PMID(sorted descending)
tracing the origins of mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis in humans in the usa to cattle in mexico using compare genotypes of mycobacterium bovis strains from humans in southern california with genotypes of m. bovis strains in cattle in mexico and the usa to explore the possible origins of human infections.201020399697
risk factors for herd breakdown with bovine tuberculosis in 148 cattle herds in the south west of england.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is caused by mycobacterium bovis. the disease has a long latent period, heterogenous spread, can infect many species and can persist in the environment. in the uk, the rate of herd breakdowns (hbd) with btb is increasing. a retrospective cohort study of 148 cattle herds was set up to investigate risk factors for hbd from october 2001 to november 2004. herds were selected from farms located in the randomised badger culling trial (rbct) and comprised holdings (24%) that w ...201020399521
chicken scfvs and bivalent scfv-c(h) fusions directed against hsp65 of mycobacterium bovis.two chicken single-chain variable region antibody fragments (scfvs) that recognised the 65 kda heat-shock protein (hsp65) of mycobacterium bovis were selected from a large semi-synthetic phage displayed library. both recognised hsp65 in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and immunoblots and retained their activity during storage. neither, however, could function as the capture reagent in a sandwich elisa when immobilised on polystyrene. to establish whether they could be engineer ...201020299243
[zoonotic aspects of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis].pathogens transmitting between the environment, wildlife, livestock and humans are major health concerns for human and domestic animal and in addition, for the sustainability of agriculture and the conservation of wildlife. among pathogens causing zoonosis, genus mycobacterium including mycobacterium tuberculosis, m. bovis, m. avium is thought to be important. the most important bacteria as an etiological agent of zoonosis in genus mycobacterium is m. bovis. m. bovis is the causative agent of bo ...201020229820
production and characterization of two monoclonal antibodies to bovine tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha) and their cross-reactivity with ovine tnf-alpha.tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha) is an innate pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in protection against intracellular pathogens. existing methods for measuring tnf-alpha production and function in ruminants are limited to elisa and many rely on polyclonal antisera. with a view to developing improved detection methods for bovine (bov) tnf-alpha, monoclonal antibodies (mab) were produced by immunising mice with a plasmid encoding bov tnf-alpha. two of the resulting mab, termed cc327 and cc3 ...201020207016
intradermal tuberculin testing of wild african lions (panthera leo) naturally exposed to infection with mycobacterium bovis.african lions in the southern half of kruger national park (knp) are infected with mycobacterium bovis. historically, reliable detection of mycobacteriosis in lions was limited to necropsy and microbiological analysis of lesion material collected from emaciated and ailing or repeat-offender lions. we report on a method of cervical intradermal tuberculin testing of lions and its interpretation capable of identifying natural exposure to m. bovis. infected lions (n=52/95) were identified by detaile ...201020188497
evidence of genetic resistance of cattle to infection with mycobacterium bovis.anecdotal evidence points to genetic variation in resistance of cattle to infection with mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb), and published experimental evidence in deer and cattle suggests significant genetic variation in resistance and reactivity to diagnostic tests. however, such genetic variation has not been properly quantified in the united kingdom dairy cattle population; it is possible that it exists and may be a factor influencing the occurrence of btb. ...201020172243
sensitivity, specificity, and confounding factors of novel serological tests used for the rapid diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).in this study, novel serological tests were used to detect tuberculosis (tb) in groups of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) varying in disease status or possible confounding factors. groups of deer naturally or experimentally infected with mycobacterium bovis and animals vaccinated against paratuberculosis were studied, as were uninfected animals and animals naturally or experimentally infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. sera were assayed using two rapid lateral-flow tests, ...201020164247
evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using milk samples as a potential screening test of bovine tuberculosis of dairy cows in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using bulk tank milk samples was evaluated as a screening test for bovine tuberculosis (tb), a contagious chronic disease of cattle. an elisa with mpb70, a major antigen of mycobacterium bovis was performed using paired sets of milk and sera samples from 33 tuberculin-positive and 43 tuberculin-negative cattle. anti-mpb70 antibodies were detected in milk samples and there was a significant correlation between seroreactivities of milk and sera samples ...201020060551
using bcg, mpt-51 and ag85 as antigens in an indirect elisa for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.this study evaluated the mycobacterium tuberculosis protein antigen mpt-51, the trimeric antigen 85 (ag85) complex, and bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) in an indirect elisa to diagnose bovine tuberculosis (tb) from serum samples. serum was collected from 208 intra-dermal tuberculin test (itt)-positive and 54 itt-negative animals from a region where bovine tb is endemic. using the ag85 and bcg antigens, the indirect elisa was able to discriminate itt-positive from itt-negative animals. this level ...201120022773
bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in chadian cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb) today primarily affects developing countries. in africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for btb in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. however, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for th ...200920011046
gold nanoprobe assay for the identification of mycobacteria of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.members of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtc) are causative agents of human and animal tuberculosis. this complex encompasses several phylogenetically related species, including m. tuberculosis, the main aetiological agent of human tuberculosis, and mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, a relevant worldwide zoonosis. clear epidemiological evaluation of appropriate and effective treatment requires unambiguous differentiation between mtc members. routine diagno ...201019930276
correlation between lymph node pathology and chemokine expression during bovine tuberculosis.bovine tuberculosis is a disease of worldwide importance yet comparatively little is known about chemokine responses to infection. we report on the levels of chemokine expression within lymph nodes of cattle infected with mycobacterium bovis when infection would be well established. expression levels of a number of chemokines were increased in infected cattle and could be correlated to levels of respective chemokine receptors. several chemokines were significantly correlated to pathology within ...200919926028
molecular typing of mycobacterium bovis isolates in argentina: first description of a person-to-person transmission case.bovine tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium bovis, a mycobacterium highly similar to m. tuberculosis that belongs to the m. tuberculosis complex. the main host of m. bovis is cattle but it also affects many other mammalians including humans. tuberculosis in humans caused by either m. bovis or m. tuberculosis is clinically hard to distinguish. during 2004-2005, samples from 448 patients with diagnosis of tb were collected from different regions of argentina. the pra technique identified 400 is ...201019912616
tuberculosis infection in animal and human populations in three districts of western gojam, ethiopia.tuberculosis concurrent infection in cattle and their respective owners in north-western ethiopia had been investigated. two hundred and ten cattle owners and 1220 heads of their cattle were included in the study to determine degree of tuberculosis infection in cattle owned by tuberculosis patients and tuberculosis patients. comparative intradermal tuberculin test, bacteria culturing, acid fast staining and biochemical tests were used to conduct the study. the prevalence of tuberculosis was sign ...201119912606
risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in some selected herds in nigeria. 201019902376
tuberculosis in european badgers (meles meles) and the control of infection with bacille calmette-guérin vaccination.the eradication of tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis infection) from cattle herds may be compromised if infected wildlife species, such as european badgers (meles meles), share the same environment and contribute to transfer of infection. options for dealing with tuberculosis in this wild reservoir host are limited by conservation and social concerns, despite a clear implication that infected badgers are involved with the initiation of tuberculosis in cattle herds. vaccination of badgers against ...200919901380
coinfection of a cow with bovine leukemia virus and mycobacterium bovis.bovine leukosis associated with infection with the delta retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (blv) is endemic in many cattle herds in the united states. infection has been associated with immunosuppression and decreased productivity. cases of tuberculosis in cows due to infection with mycobacterium bovis reemerged in michigan in 1998, and despite intensive eradication attempts, new cases of bovine tuberculosis are sporadically identified. the present report details a coinfection with blv and m. bov ...200919901295
farm husbandry and badger behaviour: opportunities to manage badger to cattle transmission of mycobacterium bovis?bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a serious disease of cattle in the uk in terms of the economic impact on the farming industry. the disease has proven difficult to control in the cattle population and the eurasian badger (meles meles) is a source of infection. in recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential to employ farm husbandry and biosecurity practices to reduce btb transmission risks. here we review the potential routes of btb transmission between badgers and cattle and explo ...201019846226
the use of a gamma-interferon assay to confirm a diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in brazil.control of bovine tuberculosis (tb) is currently based on slaughter of cattle deemed positive on the basis of tuberculin testing; although the test has been broadly used for several years, there are some disadvantages such as the need for holding animals for 72 h. besides it, test can lack both sensitivity and specificity depending on the interpretation and the site of the ppd inoculation. therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of the gamma-interferon (ifn) assay a ...201019819213
detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples of cattle and buffaloes.tissue samples were collected at random from cattle (bos taurus) and buffalo (bubalus bubalis) from an abattoir of the district of lahore and were analyzed for the presence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium bovis through acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). body condition of animals and diarrhea were recorded. most of the animals were emaciated. diarrhea was noticed in 15.6% of buffaloes and 19.2% of cattle. intestinal pathology was observed in 2 ...201019816784
comparison of different testing schemes to increase the detection mycobacterium bovis infection in ethiopian immune responses to mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) infection are variable at the different severity stages of pathology of the disease. in countries like ethiopia, where routine screening of bovine tb is not undertaken, the use of tests which measure cellular and antibody responses may help for the maximum detection of infection. in the present study, 701 cattle were tested for bovine tuberculosis (btb) using comparative intradermal tuberculin (cidt) test, interferon (ifn)-gamma test, and l ...201019757135
positive skin and serologic test results of diagnostic assays for bovine tuberculosis and subsequent isolation of mycobacterium interjectum in a pygmy hippopotamus (hexaprotodon liberiensis).a 20-yr-old male pygmy hippopotamus (hexaprotodon liberiensis), weighing 250 kg, arrived at zoological society london whipsnade zoo (united kingdom) from a captive collection in portugal. a quarantine health check was performed including a comparative intradermal tuberculosis (idtb) test. assessment of the comparative idtb test at 72 hr revealed a strong positive reaction at the bovine site. serum was tested with a rapid immunochromatographic assay (tb stat-pak) and was positive for tuberculosis ...200919746870
evidence-based semiquantitative methodology for prioritization of foodborne prioritize an extended list of food- and water-borne zoonoses to allow food safety authorities to focus on the most relevant hazards in the food chain.200919715429
mycobacterium bovis in korea: an update.this paper reports changes in the cattle population and the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in the republic of korea between 1960 and 2007, and discusses potential factors contributing to the recently observed increase in disease incidence, particularly in beef cattle and deer. although there have been ongoing refinements to the existing programme, further improvements in current strategies are needed, including surveillance of susceptible animal species, both domestic and wild, and ongoing sur ...201019713136
evaluation of a combination of sift-ms and multivariate data analysis for the diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis in wild badgers.the currently accepted 'gold standard' tuberculosis (tb) detection method for veterinary applications is that of culturing from a tissue sample post mortem. the test is accurate, but growing mycobacterium bovis is difficult and the process can take up to 12 weeks to return a diagnosis. in this paper we evaluate a much faster screening approach based on serum headspace analysis using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (sift-ms). sift-ms is a rapid, quantitative gas analysis technique, with ...200919684920
mycobacterium bovis with different genotypes and from different hosts induce dissimilar immunopathological lesions in a mouse model of tuberculosis.with the hypothesis that genetic variability of mycobacterium bovis could influence virulence and immunopathology, five m. bovis strains were selected from an epidemiological study in argentina on the basis of their prevalence in cattle and occurrence in other species. we then determined the virulence and the immunopathology evoked by these strains in a well-characterized mouse model of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis. the reference strain an5 was used as a control. balb/c mice infected with ...200919659779
risk factors for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children from economic migrant populations of two dominican republic bateyes.the objective of the current study was to identify risk factors for intrathoracic tuberculosis among children living in migrant populations in the dominican republic.200919654565
isolation of mycobacterium bovis from brushtail possums with non-visible determine the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) that did not have macroscopic lesions of bovine tuberculosis, and to evaluate culture of pooled tissues from multiple possums as a method for determining the m. bovis-infection status of wildlife populations in new zealand.200919649016
identification of novel mycobacterium bovis antigens by dissection of crude protein fractions.culture filtrate and cell extracts from mycobacterium bovis cultures contain molecules which could promote protective immunity to tuberculosis in animals. different protein fractions of m. bovis cultures were obtained by elution electrophoresis and were tested in experimentally infected cattle. the fractions that elicited gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) responses were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and individual proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionizat ...200919641100
lipid-formulated bcg as an oral-bait vaccine for tuberculosis: vaccine stability, efficacy, and palatability to brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand.bovine tuberculosis (tb), due to infection with virulent mycobacterium bovis, represents a threat to new zealand agriculture due to vectorial transmission from wildlife reservoir species, principally the introduced australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). an oral-delivery wildlife vaccine has been developed to immunize possums against tb, based on formulation of the human tb vaccine (m. bovis bcg) in edible lipid matrices. here bcg bacilli were shown to be stable in lipid matrix form ...200919617486
characterization of the apa antigen from m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a conserved mycobacterium antigen that elicits a strong humoral response in cattle.johne's disease or paratuberculosis is widespread in almost all countries and remains difficult to eradicate. nowadays, diagnosis of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (mptb) infection is one of the main concerns. in this work, we evaluated the expression, biochemical properties and antigenicity of the apa antigen, encoded by the gene annotated as map1569, in the mptb genome. we confirmed its expression in mptb and its glycosylation by the cona binding assay. although the mptb-apa is no ...200919616313
field evaluation of the protective efficacy of mycobacterium bovis bcg vaccine against bovine tuberculosis.the protective efficacy of mycobacterium bovis bcg (1 x 10(6) single dose) was evaluated under field conditions. a total of 140 male holstein friesian calves, one to two week-old were selected. two groups of 70 each were formed, one group was vaccinated and the other was injected with a placebo during their second week of age and followed until 12 months of age. the study considered a positive case of tuberculosis to be an animal that had a positive reaction to the three following tests in a row ...201019564029
mycobacterium microti: more diverse than previously thought.mycobacterium microti is a member of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of bacteria. this species was originally identified as a pathogen of small rodents and shrews and was associated with limited diversity and a much reduced spoligotype pattern. more recently, specific deletions of chromosomal dna have been shown to define this group of organisms, which can be identified by the absence of chromosomal region rd1(mic). we describe here the molecular characteristics of 141 strains of the myco ...200919535520
genetics of tuberculosis in irish holstein-friesian dairy herds.information is lacking on genetic parameters for tuberculosis (tb) susceptibility in dairy cattle. mycobacterium bovis is the principal agent of tuberculosis in cattle. the objective of this study was to quantify the genetic variation present among irish holstein-friesian dairy herds in their susceptibility to m. bovis infection. a total of 15,182 cow and 8,104 heifer single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (sictt, a test for m. bovis exposure and presumed infection) records from november ...200919528623
review of the diagnosis and study of tuberculosis in non-bovine wildlife species using immunological methods.the infection of a variety of free-ranging wildlife species with mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (tb), can cause problems for biodiversity and species conservation. in some notable cases, particular species act as a reservoir of infection that can spill over into domestic livestock with economic and zoonotic consequences. immunological methods for the detection of tb infection in wildlife are important for diagnostic and research purposes, especially where post-mo ...200919486311
gene expression profiling of the host response to mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, continues to pose a threat to livestock worldwide and, as a zoonotic infection, also has serious implications for human health. the implementation of comprehensive surveillance programmes to detect btb has been successful in reducing the incidence of infection in many countries, yet btb has remained recalcitrant to eradication in several eu states, particularly in ireland and the uk. there are well-recognized limitations in the use of the ...200919486308
the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in and around morogoro, tanzania.a study was conducted to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in different cattle herd management systems in and around morogoro, tanzania. between april and june 2005, a total of 728 bovines from 49 herds were tested for m. bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses. milk samples were taken from tuberculin positive animals and analysed for the presence of mycobacteria. total prevalences of 2.5% and 10.1% were found for m. bovis-infection and a ...200919437127
a novel recombinant human lactoferrin augments the bcg vaccine and protects alveolar integrity upon infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.lactoferrin, an iron binding glycoprotein, possesses multiple immune modulatory activities, including the ability to promote antigen specific cell-mediated immunity. previous studies showed that adding bovine lactoferrin to the bcg vaccine (an attenuated strain of mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette guerin) resulted in increased host protective responses upon subsequent challenge with virulent erdman mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb) in mice. the studies outlined here investigate utility of a n ...200919428915
biomarker discovery in subclinical mycobacterial infections of cattle.bovine tuberculosis is a highly prevalent infectious disease of cattle worldwide; however, infection in the united states is limited to 0.01% of dairy herds. thus detection of bovine tb is confounded by high background infection with m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. the present study addresses variations in the circulating peptidome based on the pathogenesis of two biologically similar mycobacterial diseases of cattle.200919424492
[differentiation of species within the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by molecular techniques].the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes the following species: mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterium africanum, mycobacterium bovis, mycobacterium bovis-bcg, mycobacterium microti, mycobacterium caprae, mycobacterium pinnipedii, and mycobacterium canettii. these species cause tuberculosis in humans and animals. identification of mycobacterial strains has classically been performed by phenotype study. over the last years, laboratories have developed several molecular techniques to dif ...200919409673
the burden of mycobacterial disease in ethiopian cattle: implications for public health.bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. furthermore, ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary tb in the world, a clinical presentation that is often associated with transmission of m. bovis from cattle to humans.200919352493
evaluation of blood assays for detection of mycobacterium bovis in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in michigan.surveillance and control activities related to bovine tuberculosis (tb) in free-ranging, michigan white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. however, foci of higher tb prevalence on private lands and limited agency ability to eliminate them using broad control strategies have led to development and trial of new control strategies, such as live trapping, testing, and culling or release. such strategies require a prompt, accurate liv ...200919204344
vaccination of calves with mycobacteria bovis bacilli calmete guerin (bcg) induced rapid increase in the proportion of peripheral blood gammadelta t cells.changes in the proportion of peripheral blood t cell subsets after subcutaneous inoculation of cattle with mycobacterium bovis bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) were studied. calves were injected with approximately 8 x 10(6) bcg bacillus and blood samples collected at weekly intervals for flow-cytometric analyses to determine the proportion of cd4+, cd8+ and gammadelta t cells. in addition, whole blood samples were stimulated in vitro with m. bovis purified protein derivative (ppd) and the secreted ...200919178951
human-to-human transmission of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in immunocompetent patients.human-to-human transmission of mycobacterium bovis in two immunocompetent patients from the same family was confirmed by spoligotyping (pattern f35, which was only observed in cattle from the same area in france). a single allelic difference between animal and human isolates was observed with mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units containing variable-number tandem repeats, suggesting a jump across the species barrier.200919171683
immunotherapy with combined dna vaccines is an effective treatment for m. bovis infection in cattle.mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis in cattle. because current therapies inadequately prevent disease spread, new therapies for m. bovis infections are urgently needed. we treated m. bovis-infected cattle with combinations of dna vaccines, resulting in significantly reduced pulmonary bacterial loads compared with the untreated group. further, the pathological changes of lungs were also slight and the lesions were limited in animals treated with the combined dna vaccines, whereas untreated an ...200919162110
accuracy of three diagnostic tests for determining mycobacterium bovis infection status in live-sampled wild meerkats (suricata suricatta).accurate diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection (bovine tuberculosis [btb]) in live animals is notoriously problematic. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of 2 new serologic tests (multiantigen print immunoassay [mapia] and lateral flow immunoassay rapid test [rt]) in comparison with mycobacterial culture of tracheal washes for determining m. bovis infection status in a free-ranging population of wild meerkats (suricata suricatta). during a longitudinal stu ...200919139498
efficacy and immunogenicity of mycobacterium bovis deltard1 against aerosol m. bovis infection in neonatal attenuated mycobacterium bovisrd1 deletion (deltard1) mutant of the ravenel strain was constructed, characterized, and sequenced. this m. bovis deltard1 vaccine strain administered to calves at 2 weeks of age provided similar efficacy as m. bovis bacillus calmette guerin (bcg) against low dose, aerosol challenge with virulent m. bovis at 3.5 months of age. approximately 4.5 months after challenge, both deltard1- and bcg-vaccinates had reduced tuberculosis (tb)-associated pathology in lungs an ...200919135497
pharmaceutical proteins in plants. a strategic genetic engineering approach for the production of tuberculosis antigens.tuberculosis (tb) is a re-emerging disease that is considered a major human health priority as well as an important disease of livestock. tb is also a zoonosis, and mycobacterium tuberculosis and m. bovis, the human and bovine causative agents, respectively, are very closely related. protection against tb is essentially achieved through vaccination with the bacille calmetle-guerin (bcg) strain of m. bovis. protection is, however, incomplete, and novel improved vaccines are currently under invest ...200819120228
prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in ethiopian slaughter cattle based on post-mortem examination.a study aimed at describing the magnitude and distribution of gross lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis (btb) in ethiiopian slaughter cattle in five abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in various cattle husbandry systems in ethiopia was carried out from july 2006 to january 2007 using detailed meat inspection procedure. five representative abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in distinct livestock management systems were selected. a total of 3322 cattle; 2876 ( ...200919058024
potential challenges to the stop tb plan for humans in china; cattle maintain m. bovis and m. tuberculosis.thirty-eight cows in a herd were determined to be positive for bovine tuberculosis (tb). the bacterial isolation and characterization with multiplex pcr identified six mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. the mycobacterium bovis and m. tuberculosis infection induced comparable pathology in cattle in both gross pathology and histopathology based on the qualitative assessment of the sampled lung tissues. the spoligotyping demonstrated that cow m. tuberculosis isolates belonged to beijing family st ...200919056318
mycobacterium bovis infection in holstein friesian cattle, identify strains of mycobacterium bovis circulating in iran, we used region of difference, spoligotypes, and variable number tandem repeats to genotype 132 m. bovis isolates from holstein friesian cattle. despite wide geographic origins, the strains were genetically homogeneous. increased distribution of cattle herds and inadequate control measures may have contributed to strain dispersion.200819046521
surveillance of coyotes to detect bovine tuberculosis, michigan.bovine tuberculosis (tb) is endemic in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of michigan's lower peninsula. bovine tb in deer and cattle has created immense financial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. surveillance identified coyotes (canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of mycobacterium bovis, a finding that generated interest in their potential to serve as sentinels for monitoring disease risk. we sampled 175 coyotes in the bovi ...200819046508
the calf model of immunity for development of a vaccine against tuberculosis.tuberculosis (tb) remains a major threat to public health. the identification of safe tb vaccine candidates beyond mycobacterium bovis bcg, is an exciting prospect for control of human tb and necessary in the context of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) pandemic. selection of vaccine candidates for human trials which are ultimately targeted for use in children less than 5 years of age or in newborns will require an animal model that closely approximates immune function and disease. we propo ...200919027175
comparative field evaluation of two rapid immunochromatographic tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in african buffaloes (syncerus caffer).panels of sera from african buffalo with confirmed bovine tuberculosis and from known uninfected controls were used to evaluate the performance of two commercial rapid chromatographic immunoassays (a and b) for the detection of antibodies to mycobacterium bovis. the sensitivity was 33% and 23%, respectively, while the specificity was determined at 90% and 94%, respectively. overall the performance of both diagnostic tests under field conditions was not found sufficiently high to support their us ...200919007999
effect of paratuberculosis on the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a cattle herd with a mixed infection using interferon-gamma detection assay.interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) detection assay is being applied as an ancillary test to tuberculin tests in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis to detect the maximum number of infected animals. among possible factors influencing the performance of tuberculosis-diagnostic tests, paratuberculosis, a widespread disease in spain and other european countries, has been pointed out as a cause of false positive reactions. still, its effect on the sensitivity of these tests in cattle has yet to be fully c ...200918986776
antigen stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from mycobacterium bovis infected cattle yields evidence for a novel gene expression program.bovine tuberculosis (btb) caused by mycobacterium bovis continues to cause substantial losses to global agriculture and has significant repercussions for human health. the advent of high throughput genomics has facilitated large scale gene expression analyses that present a novel opportunity for revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying mycobacterial infection. using this approach, we have previously shown that innate immune genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from btb-infecte ...200818823559
development of a simple, sensitive, rapid test which discriminates bcg-vaccinated from mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is increasing in incidence in the uk. effective control strategies could involve vaccination; bcg, either alone or in prime-boost strategies, remains the most effective vaccine against bovine tuberculosis. however, bcg vaccination of cattle would require development of diagnostic tests able to accurately discriminate mycobacterium bovis-infected from bcg-vaccinated animals. herein, we demonstrate that the detection of secreted ifn-gamma following short term culture (4h) ...200818692540
cytokine mrna expression in cattle infected with different dosages of mycobacterium bovis.cytokine mrna expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and anti-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interleukin-4 (il-4), interleukin-10 (il-10) was quantified using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qrt-pcr) in cattle infected with different doses (1-1000 colony-forming units (cfu)) of mycobacterium bovis. rna was extracted from the hepes glutamic acid buffer mediated organic solvent protection ef ...200818674970
enhanced secretion of interferon-gamma by bovine gammadelta t cells induced by coculture with mycobacterium bovis-infected dendritic cells: evidence for reciprocal activating signals.evidence suggests that gammadelta t cells form part of the innate immune response to mycobacterium bovis infection. dendritic cells (dcs) are capable of secreting high levels of interleukin-12 (il-12) following infection with mycobacteria and can induce interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) secretion by natural killer and gammadelta t cells we investigated the innate interactions occurring between wc1(+)gammadelta t cells and m. bovis-infected dcs. following coculture with m. bovis-infected dcs, secretio ...200918657206
trace micro-nutrients may affect susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a continuing problem in british herds. micro-nutrients are important for the maintenance of well-functioning immune system. the aim of this study was to determine whether the selenium, copper and vitamin b12 status of cattle was associated with mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) infection. between 2002 and 2005, 200 cattle (43% dairy, mean age 4.6 years), reactors according to the standard interpretation of the tuberculin test, and 200 in-contacts (41% dairy, mean age 4. ...200818599138
disseminated bacillus calmette-guerin infection after bcg vaccination.the bcg is administered to all the newborns at birth in iran. systemic adverse reactions to bcg vaccine such as osteomyelitis and disseminated bcg infection are rare. this is a retrospective study of 15 cases <72 months who were admitted with systemic syndrome compatible with disseminated mycobacterial disease during 2004-07. disseminated bcg disease occurred in eight children younger than 6-months old and 12 patient younger than 12-months old. twelve patients were male. nine of 15 patients had ...200818593737
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis: usefulness in international trade.tuberculosis (tb) represents a barrier for free trade of livestock between mexico and the united states of america (us). in spite of efforts from mexico to export tb-free animals, some of those found with tb lesions in slaughterhouses in the us are traced back to that country. therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine, through molecular epidemiology, the most probable source of infection for cattle found with tb lesions in the us. ninety m. bovis isolates, 50 from mexico obtained fro ...200818524398
screening of highly expressed mycobacterial genes identifies rv3615c as a useful differential diagnostic antigen for the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.tuberculous infections caused by mycobacteria, especially tuberculosis of humans and cattle, are important both clinically and economically. human populations can be vaccinated with mycobacterium bovis bacille calmette-guérin (bcg), and control measures for cattle involving vaccination are now being actively considered. however, diagnostic tests based on tuberculin cannot distinguish between genuine infection and vaccination with bcg. therefore, identification of differential diagnostic antigens ...200818519559
appraisal of interpretation criteria for the comparative intradermal tuberculin test for diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle in central ethiopia.accurate detection and removal of infected cattle, using immunodiagnostic tests such as the comparative intradermal tuberculin (cidt) test, are the basis of control strategies for bovine tuberculosis (tb). according to the office des internationale epizooties recommendation, the cutoff point for positivity of the cidt test, calculated as the difference between skin thicknesses after bovine tuberculin (b) and avian tuberculin (a) injections (b - a), is >4 mm. this cutoff point is used worldwide, ...200818495847
variable number tandem repeat analysis of mycobacterium bovis isolates from gyeonggi-do, korea.bovine tuberculosis (tb) is a major zoonosis that's caused by mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis). being able to detect m. bovis is important to control bovine tb. we applied a molecular technique, the variable number tandem repeat (vntr) typing method, to identify and distinguish the m. bovis isolates from gyeonggi-do, korea. from 2003 to 2004, 59 m. bovis clinical strains were isolated from dairy cattle in gyeonggi-do, korea, and these cattle had tuberculosis- like lesions. twenty-four published mi ...200818487935
influence of bovine lactoferrin on expression of presentation molecules on bcg-infected bone marrow derived macrophages.the current vaccine for tuberculosis (tb), caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb), is an attenuated strain of mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg). bcg has proven to be effective in children, however, efficacy wanes in adulthood. lactoferrin, a natural protein with immunomodulatory properties, is a potential adjuvant candidate to enhance efficacy of bcg. these studies define bovine lactoferrin as an enhancer of the bcg vaccine, functioning in part by modulating macrophage abili ...200918486627
vaccination of european badgers (meles meles) with bcg by the subcutaneous and mucosal routes induces protective immunity against endobronchial challenge with mycobacterium bovis.mycobacterium bovis is endemic in badger (meles meles) populations of ireland and the united kingdom and infected badgers are a potential source of infection for cattle. in domestic livestock tuberculosis causes economic losses from lost production and the costs associated with eradication programmes, and in addition there is a risk of zoonotic infection. whereas culling is currently used to control tuberculous badger populations in ireland, vaccination, if it were available, would be preferred. ...200818468490
spoligotype diversity of mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium caprae animal isolates.the genetic diversity of 283 mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) and 10 mycobacterium caprae (m. caprae) strains, isolated between 2002 and 2007 from cattle, goat, red deer and wild boar from six different geographical regions of portugal was investigated by spoligotyping. the technique showed a good discriminatory power (hunter-gaston index, h=0.9) for the strains, revealing 29 different patterns. one pattern (sb0121) was clearly predominant, accounting for 26.3% of the isolates; ten patterns, repre ...200818417301
blood-based assays to detect mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle missed by tuberculin skin testing. 200818359932
a novel dna vaccine for protective immunity against virulent mycobacterium bovis in mice.mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb). the proteins ag85b, mpb64, and esat-6 are the major immunogenic antigens of m. bovis; these proteins play important roles in inducing immune responses that confer resistance against infections. in the present study, we used pcdna3.1(+) as a vector and constructed various dna vaccines with the genes encoding the three antigens mentioned above. this procedure involved the following steps: fusion of two genes (pcdna-mpb64-ag85 ...200818339431
absence of mycobacterium bovis infection in dogs and cats residing on infected cattle farms: michigan, 2002.a cross-sectional field study was performed to evaluate infection in dogs and cats living on farms with mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. the purpose was to determine pet infection status and assess their risk to farm families and/or tuberculosis-free livestock. data and specimens were collected from 18 cats and five dogs from nine participating farms. elisa testing for m. bovis and m. avium was conducted. fifty-one biological samples were cultured; all were negative for m. bovis, although ot ...200818325127
comparison of histologic techniques for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in the framework of eradication programs.rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle reacting positive in antemortem assays is crucial in countries where eradication programs are operated to confirm the presence of the infection in tuberculosis-free herds. this study evaluated the accuracy of histopathologic examination by hematoxylin and eosin and ziehl-neelsen (zn) staining applied in this framework, when suspected lesions are caused by low infectious doses and are detected in early stages of the disease. for this purpose, histologic m ...200818319428
identification and functional characterization of a bovine orthologue to dc-sign.dendritic cell-specific icam-3-grabbing nonintegrin (dc-sign) c-type lectin is almost exclusively expressed at the cell surface of dc. in addition to its normal function facilitating contact of dc with t cells, dc-sign has been shown to bind a variety of pathogens, including mycobacterium bovis, and hiv-1 envelope protein gp120. in this study, we identified the bovine ortholog of the human dc-sign gene within the bovine genome, which exists as a single copy. pcr amplified a product, showing a 10 ...200818319290
perturbing implications of wildlife ecology for disease control.britain's randomised badger culling trial provides robust evidence of the role badgers have in transmission of mycobacterium bovis to cattle. culling badgers perturbed their social structure, and brought positive and negative effects for bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle, leading to the conclusion that culling could not make a meaningful contribution to disease control. the rbct highlights the complexities of disease transmission in social animals and the importance of host ecology for con ...200818191282
development and evaluation of a gamma-interferon assay for tuberculosis in badgers (meles meles).in this paper we report the development of a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of tuberculosis (tb) in european badgers (meles meles), based on the stimulation of lymphocytes in whole-blood culture and the subsequent detection of gamma-interferon (ifngamma) by sandwich elisa. the comparative levels of ifngamma produced to bovine and avian tuberculin (b-a) was used as the basis of determining the tb status of badgers, resulting in a more sensitive test than that based on the defined ...200818083067
the prevalence, distribution and severity of detectable pathological lesions in badgers naturally infected with mycobacterium bovis.the randomized badger culling trial (rbct) began in 1998 to determine the impact of badger culling in controlling bovine tuberculosis in cattle. a total of 1166 badgers (14% of total) proactively culled during the rbct were found to be tuberculous, offering a unique opportunity to study the pathology caused by mycobacterium bovis in a large sample of badgers. of these, 39% of adults (approximately 6% of all adults culled) had visible lesions (detectable at necropsy) of bovine tuberculosis; cubs ...200818047751
mycobacterium bovis bcg vaccination induces memory cd4+ t cells characterized by effector biomarker expression and anti-mycobacterial activity.the effector mechanisms used by cd4+ t cells to control mycobacteria differ between humans and rodent models of tb and should be investigated in additional animal models. in these studies, the bovine model was used to characterize the mycobactericidal cd4+ t cell response induced by vaccination with the attenuated mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg). antigenic stimulation of peripheral blood cd4+ t cells from bcg-vaccinated cattle enhanced expression of perforin and ifngamma in ce ...200717996992
innate gene repression associated with mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle: toward a gene signature of disease.bovine tuberculosis is an enduring disease of cattle that has significant repercussions for human health. the advent of high-throughput functional genomics technologies has facilitated large-scale analyses of the immune response to this disease that may ultimately lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic targets. analysis of mrna abundance in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from six mycobacterium bovis infected cattle and six non-infected controls was performed. a targeted immunospeci ...200717974019
failure of a mycobacterium tuberculosis deltard1 deltapancd double deletion mutant in a neonatal calf aerosol m. bovis challenge model: comparisons to responses elicited by m. bovis bacille calmette attenuated mycobacterium tuberculosis rd1 knockout and pantothenate auxotroph (mc(2)6030) vaccine administered at 2 weeks of age failed to protect calves from low dose, aerosol m. bovis challenge at 2.5 months of age. in contrast, m. bovis bacille calmette guerin (bcg)-vaccinates had reduced tuberculosis-associated pathology as compared to non- and mc(2)6030-vaccinates. mycobacterial colonization was not impacted by vaccination. positive prognostic indicators associated with reduced pathology ...200717931755
outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild animal outbreak of tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis occurred in a wild animal park. three pot-bellied pigs (sus scrofa vittatus), one red deer (cervus elaphus), one buffalo (bison bonasus) and two european lynxes (lynx lynx) were affected and showed clinical signs including weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes and paralysis of the hindlimbs. postmortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions in various organs, including the lymph nodes, lungs, intestines, kidneys and the central n ...200717766809
vaccination of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) with mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette guerín.wildlife reservoirs of mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. in michigan, usa tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit m. bovis to cattle. one approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt the cycle of deer to deer and deer to cattle transmission. thirty-one white-tailed deer were assigned to one of three groups; 2 sc doses of 10(7)cfu of m. bovis bcg (n=11); 1 sc dose of 10(7)cfu of m ...200717688976
experimental exposure of cattle to a precise aerosolised challenge of mycobacterium bovis: a novel model to study bovine tuberculosis.non-aerosol models of bovine tuberculosis are limited in reproducibility and relevance to natural cases seen in farmed animals. therefore, there is a need for aerosol models of infection in cattle that can reproduce bovine tuberculosis as seen in natural cases of the disease. this manuscript describes a cattle tuberculosis model based on the inhalation of a precisely defined dose of mycobacterium bovis in aerosol form, and defines those sites of m. bovis deposition following aerosol inhalation. ...200717602870
improvement of spoligotyping with additional spacer sequences for characterization of mycobacterium bovis and m. caprae isolates from spain.spoligotyping is a typing tool used worldwide for epidemiological studies on mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms; however it has received little attention regarding improvement of its discriminatory power (dp). in this study, we have evaluated a spoligotyping membrane prepared with 25 novel spacer sequences selected from a previous study [van der zanden ag, kremer k, schouls lm. improvement of differentiation and interpretability of spoligotyping for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex i ...200717569586
mycobacteria and allergies.exposure to mycobacteria was inevitable throughout mammalian evolution. most mycobacteria are saprophytic environmental organisms that are enormously abundant in soil and untreated water and evoke immune responses in the residents of developing countries. a few species are pathogens. for example mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (tb), infects approximately 1/3 of the world's population. many individuals also receive vaccination with the bacille calmette guérin (bcg) ...200717544831
oral vaccination against bovine tuberculosis with mycobacterium bovis bcg.the use of a bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg)-based vaccine could represent a viable strategy for controlling bovine tuberculosis (tb), principally in those cases where a wildlife disease vector exists. this article focuses on recent progress in animal tb vaccinology, outlining that oral-route vaccination represents the most feasible means of distributing a vaccine to control disease in wildlife. drawing on historical successes of previous wildlife vaccination programs, the article suggests how, a ...200717542748
effect of recombinant mce4a protein of mycobacterium bovis on expression of tnf-alpha, inos, il-6, and il-12 in bovine alveolar macrophages.the pathogenesis of tuberculosis-causing mycobacterium bovis is largely due to its ability to enter and survive in alveolar macrophages. its mechanism of entry, mediated by proteins encoded by mammalian cell entry (mce) genes, is important for its pathogenesis. here we focussed on the role of the mce4a protein in the pathogenesis of m. bovis in cattle. cell livability decreased in a dosage-dependent manner when mce4a proteins were used to stimulate alveolar macrophages, which suggested that the ...200717530193
an esat-6:cfp10 dna vaccine administered in conjunction with mycobacterium bovis bcg confers protection to cattle challenged with virulent m. bovis.the potency of genetic immunization observed in the mouse has demonstrated the utility of dna vaccines to induce cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. however, it has been relatively difficult to generate comparable responses in non-rodent species. the use of molecular adjuvants may increase the magnitude of these suboptimal responses. in this study, we demonstrate that the co-administration of plasmid-encoded gm-csf and cd80/cd86 with a novel esat-6:cfp10 dna vaccine against bovine tuberc ...200717499400
a new attenuated mycobacterium bovis vaccine protects brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) against experimental tuberculosis infection.vaccination of wildlife against bovine tuberculosis is being actively considered in countries that have wildlife reservoirs of mycobacterium bovis infection. a newly attenuated strain of m. bovis (wag533) was produced as part of a programme to develop a better vaccine than bcg to control tuberculosis in brushtail possums in new zealand. the vaccine efficacy of wag533 in possums was compared to bcg using three different methods of inoculation (conjunctival/intranasal, oral and sub-cutaneous) foll ...200717498852
bcg-related granulomatous hepatitis.the development of granulomatous lesions in distant organs is an uncommon complication of the immunotherapy with bcg vaccine. we report a case of granulomatous hepatitis after the 12th bcg intravesical instillation (6 weekly followed by 6 monthly) in a 58-year-old man with superficial bladder cancer. the patient was admitted because of fever and jaundice. disseminated bcg infection was suspected on the basis of history, clinical examination and a liver biopsy that showed noncaseating granulomato ...200717491206
a survey of brucellosis and tuberculosis in bison in and around wood buffalo national park, canada.examinations of complete or partial remains of 72 bison found dead in and around wood buffalo national park, canada, revealed evidence of brucellosis in 18 (25%) and tuberculosis in 15 (21%), with a combined prevalence of 42%. urease-positive and ureasenegative strains of brucella abortus biovar 1, and strains of biovar 2, were isolated from tissues of bison, including synovium and exudate from severe arthritic lesions. mycobacterium bovis was isolated from a range of granulomatous lesions that ...199017423532
first report of mycobacterium bovis dna in human remains from the iron age.tuberculosis has plagued humankind since prehistoric times, as is evident from characteristic lesions on human skeletons dating back to the neolithic period. the disease in man is due predominantly to infection with either mycobacterium tuberculosis or mycobacterium bovis, both members of the m. tuberculosis (mtb) complex. a number of studies have shown that when conditions permit, surviving mycobacterial dna may be amplified from bone by pcr. such ancient dna (adna) analyses are subject to stri ...200717379733
social organization and movement influence the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in an undisturbed high-density badger meles meles population.1. the culling of european badgers meles meles has been a central part of attempts to control bovine tuberculosis (tb) in british cattle for many years. recent results, however, indicate that this approach could in practice enhance disease spread. 2. this paper looks at the relationship between tb incidence and badger ecology in a high-density population in south-west england, which has been the subject of a long-term intensive study. the principal aims were to relate the probability of tb incid ...200717302842
an experimental intratonsilar infection model for bovine tuberculosis in african buffaloes, syncerus infection model for mycobacterium bovis in african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, was developed, using the intratonsilar route of inoculation. two groups of 11 buffaloes each, aged approximately 18 months, were infected with either 3.2 x 10(2) cfu (low dose) or 3 x 10(4) cfu (high dose) of m. bovis strain isolated from a buffalo. a control group of six buffaloes received saline via the same route. the infection status was monitored in vivo using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, and i ...200617283730
survival of mycobacterium bovis on feedstuffs commonly used as supplemental feed for white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has become established in free-ranging white-tailed deer odocoileus virginianus in northeastern michigan. the practice of supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer during the winter is believed to contribute to transmission of m. bovis between deer. the current study was conducted to determine the ability of m. bovis to survive on various feedstuffs commonly used as supplemental feed for deer in northeast michigan (i.e., apples, co ...200617255455
experimental fasciola hepatica infection alters responses to tests used for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.fasciola hepatica is a prevalent helminth parasite of livestock. infection results in polarization of the host's immune response and generation of type 2 helper (th2) immune responses, which are known to be inhibitory to th1 responses. bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a bacterial disease of economic and zoonotic importance. control polices for this disease rely on extensive annual testing and a test-and-slaughter policy. the correct diagnosis of btb relies on cell-mediated immune responses. we estab ...200717194810
high growth rate fails to enhance adaptive immune responses of neonatal calves and is associated with reduced lymphocyte viability.the objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of 3 targeted growth rates on adaptive (i.e., antigen-specific) immune responses of preruminant, milk replacer-fed calves. calves (9.1 +/- 2.4 d of age) were assigned randomly to one of 3 dietary treatments to achieve 3 targeted daily rates of gain [no growth (maintenance) = 0.0 kg/d, low growth = 0.55 kg/d, or high growth = 1.2 kg/d] over an 8-wk period. the nrc nutrient requirements of dairy cattle calf model computer program was used to e ...200717183108
rescuing valuable genomes by animal cloning: a case for natural disease resistance in cattle.tissue banking and animal cloning represent a powerful tool for conserving and regenerating valuable animal genomes. here we report an example involving cattle and the rescue of a genome affording natural disease resistance. during the course of a 2-decade study involving the phenotypic and genotypic analysis for the functional and genetic basis of natural disease resistance against bovine brucellosis, a foundation sire was identified and confirmed to be genetically resistant to brucella abortus ...200717179549
differential response of splenic monocytes and dc from cattle to microbial stimulation with mycobacterium bovis bcg and babesia bovis merozoites.both bovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (dc) and myeloid dc from afferent lymph have been described, but resident dc from other bovine tissues have not been fully characterized. the spleen as a secondary lymphoid organ is central to the innate and acquired immune response to various diseases particularly hemoprotozoan infections like babesiosis. therefore, we developed methods to demonstrate the presence of myeloid dc from the spleen of cattle and have partially characteriz ...200717161869
is mycobacterium bovis in the environment important for the persistence of bovine tuberculosis?mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb) in cattle and wildlife. direct aerosol contact is thought to be the primary route of infection between conspecifics, whereas indirect transmission via an environmental reservoir of m. bovis is generally perceived not to be a significant source for infection. here, we report on the application of molecular technology (pcr) to quantify the prevalence of m. bovis in the environment and to explore its epidemiological significanc ...200617148430
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