis was compared with that in mice previously vaccinated with bcg danish 1331. protection again ...200415243936
gamma interferon production by bovine gamma delta t cells following stimulation with mycobacterial mycolylarabinogalactan peptidoglycan.a large percentage of lymphocytes in the blood of cattle express the gamma delta t-cell receptor, but specific functions for these cells have not yet been clearly defined. there is evidence, however, that human, murine, and bovine gamma delta t cells have a role in the immune response to mycobacteria. this study investigated the ability of bovine gamma delta t cells to expand and produce gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) in response to stimulation with mycobacterial products. bovine gamma delta t cel ...200415271921
epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis infections of pigs and wild boars using a molecular approach.a molecular epidemiological approach was applied to establishing a possible role for the wild boar as a natural reservoir of mycobacterium bovis in sierra de villuercas, western spain; an area free of farmed cattle and wild deer populations. spoligo and vntr typing were used over a three year period to study the epidemiological relationship between the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in extensively bred iberian pigs and indigenous wild boar. the 37 sampled wild boar showed different degre ...200314637044
genetic resistance to bovine tuberculosis in the iberian wild boar.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is an important re-emerging zoonotic disease, causing major economic losses and constraining international trade of animals and their products. despite eradication programmes, some countries continue to encounter outbreaks, mainly due to wildlife acting as primary hosts or reservoirs. while the genetic component of tuberculosis in humans and cattle is well documented, the role of genetic factors as modulators of btb resistance remains unclear for natural populations. to ...200516101786
bovine tuberculosis in a free ranging red fox (vulpes vulpes) from doñana national park (spain).during 1997 and 1998, a survey of iberian carnivores was conducted to study the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in the doñana national park and surrounding areas in southwestern spain. post-mortem examinations were done on seven red foxes (vulpes vulpes), two egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon), one weasel (mustela nivalis), two genets (genetta genetta), one iberian lynx (lynx pardinus), one eurasian badger (meles meles), and two polecats (mustela putorius). lesions suggestive of bovine ...200516107680
tuberculosis in tanzanian wildlife.bovine tuberculosis, caused by mycobacterium bovis, is a pathogen of growing concern in free-ranging wildlife in africa, but little is known about the disease in tanzanian wildlife. here, we report the infection status of mycobacterium bovis in a range of wildlife species sampled from protected areas in northern tanzania. m. bovis was isolated from 11.1% (2/18) migratory wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) and 11.1% (1/9) topi (damaliscus lunatus) sampled systematically in 2000 during a meat crop ...200516107683
improved serodetection of mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers (meles meles) using multiantigen test formats.despite attempts to control bovine tuberculosis, the incidence of disease in great britain continues to rise. in gb, the european badger (meles meles) is a reservoir of infection with mycobacterium bovis. in an effort to improve the serodetection of badger tuberculosis, we examined sera from m. bovis culture-positive and culture-negative badgers for their ability to recognize m. bovis antigens, using a multi-antigen print immunoassay (mapia). depending on the antigens used in the mapia, the assa ...200312867095
revisiting the evolution of mycobacterium bovis.though careful consideration has been placed towards genetic characterization of tubercle bacillus isolates causing disease in humans, those causing disease predominantly among wild and domesticated mammals have received less attention. in contrast to mycobacterium tuberculosis, whose host range is largely specific to humans, m. bovis and "m bovis-like" organisms infect a broad range of animal species beyond their most prominent host in cattle. to determine whether strains of variable genomic co ...200516159772
investigation of the role of cd8+ t cells in bovine tuberculosis in vivo.mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (tb), and it has the potential to induce disease in humans. cd8(+) t cells (cd8 cells) have been shown to respond to mycobacterial antigens in humans, cattle, and mice. in mice, cd8 cells have been shown to play a role in protection against mycobacterial infection. to determine the role of cd8 cells in bovine tb in vivo, two groups of calves were infected with the virulent m. bovis strain af2122/97. after infection, one group was ...200312874305
usefulness of the genotype mtbc assay for differentiating species of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in cultures obtained from clinical specimens.a novel dna strip assay, genotype mtbc, was evaluated for differentiation of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species from 77 positive liquid cultures in clinical practice. species identification (m. tuberculosis [71 strains], mycobacterium bovis subsp. bovis [5 strains], and mycobacterium africanum subtype i [1 strain]) results were identical to conventional results. the sensitivity was slightly higher for this test than for the accuprobe assay.200415365028
molecular typing of mycobacterium bovis isolates from south-east brazil by spoligotyping and rflp.the identification of 163 strains of mycobacterium bovis by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and microbiological tests was carried out on 252 tuberculous-like lesions (tlls) collected from slaughtered cattle in south-east brazil. this study compared the usefulness of three genotyping techniques, is6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp), polymorphic guanine-cytosine-rich sequence (pgrs)-rflp and direct repeat (dr)-spoligotyping, as applied to m. bovis isolates. based on is6110-rflp g ...200515876225
bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to africa.bovine tuberculosis (tb) is a disease characterised by progressive development of specific granulomatous lesions or tubercles in lung tissue, lymph nodes or other organs. mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of the disease. bovine species, including bison and buffaloes, are susceptible to the disease, but nearly all warm-blooded animals can be affected. all species are not equally susceptible to the disease; some are spill-over (end) hosts and others maintenance hosts. in africa, bovine tb ...200415305473
is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (tse's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called bse or "mad cow disease"), creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. they remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. but between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in england came down with cjd, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. current mad cow diagnosis lies solely in the detection of late appearing "prions", an acronym for hypothesized, ge ...200415325025
bovine tuberculosis in wild boar (sus scrofa), red deer (cervus elaphus) and cattle (bos taurus) in a mediterranean ecosystem (1992-2004).during the last 12 years, an increasing frequency in condemnation of hunted red deer and wild boar carcasses due to the presence of tubercle-like lesions has been observed in extremadura (western spain). before 1993, tuberculosis was a very rare finding in hunted animals. the current tuberculosis regional prevalence in cattle approaches 0.4% after years of expensive test and slaughter campaigns. it is imperative to investigate the epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis infection in red deer and wil ...200616297475
new latex bead agglutination assay for differential diagnosis of cattle infected with mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.extensive studies have shown that the current assays used to identify cattle infected with mycobacterium bovis or mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis are not sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all infected animals, especially animals recently infected with the pathogens. in the present report we show that these limitations might be overcome with a latex bead agglutination assay (lbaa). with the specific immunodominant epitope (esat6-p) of m. bovis, we developed an lbaa and enz ...200415539508
spoligotyping of mycobacterium bovis isolates found in manitoba.spoligotyping was applied to 44 isolates of mycobacterium bovis obtained from the canadian province of manitoba. isolates were obtained from submissions of elk (n = 16), deer (n = 1), and cattle (n = 27) tissues spanning the period of 1990 to early 2003. two spoligotype profiles were obtained differing only in the reaction with oligonucleotide number 12. forty of the 44 isolates (90.9%) hybridized with oligonucleotide 12 (mb-1 type), while the remaining 4 of 44 (9.1%) did not show a signal at po ...200515971679
antigen recognition by serum antibodies in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with mycobacterium bovis.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) have emerged as reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis in northern america. for tuberculosis surveillance of deer, antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because deer are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. sera collected sequentially from 25 mycobacterium bovis-infected and 7 noninfected deer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), immunoblotting, and multiantigen print immunoassay (mapia ...200415358642
human tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis--new york city, march 2004, a u.s.-born boy aged 15 months in new york city (nyc) died of peritoneal tuberculosis (tb) caused by mycobacterium bovis infection. m. bovis, a bacterial species of the m. tuberculosis complex, is a pathogen that primarily infects cattle. however, humans also can become infected, most commonly through consumption of unpasteurized milk products from infected cows. in industrialized nations, human tb caused by m. bovis is rare because of milk pasteurization and culling of infected c ...200515973241
combined dna vaccines formulated either in dda or in saline protect cattle from mycobacterium bovis infection.we tested the effectiveness of combined dna vaccines encoding antigens ag85b, mpt64 and mpt83 from mycobacterium tuberculosis on cattle. our results showed that calves treated with combined dna vaccines in the presence of dimethyldioctyldecyl ammonium bromide (dda) or saline elicited a strong gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) response 1 or 2 months after the third vaccination. all three antigens induced substantial levels of ifn-gamma production 1 month after the bacterial challenge, when the bcg-dri ...200515917109
the effect of repeated tuberculin skin testing of cattle on immune responses and disease following experimental infection with mycobacterium bovis.the comparative intradermal skin test, in which a delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) response to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (ppd) from mycobacterium bovis and m. avium is assessed and compared, may be used repeatedly on non-infected animals on farms where bovine tuberculosis (tb) has occurred. a skin test is known to affect subsequent skin tests in infected animals. the reported study was to determine whether repeated skin testing prior to infection with m. bovis might affect the ...200415541793
improving protective efficacy of bcg vaccination for wildlife against bovine tuberculosis.possums are a wildlife vector of bovine tuberculosis in new zealand. vaccination of possums with bcg is being considered as a measure to control the spread of bovine tuberculosis to cattle and deer. delivery via oral bait is feasible but bcg is degraded in the stomach. the aim was to determine whether ranitidine (zantac) would reduce gastric acidity and enhance the efficacy of intragastrically administered bcg. a dose of 75 mg reduced gastric acidity for at least 4 h. thus, possums were vaccinat ...200515766942
a review of tuberculosis science and policy in great britain.bovine tuberculosis is one of the most complex animal health problems that the farming industry in great britain faces today. in leading and facilitating the changes to policy required to reverse the long-term upward trend in the disease, government is heavily reliant on evidence emerging from its wide-ranging bovine tuberculosis research programme. the paper outlines development of policy in great britain and its relationship to research findings.200616343818
wildlife tuberculosis in south african conservation areas: implications and challenges.tuberculosis, caused by mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in african buffalo in south africa's kruger national park in 1990. over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the hluhluwe-imfolozi park, the third larges ...200616343819
rapid differentiation of mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium tuberculosis based on a 12.7-kb fragment by a single tube multiplex-pcr.the aim of this work was the design and validation of a rapid and easy single tube multiplex-pcr (m-pcr) assay for the unequivocal differential detection of mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium tuberculosis. oligonucleotide primers were based on the uninterrupted 229-bp sequence in the m. bovis genome and a unique 12.7-kb insertion sequence from the m. tuberculosis genome, which is responsible for species-specific genomic polymorphism between these two closely related pathogens. the m-pcr assay ...200516005166
protective immunity against mycobacterium bovis induced by vaccination with rv3109c--a member of the esat-6 gene a number of clinical studies the current tb vaccine, mycobacterium bovis bacille calmette-guerin (bcg), has provided little or no protection against pulmonary tuberculosis in cattle and man. a new generation of vaccines is therefore required to replace or supplement bcg. safety concerns surrounding a number of strategies make protein subunits an attractive approach. moreover, novel prime-boost strategies based on primary immunisations with bcg are not only showing promise but also present a c ...200515780437
typing of mycobacterium bovis isolates from cattle and other animals in the same locality. 198816031436
mycobacterium bovis identification by a molecular method from post-mortem inspected cattle obtained in abattoirs of mato grosso do sul, brazil.the presence of mycobacterium bovis in bovine carcasses with lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was evaluated. seventy-two carcass samples were selected during slaughter inspection procedures in abattoirs in the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil. seventeen (23.6%) of samples showed colonies suggestive of mycobacteria that were confirmed to be acid-fast bacilli by ziehl-neelsen staining. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers specific for m. bovis identified m. bovis in 13 (76.5%) isolat ...200616410964
molecular fingerprinting of clinical isolates of mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium tuberculosis from india by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp).forty mycobacterial strains comprising clinical indian isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis (28 field isolates +1h37 rv) and mycobacterium bovis (10 field isolates +1 an5) were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (rflp) using is6110 and is1081 probes. most of these strains originated from dairy cattle herd and human patients from indian veterinary research institute (ivri) campus isolated from the period of 1986 to 2000. our study showed presence of 8 copies of is611 ...200415613817
a study of bovine tuberculosis in domestic animals and wildlife in the mackenzie basin and surrounding areas using dna fingerprinting.the mackenzie basin, an area of about 5150 km2 in the south island of new zealand, was free of bovine tuberculosis prior to 1980. during the next 13 years, the majority of the cattle and deer herds in this area became infected with mycobacterium bovis. the history of infection in the mackenzie basin has all the characteristics of a newly developed region of endemic tuberculosis with a wildlife reservoir of m. bovis. tuberculous possums and ferrets were found in the mackenzie basin and both may h ...199516031865
interactions between beef cattle and simulated tuberculous possums on pasture.brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) were sedated with ketamine and placed within a fenced observation area with 17 hereford cross steers. the behaviour of the sedated possums simulated that of terminally ill possums. behavioural analysis was carried out during eight observation periods in which sedated possums were successfully released and interactions occurred. cattle were attracted from over 50 m away by the movements of the possums, and for 34% of observation time cattle investigated t ...199516031868
evaluation of historical factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of mycobacterium bovis infection among wildlife in determine historical events leading to establishment of bovine tuberculosis in the white-tailed deer population in the northeastern corner of the lower peninsula (nelp) of michigan and describe factors relevant to the present outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in michigan.200616579753
resistance of mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos) to experimental inoculation with mycobacterium bovis.the purpose of this study was to investigate whether mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos) are susceptible to infection with mycobacterium bovis by either oral or intratracheal inoculation and to assess their potential role in the spread of bovine tuberculosis. six ducks were orally inoculated with 1.0 x 10(5) colony-forming units of m. bovis, six ducks were intratracheally inoculated with the same dose, and six ducks served as sham-inoculated controls. the study length was 90 days postinoculation, ...200515839428
control and eradication of animal diseases in new zealand is free from all the major epidemic (office international des epizooties list a) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. the once endemic conditions of sheep scab (psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (brucella abortus), hydatids (echinococcus granulosus) and aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. anthrax (bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and pullorum disease (salmonella pullorum) has effe ...200216032229
the re-emergence of mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) after localised possum examine the spatial and temporal pattern of mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) infection in a population of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) after localised possum eradication.200316032303
identification of members of mycobacterium avium species by accu-probes, serotyping, and single is900, is901, is1245 and is901-flanking region pcr with internal standards.from mycobacterium avium species mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n=961), mycobacterium a. avium (n=677), mycobacterium a. silvaticum (n=5), and mycobacterium a. hominissuis (n=1566) were examined, and from mycobacterium tuberculosis complex m. tuberculosis (n=2), mycobacterium bovis (n=13), m. bovis bcg (n=4), and mycobacterium caprae (n=10) were examined. from other mycobacterial species mycobacterium intracellulare (n=60) and atypical mycobacteria (n=256) including mycobacterium f ...200616061296
effect of oral vaccination of cattle with lipid-formulated bcg on immune responses and protection against bovine tuberculosis.cattle were given mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg) in a lipid-based formulation via the oral route and tested for immune responses and protection against a challenge with virulent m. bovis. calves were vaccinated by orally administering a pellet containing 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) of bcg, or 10 pellets containing a total of 10(9) cfu of bcg, whereas positive controls were injected subcutaneously with 10(6) cfu of bcg. all of the subcutaneously vaccinated calves produced ...200515855017
discrimination of isolates of mycobacterium bovis in northern ireland on the basis of variable numbers of tandem repeats (vntrs).the ability to reproducibly discriminate mycobacterium bovis isolates and trace their transmission has the potential to clarify sources of infection and major routes of transmission for bovine tuberculosis (tb). a pcr-based genotyping assay has been developed to discriminate between strains of m bovis by examining multiple sites in its genome that consist of variable numbers of tandem repeats (vntrs). the discriminatory power and reproducibility of this vntr typing has been compared with that of ...200516244231
cloning, biochemical properties, and distribution of mycobacterial haloalkane dehalogenases.haloalkane dehalogenases are enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond by a hydrolytic mechanism. genomes of mycobacterium tuberculosis and m. bovis contain at least two open reading frames coding for the polypeptides showing a high sequence similarity with biochemically characterized haloalkane dehalogenases. we describe here the cloning of the haloalkane dehalogenase genes dmba and dmbb from m. bovis 5033/66 and demonstrate the dehalogenase activity of their translation pro ...200516269704
direct detection and identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium bovis in bovine samples by a novel nested pcr assay: correlation with conventional techniques.mycobacterium tuberculosis and m. bovis infect animals and humans. their epidemiology in developed and developing countries differs, owing to differences in the implementation of preventive measures (world health organization, 1999). identification and differentiation of these closely related mycobacterial species would help to determine the source, reservoirs of infection, and disease burden due to diverse mycobacterial pathogens. the utility of the hupb gene (rv2986c in m. tuberculosis, or mb3 ...200516272503
bovine natural killer cells acquire cytotoxic/effector activity following activation with il-12/15 and reduce mycobacterium bovis bcg in infected macrophages.bovine natural killer (nk) cells were recently identified by positive selection of a nk cell-activating receptor p46 (nkp46)+ cd3- lymphocyte population, which expresses cd25 and cd8 and lyses tumor cell lines following stimulation with recombinant interleukin-2. in the current work, we characterize the cytotoxic/effector potential of a cd3(-)cd8(-)cd11b- population isolated through negative selection of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes. this population is cd25(lo)cd62(hi) when isolated and be ...200616275895
preliminary observations on mycobacterium spp. in dairy cattle in ecuador.this study evaluated bovine tuberculosis in mejia canton, a major dairy cattle production region in ecuador. randomly selected cattle (1,012 from 59 farms) classified according to herd size were tested by the single tuberculin test (stt). sixty days later, positive reactors were tested again by the comparative tuberculin test (ctt). in addition, tissue samples from two stt-ctt-positive reactors detected on a farm were obtained in a local slaughterhouse and analyzed bacteriologically. a total of ...200616896141
an update on bovine tuberculosis programmes in latin american and caribbean countries.of the approximately 374 million cattle in latin america and the caribbean, 70% are held in areas where rates of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle are higher than 1%. the remaining 30% are in countries where infection affects less than 1% of cattle, including 62 million in countries where bovine tuberculosis infection is virtually nil. measures for controlling bovine tuberculosis are partially or extensively applied in most of the countries in the region. these measures are based on test a ...200616310980
diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle by use of the gamma-interferon (bovigam) assay.the strategic use of the gamma-interferon (ifn-gamma) assay (bovigam) can provide a means for the early identification of mycobacterium bovis infected cattle, thus ensuring their removal from an infected herd. when used in parallel with the tuberculin test, it is capable of identifying infected cattle, which might otherwise not be detected until later, if at all. the early detection and removal of these animals reduces the risk that they will become a source of infection for other cattle. when t ...200616321478
effects of sustained control of brushtail possums on levels of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and brushtail possum populations from hohotaka, new examine the effect of reducing the abundance of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) on the distribution and prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis, tb) in possums and the incidence of tb in domestic cattle on a group of farms in the central north island, new zealand.199916032090
thinking the unthinkable: alzheimer's, creutzfeldt-jakob and mad cow disease: the age-related reemergence of virulent, foodborne, bovine tuberculosis or losing your mind for the sake of a shake or burger.the possibility of the age-related reemergence of foodborne mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) as a vector for creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd or human mad cow disease) and mad cow disease itself is real. the cdc reported last may of an outbreak of cjd linked to the consumption of meat contaminated "with the agent causing" bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) in a new jersey racetrack between the time frame 1995-2004. in the opinion of experts, ample justification exists for considering ...200515694685
evaluation of surveillance strategies for bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) using an individual based epidemiological model.the netherlands holds the bovine tuberculosis-free (btb-free) status according to european union standards, but in recent years small outbreaks of the infection have occurred. after the last outbreak in 1999 with 10 infected herds the question raised if the current surveillance system, visual inspection of carcasses at the slaughterhouse, is efficient enough to detect infected cattle in time and to maintain the official btb-free status. through epidemiological modelling, the risk of a major outb ...200515748757
managing the wildlife reservoir of mycobacterium bovis: the michigan, usa, experience.historical, social and economic factors combined to provide a focus where bovine tuberculosis has become established in free-ranging wildlife in northeastern lower michigan. white-tailed deer, the primary reservoir and maintenance host of tuberculosis, are highly valued by the public, and particularly hunters, for cultural and economic reasons. since 1995, significant progress has been made in defining and reducing the reservoir of tuberculosis in deer. as yet, no other wildlife species has been ...200616376030
pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis: the role of experimental models of many countries, test-and-slaughter policies based on tuberculin skin testing have made a significant impact on the control of bovine tuberculosis (caused by infection with mycobacterium bovis). however, in some countries these policies have not proved as effective and improved disease control strategies are required (including improved diagnostic tests and development of vaccines). the host pathogen interactions in bovine tuberculosis are very complex. while studies of the disease in naturall ...200616384665
the experience of new european union member states concerning the control of bovine tuberculosis.on 1 may 2004, 10 new states joined the european union, including cyprus (cy), the czech republic (cr), estonia (es), hungary (hu), latvia (la), lithuania (li), malta (ma), poland (po), slovakia (sk), and slovenia (sn). using oie and published data, this paper summarises the status of bovine and human tuberculosis in animals in these countries between 1996 and 2003. national control programmes against bovine tuberculosis in cattle have been successful: the current herd incidence of this disease ...200616330167
immunohistochemical markers augment evaluation of vaccine efficacy and disease severity in bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg) vaccinated cattle challenged with mycobacterium bovis.development of necrotic granulomas in response to mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle is pathognomonic for bovine tuberculosis. previously our laboratory reported on m. bovis granuloma classification by stage of lesion advancement within bovine lymph nodes and developed immunohistochemical markers to further characterize these granulomas. in this study of bovine lymph node granulomas we applied this classification system to assess the dynamics of vaccination challenge. lymph nodes collected ...200616540176
cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis in a child with interleukin-12 receptor beta-1 deficiency.we report a patient with complete interleukin-12 receptor beta-1 deficiency associated with cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. the patient experienced bacille calmette guérin, mycobacterium chelonae, and salmonella enteritidis infection. vasculitis affecting both small arteries and postcapillary venules due to deposition of immune complexes was probably caused by s. enteritidis and/or m. chelonae infection.200616615980
use of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing bovine tuberculosis in addition to causing large losses to the cattle industry, mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent for bovine tuberculosis, is a serious public health issue because it can potentially infect humans. diagnosis based on isolation and identification of the bacillus is tedious and may take weeks. the diagnosis of m. bovis by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), using species-specific primers, is fast, highly sensitive and of great value in epidemiological studies. in this study, deoxyribonucleic acid ...200516642775
a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections (johne's disease) in cattle.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for the diagnosis of johne's disease (jd), caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, were developed using whole bacilli treated with formaldehyde (called welisa) or surface antigens obtained by treatment of m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacilli with formaldehyde and then brief sonication (called selisa). elisa plates were coated with either whole bacilli or sonicated antigens and tested for reactivity against serum obtained from jd-posi ...200616682472
low-dose mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle results in pathology indistinguishable from that of high-dose understand the relevance of aerogenic transmission for bovine tuberculosis, it is important to study cattle experimentally infected with low doses of mycobacterium bovis that result in pathology of the lower respiratory tract resembling that of most naturally infected cattle. in this study, we have compared and contrasted granuloma distribution and formation from cattle infected with low doses (1-1000 colony-forming units (cfu)) of m. bovis over 24 weeks. we also studied the expression of the ...200716723276
use of rmpb70 protein and esat-6 peptide as antigens for comparison of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent, immunochromatographic, and latex bead agglutination assays for serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.current assays used to detect mycobacterium bovis infection lack accuracy, especially for recently infected animals, or are impractical for rapid field diagnostic applications. to overcome these limitations with serological assays, a synthetic peptide derived from early secretory antigenic target 6 (esat6-p) and a recombinant major secreted immunogenic protein (rmpb70) of m. bovis were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (eia), an immunochromatographic assay (icga), and a latex bead agg ...200516145098
minimum infective dose of mycobacterium bovis in cattle.the aim of this work was to determine the minimum infective dose of mycobacterium bovis necessary to stimulate specific immune responses and generate pathology in cattle. four groups of calves (20 animals) were infected by the intratracheal route with 1,000, 100, 10, or 1 cfu of m. bovis. specific immune responses (gamma interferon [ifn-gamma] and interleukin-4 [il-4] responses) to mycobacterial antigens were monitored throughout the study, and the responses to the tuberculin skin test were asse ...200516177318
early antibody responses to experimental mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle.bovine tuberculosis persists as a costly zoonotic disease in numerous countries despite extensive eradication and control efforts. sequential serum samples obtained from mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle were evaluated for seroreactivity to mycobacterial antigens. animals received m. bovis by aerosol, intratonsil, intranasal, or intratracheal inoculation. assays included the multiantigen print immunoassay for determination of antigen recognition patterns, immunoblot analysis for sensitive kine ...200616760322
regionalization: a strategy that will assist with bovine tuberculosis control and facilitate is expected that the revised chapter on bovine tuberculosis in the terrestrial animal health code of the office internationale des epizooties (oie) will embrace regionalization as a functional means of assisting countries, states or regions to meet the requirements for freedom from tuberculosis and to facilitate trade. the benefits and applications of regionalization, which comprises zoning and compartmentalisation, are discussed. regionalization requires that a country's veterinary administr ...200616337346
selective delivery of rifampicin incorporated into poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres after phagocytotic uptake by alveolar macrophages, and the killing effect against intracellular mycobacterium bovis calmette-guérin.macrophages and their phagocytotic abilities play a dominant role for defense against infected organisms. however, mycobacterium tuberculosis can survive in the phagosomes of macrophages. in this study, the effective delivery of a drug and the killing effect of tubercle bacilli within macrophages were investigated utilizing the phagocytotic uptake of rifampicin (rfp) that had been incorporated into poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (plga) microspheres. the microspheres were composed of plga that ...200616879999
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