comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppd for testing cattle. 2. south-eastern england.a tuberculin testing trial was carried out in eight counties of south-eastern england to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of weybridge human ppd with that of rotterdam bovine ppd. the matching of these two tuberculins for potency in naturally infected cattle had already been established, the bovine ppd being approximately one-and-a-half times more potent than the human ppd per unit of weight. in 1110 cattle in 25 herds with histories of long-standing freedom from tuberculosis and ...197547751
purification of antibodies to bacterial antigens by an immunoadsorbent and a method to quantify their reaction with insoluble bacterial targets.a combination of procedures was employed to develop a radioimmunoassay which quantified the binding of antibodies to antigens of either intact propionibacterium acnes or to antigens of insoluble extracts derived from the bacteria. reactive antibody populations were purified by use of bacterial immunoadsorbents which were prepared by coupling p. acnes to diethylaminoethyl cellulose. binding of antibodies was detected with [125i]staphylococcal protein a ([125i]spa) and optimal conditions for the a ...1979113462
method for evaluation of mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative tuberculin in experimentally infected cattle.a method for the evaluation of mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative (ppd) tuberculin in experimentally infected cattle is presented. the development of skin test responses in m bovis-infected cattle was determined for international standard ppd-s, m bovis ppd-2, and m bovis ppd-5 at 24, 48, and 72 hours. significantly larger reactions (dermal thickness) were observed at 48 and 72 hours than at 24 hours (p = 0.001). statistically significant differences were not detected in the respons ...1977329720
[nonspecific reactions of cattle to tuberculin]. 1977337643
biochemical and functional characteristics of the plasma membrane of macrophages from bcg-infected mice.a set of quantitative signs of activation, previously developed in studies of inflammatory peritoneal macrophages, has been applied to the study of immunologically stimulated peritoneal cells. mice that are infected systemically with bacillus calmette guérin (bcg) and then challenged locally with soluble mycobacterial antigens generate populations of cells that spread rapidly in culture, display an elevated pinocytic rate, ingest igmc-coated sheep erythrocytes, and have diminished levels of 5'-n ...1978351053
enhancement of lymphocyte blastogenic and delayed hypersensitivity skin responses by indomethacin.incubation of mycobacterium bovis-sensitized bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes with concanavalin a or m. bovis purified protein derivative and indomethacin caused a consistent, statistically significant increase in [3h] thymidine uptake as compared to cultures without indomethacin. the kinetics of the response showed that indomethacin must be added to lymphocyte cultures within hours after mitogen or antigen addition for enhancement of [3h]thymidine uptake to occur. lymphocyte blastogenic res ...1978352951
mycobacteria isolated from nasal secretions of tuberculin test reactor cattle.nasal secretions of 103 holstein cows from a tuberculosis-infected herd in argentina were bacteriologically cultured for mycobacteria. mycobacterium bovis was isolated in 8.7% of the cultures. this method was useful for the detection of active tuberculosis with open lesions. other mycobacteria, most of which grew rapidly on culture media, were isolated in 32% of the cultures and were of little importance as sensitizing agents to mammalian tuberculin in experimental studies in guinea pigs.1978354437
bovine tuberculosis in man--reinfection or endogenous exacerbation.cattle tuberculosis was totally eradicated in sweden 20 years ago. twelve cases of bovine tuberculosis in man were reported in 1974 and 1975. all cases lived for many years in areas where cattle tuberculosis had previously been common. no recent source of infection could be demonstrated. these findings are in accordance with an exacerbation of a distant infection.1978356255
immunologic studies in holstein-friesian cattle: an immunocompetence immunocompetence profile has been developed for holstein-friesian cattle. in vitro and in vivo immunoassays were used to determine (1) the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocyte (pbl) subpopulations bearing surface-membrane receptors for sheep erythrocytes, complement, or surface immunoglobulin; (2) the pbl blastogenic response to leukoagglutinin, concanavalin a, or pokeweed mitogen, (3) the serum immunoglobulin concentrations of igg, igm, and iga, (4) the humoral antibody response to keyh ...1978362996
bovine tuberculosis in the united states and puerto rico: a laboratory summary.mycobacteria were isolated from 14.3% of the tissues submitted to the national veterinary services laboratories over a 5-year period (july 1, 1972, to june 30, 1977). the isolates were identified by drug susceptibility, and biochemical and serologic tests. mycobacterium bovis isolated from tissues of cattle originating in 32 states and puerto rico accounted for 78% of the acid-fast isolations. of the mycobacterium bovis isolates, 4% were from tissues in which no microscopic tuberculous granuloma ...1979378044
in vivo and in vitro responses of cats sensitized with viable mycobacterium bovis (bcg).cats were injected subcutaneously with viable mycobacterium bovis (bcg), and immune responses were evaluated at various times after injection. the bcg injection produced fever, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and lymphadenopathy of regional lymph nodes. intradermal tuberculin injection produced responses consistent with delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in the treated cats at postinoculation day 21. skin responses to tuberculin were not significant at postinoculation day 49. the cellular infilt ...1979393146
[preferential differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells transferred to mice previously infected by bcg].following injection of bone marrow cells in lethally irradiated mice, previously infected with bcg regenerating hemopoietic cell populations differentiate along the leucocyte pathway to the detriment of erythroid lineage. such a phenomenon persisting even if anemia of infected mice is increased by bleeding just before irradiation and reconstitution supports the hypothesis of preferential differentiation of stem cells.1977406087
effect of systemic bcg infection in syrian golden hamsters.the response of syrian golden hamsters to systemic infection with several doses of mycobacterium bovis (strain bcg) was assessed. large numbers of organisms (10(7)), injected intravenously, were lethal for hamsters, whereas all animals survived infection with 10(4) colony-forming units of bcg. animals responded immunologically to purified protein derivative as assessed by increased footpad swelling and splenic lymphocyte proliferation. the immediate cause of death was a diffuse granulomatous int ...1976780276
adjuvant activity of mycobacterial fractions. i. purification and in vivo adjuvant activity of cell wall skeletons of mycobacterium bovis bcg, nocardia asteroides 131 and corynebacterium diphtheriae pw8.the adjuvant activity of cell wall skeletons (mycolic acid-arabino-galactan-mucopeptide, cws) prepared from the cells of mycobacteria, nocardia and corynebacteria was examined in vivo in mice and guinea pigs. the cell wall skeletons of mycobacterium bovis bcg (bcg-cws), nocardia asteroides 131 and corynebacterium diphtheriae pwc suspended in freund's incomplete adjuvant (fia) as water-in-oil emulsions showed potent adjuvant activity on the formation of circulating antibody and cell-mediated immu ...1975807194
mycobacterium bovis in england and wales: past, present and future.this report reviews the literature concerning tuberculosis resulting from infection with mycobacterium bovis in man and cattle and summarises data derived from surveillance of m. bovis in england and wales from 1986 to 1990. of the 228 isolates of m. bovis examined in this period, 122 (53%) were from patients aged over 60 years and are largely the result of reactivation of infection acquired prior to the institution of control measures. however, eight isolates (3.5%) were from patients aged less ...19921499671
epidemiological methods for investigating wild animal reservoirs of animal disease.the epidemiological and ecological methodologies used to investigate tuberculosis in badgers (meles meles) in great britain are reviewed. the objectives of these studies have been, on the one hand, to investigate the causal association between mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and the occurrence of tuberculosis in cattle and, on the other, to acquire knowledge of the population biology of badgers and the dynamics of infection in order to identify, formulate and assess potential strategies ...19911760574
phenolic glycolipids of mycobacterium bovis: new structures and synthesis of a corresponding seroreactive neoglycoprotein.the glycolipid that characterizes the majority of isolates of mycobacterium bovis and that has come to be known as m. bovis-identifying lipid is the phenolic glycolipid mycoside b described in the literature by others. however, when mycoside b obtained from m. bovis bcg, field isolates, and infected tissues was examined in detail, it was shown to be different from that described in the literature in some important respects. in particular, the glycosyl substituent is 2-o-methyl-alpha-l-rhamnopyra ...19892643563
use of ppd and phosphatide antigens in an elisa to detect the serological response in experimental bovine tuberculosis.five calves from tuberculosis free herds were each inoculated intranasally with 10(6) viable organisms of a field isolate of mycobacterium bovis. four of the calves developed acute tuberculosis. elisas employing protein and phosphatide extracts of m bovis as antigens were used to monitor the humoral response of the infected calves. fourteen days after infection there was a dramatic increase in the level of antibodies demonstrated by the phosphatide antigen. this increase coincided with the first ...19892672202
tuberculosis: the disease and its epidemiology in the badger, a review.the data accumulated from 1972 to 1987 on the distribution and prevalence of tuberculosis in the badger population in great britain is reviewed. the current information on the influence of mycobacterium bovis infection on badger population dynamics and its clinical effect on badgers is also summarized. the results of these reviews indicate that m. bovis is endemic in the british badger population and that the badger is an ideal maintenance host for m. bovis. the studies in progress to obtain a f ...19892673822
antibodies to mycobacteria in healthy and tuberculous badgers from two english counties.sera obtained from 2 groups of badgers removed in bovine tuberculosis control operations have been examined for antibodies to 11 species of mycobacteria. from animals without post mortem evidence of tuberculosis, levels of antibodies to mycobacteria were found to increase with age, and different patterns of antibodies were found in animals coming from 2 different places. some animals (5 out of 60) without evidence of progressive infection had antibodies suggesting contact with tubercle bacilli. ...19892697108
an evaluation of 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride as a decontaminant in the primary isolation of mycobacterium bovis from bovine lesions.for the primary isolation of mycobacterium bovis from bovine lesions, 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride (hpc) at a concentration of 0.75% was as effective as 2% naoh in controlling the growth of contamination. the advantages of using hpc over naoh are that it is a rapid one-step procedure not requiring neutralisation with acid, it is less toxic to m. bovis thus increasing isolation rates, and it promotes the earlier appearance of colonies.19883064398
mycobacterium bovis as an occupational hazard in abattoir workers.five cases of bovine tuberculosis occurred in a two year period in south australia, which represents a higher incidence than in previous years. all five patients had a history of employment in an abattoir (although four different abattoirs were involved) and four of the cases had pulmonary or pleural tb. a voluntary survey of one of the abattoirs was conducted which discovered the fifth case of active pulmonary tb. we suggest that bovine tb should be considered an occupational hazard in abattoir ...19883072951
macrophage-mediated fungistasis: requirement for a macromolecular component in serum.peritoneal macrophages from mycobacterium bovis- or toxoplasma gondii-infected mice cultured in vitro in dulbecco's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (fbs) and endotoxin stopped replication of cryptococcus neoformans for 30 hr, whereas yeast cells cultured alone reproduced with a 3.0-hr doubling time. without at least 5% fbs, macrophage fungistasis was poor. fbs without macrophages enhanced the growth rate of cryptococci. macrophages preincubated in vitro for 24 hr without serum became fu ...19863522734
antibody formation to trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (cord factor) of mycobacterium tuberculosis.a complex of trehalose-6, 6'-dimycolate (cord factor) and methylated bovine serum albumin was prepared, and its effect on the toxicity of cord factor in mice was studied. either the active immunization with cord factor-methylated bovine serum albumin complex or the passive transfer of sera of rabbits vaccinated with the complex protected mice against the toxic action of cord factor. the antisera of mice and rabbits and gamma globulin fraction of rabbit antiserum demonstrated a precipitin reactio ...19724117880
the diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle with special reference to bovine ppd tuberculin. 19734197735
thermography of tuberculin reactions in cattle.the allergic reactions of dermal induration and hyperthermia were compared in tuberculin-hypersensitive calves. tuberculins prepared from mycobacterium avium, m. bovis, and m. paratuberculosis were administered intradermally and the responses were compared. the indurations from immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions were readily distinguishable, but the hyperthermic responses appeared to contain elements of both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity.19734202962
[pathomorphology of intestinal tuberculosis in cows]. 19724579996
evaluation of a comparative intradermal tuberculin test in california dairy cattle. 19744594742
the microstructure of colonies of the connaught bcg has previously been shown that there is a certain correlation between the biological properties of bcg strains-properties on which their immunogenicity and allergenicity depend-and the macroscopic appearance of the growth of these colonies on solid and liquid media. to investigate this phenomenon in greater detail, the author examined the microstructure of colonies of the connaught bcg strain grown on both solid and liquid media. colonies were fixed in agar, embedded in paraffin, sectioned an ...19704925828
some recent results in isolating atypical mycobacteria from cattle and their environment. 19674964966
employment of tuberculostasis in serum-agar medium for the study of production and activity of mycobactin.mycobactin (m), an iron-chelating product of tubercle bacilli, neutralized serum tuberculostasis by removing growth-essential iron from transferrin (tr) and supplying the metal to the bacteria. the competition for iron between tr and m has been demonstrated by the agar-plate diffusion test. this test is suitable not only for the study of tr-iron-m interplay but also for the evaluation of serum tuberculostasis. extremely poor solubility of m in water and consequently its association with lipoidal ...19715005292
glycoprotein levels in cattle naturally and experimentally infected with mycobacterium bovis. 19654286769
suppression or enhancement of natural killing does not alter tolerance to bovine gamma globulin.nzb/nzw f1 (b/w) mice have high levels of natural killing (nk), are resistant to the induction of tolerance to bovine gamma globulin (bgg), and spontaneously develop a disease resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. in vivo administration of 89strontium (89sr) to b/w mice reduces nk and improves their autoimmune disease. we tested the hypothesis that the high levels of nk exert an immunoregulatory influence and are responsible for the resistance to bgg tolerance. 89sr was administered at 4 and ...19816175754
the skin inflammatory response of the badger (meles meles).twenty-five badgers, captured in an area where they had been implicated in outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis, received intradermal inoculations of control medium, 150 micrograms phytohaemagglutinin (pha), 40 units streptokinase/10 units streptodornase (sk/sd), 200 micrograms purified protein derivative of mycobacterium bovis (ppd), freund's incomplete adjuvant (ifa), and freund's complete adjuvant (cfa), each in 0.1 ml of inoculum. the reactions were assessed by skinfold thickness and skin histol ...19853910074
histological changes in rat bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue after administration of five different antigens.histological changes in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (balt) following single intratracheal administration of five different antigens were studied in the rat. after administration of t-dependent antigens (i.e., horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin, and bacillus calmette guérin) only minor changes in balt in the rat occurred. intratracheal administration of a t-independent antigen (lipopolysaccharide) and a partly t-independent antigen (paratyphoid vaccine) resulted after 1 week in ...19853895338
immune reactivity in cattle with ocular squamous cell carcinoma after intralesional bcg immunotherapy.lymphocyte stimulation with con a and specific immune reactivity to bcg (antibody formation to bcg and dth reaction to ppd) were determined in bcg-treated, surgically treated and untreated cows with ocular squamous cell carcinoma. in tumor-bearing cows the con a-induced proliferation of lymphocytes was reduced when compared to healthy controls. this suppression consisted of a reduced blastogenic response to con a of lymphocytes from tumor-bearing cows, and the presence of a factor in the sera of ...19863719596
a comparison of the relative potencies of various bovine ppd tuberculins in naturally infected tuberculous cattle. 19826759506
pulmonary tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis.during 1969-84 mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 20 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. this represented less than 1% of the total cases of respiratory tuberculosis confirmed bacteriologically at the liverpool public health laboratory during this period. all 20 patients were considered to have reactivated disease and all presented with the typical features of respiratory tuberculosis. during the same period four cases of pulmonary infection by mycobacterium africanum were recognised. this ...19863538491
tuberculous meningitis due to mycobacterium bovis: a report of two cases.two caucasian patients with bovine tuberculous meningitis are described. classical mycobacterium bovis was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid on both occasions. despite the elimination of cattle tuberculosis in this country, reactivated primary disease due to the bovine tubercle bacillus may still occur.19863529067
nontuberculous mycobacteria and mycobacterium bovis as a cause of human disease in argentina.fifteen laboratories from six regions of the country participated in the present trial covering the three years period 1982-84 during which they obtained 13544 mycobacterial cultures from 7672 patients. of the total isolates, 437 (3.22%) were nontuberculous mycobacteria and 49 (0.36%) mycobacterium bovis. the remaining cultures were identified as m. tuberculosis, which was the infectious agent in 7609 cases (99.17%). a further 36 cases (0.47%) were due to m. bovis and the remaining 27 to nontube ...19873124310
[development of control and eradication of tuberculosis among cattle in gdr].report on the development of tuberculosis control among cattle being a process not free from contradictions and disappointments for a long time. in 1956 the prevalence rate of tuberculosis infection among cattle amounted to 48%; half of all cows infected excreting tubercle bacilli with milk. tuberculosis was rather common among other domestic animals, too. in 1955 in dose connexion with the socialist reorganisation of agriculture a complex programme of eradicating tuberculosis among cattle was r ...19827041440
[the detection of mycobacterium bovis reinfection in a cattle herd]. 19883056396
comparison of media used for the primary isolation of mycobacterium bovis by veterinary and medical diagnostic laboratories.veterinary and medical laboratories engaged in the cultural diagnosis of bovine or human tuberculosis were requested to supply samples of the media that they routinely use for the primary isolation of m. bovis. fourteen laboratories supplied 7 basic media types; these were lowenstein-jensen, stonebrink's, modified middlebrook 7h11 agar, tuberculosis bovine blood agar, egg yolk agar, gerloff's egg and herrold's egg yolk. two strains of m. bovis were used to test the media, strain an5, a glycerol- ...19883048238
surveillance of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in slovakia.the elimination of tuberculosis (tb) among cattle was claimed in czecho-slovakia in the middle of the sixties. experiences from some countries which eliminated tb among cattle earlier than czecho-slovakia indicated a sporadic occurrence of tb caused by m. bovis. a long-term investigation of the occurrence of this 'diminishing zoonosis' has been carried out by a special group of experts (epidemiologists, clinicians, bacteriologists, epizootiologists and veterinary surgeons) on the whole territory ...19957473502
geographic distribution of restriction types of mycobacterium bovis isolates from brush-tailed possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand.dna restriction endonuclease analysis was used for intra-specific typing of mycobacterium bovis isolates from 83 brush-tailed possums (trichosurus vulpecula) obtained between 1982 and 1984 from the three major regions in new zealand with endemic bovine tuberculosis. all the isolates were found to be genetically very similar. differentiation of the isolates into 33 restriction types was achieved by using high-resolution electrophoresis and the combined results from separate digestions with the re ...19863016075
[biological activity of tubercule bacilli in an epizootic infectious process].the studies showed that during epizootic infectious processes of tuberculosis in cattle and due to multiple subcultivation and long-term storage on artificial nutrient media tubercle bacilli changed their properties and biological activity which was evident first of all from their lower virulence and sensitizing capacity.19892654923
serum biochemical and hematologic values of normal and mycobacterium bovis-infected american bison.hematologic and serum biochemical tests were used to monitor the health of 3 groups of bison in an experimental study of tuberculosis. bison were randomly assigned to mycobacterium bovis-infected, m. bovis-sensitized, and uninfected control groups. hematologic measurements included total and differential leukocyte counts, hemoglobin (hb), packed cell volume (pcv), fibrinogen, and plasma proteins. biochemical tests included serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase, sorbitol de ...19892488347
further evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.the sensitivity and specificity of an elisa for the detection of bovine igg anti-mycobacterium bovis antibodies were 73.6% and 94.1%, respectively, as determined in 53 bacteriologically confirmed tuberculous cattle and 101 healthy cattle from a tuberculosis-free area. in addition, the results of elisa and tuberculin tests in 149 cattle were compared with those of subsequent necropsy studies. both tests failed to detect 2 animals with tuberculous lesions and positive culture; 3/12 cattle with m. ...19902189279
disparate responses to oxidative stress in saprophytic and pathogenic persist in macrophages and in granulomatous caseous lesions, pathogenic mycobacteria must be equipped to withstand the action of toxic oxygen metabolites. in gram-negative bacteria, the oxyr protein is a critical component of the oxidative stress response. oxyr is both a sensor of reactive oxygen species and a transcriptional activator, inducing expression of detoxifying enzymes such as catalase/hydroperoxidase and alkyl hydroperoxidase. we have characterized the responses of various mycobact ...19957604044
simple and rapid detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in bovine tissue samples by pcr.mycobacterium bovis is a slowly growing microorganism, and confirmation of the diagnosis by conventional culture is a lengthy process. a simple, rapid method for the extraction of dna from bovine tissue samples was developed and used in a pcr designed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. tissues from 81 cattle from tuberculosis-infected herds (group 1) and 19 cattle from tuberculosis-free herds (group 2) were tested in this pcr, and the results were compared with those of conventional culture. the ...19957699061
specific antibody responses to mycobacterium bovis in infected cattle analysed with six mycobacterial antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.a total of 23 (15.3 per cent) of 150 cattle infected with mycobacterium bovis and which had never been tuberculin tested showed specific antibody responses to m bovis. their sera may be important keys to the identification of unique m bovis antigens for use in specific serodiagnostic tests. assessment of specific and non-specific responses was done by screening sera in six indirect anti-igg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using whole cell sonicates of m bovis and five members of the mycobacte ...19912034894
genomic fingerprinting of mycobacterium bovis from cattle by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.two insertion sequences, is6110 and is1081, specific to the tuberculosis complex mycobacteria and a highly reiterated dna element (ptbn12) cloned from mycobacterium tuberculosis were systematically used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) types among bovine isolates of mycobacterium bovis in northern ireland. in a sample of 109 isolates, probes is6110, is1081, and ptbn12 identified 10, 2, and 12 distinct patterns, respectively. by combining the patterns generated by the t ...19947814471
a mathematical model for mycobacterium bovis excretion from tuberculous analysis was carried out of available information from a series of experiments on the excretion of m. bovis from infected cattle. the analysis indicated that an inverse exponential relationship exists between 'dose' of organisms given and the delay before excretion commences. this relationship was represented mathematically. available field data supported the relationship and indicated that in natural bovine tuberculosis excretion of m. bovis begins around 87 days after infection occurs. it i ...19911887564
a synthetic mycobacterial heat shock peptide prevents adjuvant arthritis but not proteoglycan-induced synovitis in the rat.intradermal immunization of female lewis rats with 100 micrograms of a nine-amino acid synthetic peptide corresponding to the arthritic t cell-reactive epitope of mycobacterial heat shock protein, three weeks prior to induction of adjuvant arthritis, produced inhibition of day 16 ankle swelling and histologic score. intraarticular injection of 10 micrograms of bovine articular cartilage proteoglycan monomer emulsified in heavy mineral oil into normal lewis rat stifle joints produced several hall ...19911793020
feasibility of a combined carrier test for disinfectants: studies with a mixture of five types of microorganisms.there is mounting concern regarding the efficacy of many germicides on the market because officially recognized germicidal tests for various classes of microorganisms vary widely and often lack reproducibility and proper quantitation. we report here a carrier method for simultaneously and quantitatively assessing the efficacy of liquid chemical germicides against a mixture of microorganisms of varying degrees of resistance.19947943926
gross and microscopic lesions of naturally occurring tuberculosis in a captive herd of wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado.a mycobacterium bovis-infected herd of captive wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado was depopulated after lesions of bovine tuberculosis were confirmed in 8 of 10 tuberculin skin test reactors. of the 43 animals > 1 year of age, 26 had gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 had microscopic lesions of tuberculosis, and 23 had acid-fast bacilli associated with the lesions. lungs and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were the most frequently affected sites. most lesions grossly and microscop ...19921457546
flow microfluorometric quantitation of the blastogenic response of lymphocytes.a method for quantitating the specific stimulation of peripheral lymphocytes has been developed using the techniques of flow microfluorometry. peripheral bovine lymphocytes were collected and specifically stained for deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) content using a low-salt propidium iodide procedure. flow microfluorometry was used to determine, on the basis of dna content, the percentage of cells in a population that was stimulated. extremely uniform staining of the lymphocytes (coefficient of varia ...1976768372
in vitro stimulation of bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes: comparison of round- and flat-bottom microtiter plates for detection of tuberculin hypersensitivity.lymphocytes from mycobacterium bovis-sensitized and normal cattle were cultured in round- and/or flat-bottom microtiter plates and stimulated with m. bovis purified protein derivative (ppd) tuberculin. blastogenic responses of lymphocytes from m. bovis-sensitized cattle to ppd cultured in round-bottom plates were significantly greater than those of lymphocytes cultured in flat-bottom microtiter plates. normal lymphocytes of nonsensitized cattle were not stimulated by ppd in either round- or flat ...1978632347
[bovine tuberculosis in a cat (author's transl)].the clinical, radiographical and bacteriological findings in a siamese cat with bovine tuberculosis, are reported. in addition, the various forms of feline tuberculosis as well as the diagnostic procedures are reviewed.1979384599
dna fingerprinting of mycobacterium bovis strains by restriction fragment analysis and hybridization with insertion elements is1081 and is6110.strains of mycobacterium bovis, the causative organism of bovine tuberculosis, can be clearly distinguished from each other by restriction fragment analysis. this method of dna fingerprinting has been used for many epidemiological studies in new zealand, but the technique presents practical difficulties that hinder its widespread use. the insertion element is6110 is being widely used as a dna probe for distinguishing restriction fragment polymorphisms among strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...19938099083
persistence of mycobacterium bovis in cattle.badgers represent a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis in britain, which persists in the south west despite almost 20 years of badger control. the influence of landscape structure on patterns of badger urinatory behaviour may be one reason for the localized persistence of the disease in cattle within the region.19948162440
bactericidal, virucidal, and mycobactericidal activities of reused alkaline glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit.baths with 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde are often reused for 14 days to decontaminate flexible fiberoptic endoscopes (ffes) between patients, but the effect of such reuse on the disinfectant's activity has not been known. many busy endoscopy units also disinfect ffes with contact times shorter than those recommended by the disinfectant manufacturer. we therefore collected samples of the disinfectant over the 14-day reuse period from two manual and one automatic bath used for bronchoscopes and gast ...19938263184
macrophage fusion factor elicited from bgg-sensitized lymphocytes.lymphocytes obtained from rabbit lymph nodes sensitized to bovine gamma globulin produce in vitro the lymphokine macrophage fusion factor (mff) which mediates the fusion of approximately 100% of normal alveolar and oil-induced peritoneal macrophages. giant cells (gc) of langhans and foreign body type form large syncytia containing as many as several hundred nuclei per cell. nuclei of gc appear more spherical and larger than those of the normal mononucleated macrophages, and they possess several ...1978362945
in vitro stimulation of bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes: suppression of phytomitogen and specific antigen lymphocyte responses by aflatoxin.the effects of aflatoxin b1 on responses of the peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) of 2 normal animals to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin-a, and pokeweed mitogen and of the pbl of 2 mycobacterium bovis-infected animals to phytohemagglutinin and purified protein derivative of m bovis (ppd) were studied. aflatoxin concentrations of greater than or equal to 10 microgram/ml significantly suppressed the lymphocyte response of normal animals to the phytomitogens. lymphocyte response of m bovis-infect ...1977339794
skin testing, fecal culture, and lymphocyte immunostimulation in cattle inoculated with mycobacterium paratuberculosis.fourteen calves at 21 days of age were experimentally inoculated with 100 mg (wet weight) of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. three calves were inoculated orally, 4 intravenously, and 7 subcutaneously. lymphocyte immunostimulation, fecal culture, and intradermal tuberculin skin testing were done between 112 to 150 days following exposure. lymphocyte immunostimulation test results, conducted at 112 days after inoculation, showed all animals positive to mycobacterium avium purified protein derivati ...1977339793
comparison of techniques for measuring the local and systemic responses to tuberculin in cattle.thermography of tuberculin skin reactions in cattle sensitized with mycobacterium avium, mycobacterium bovis, or mycobacterium paratuberculosis was rapid and sensitive, but was not as specifically related to the homologous sensitization as was increased skin thickness at 48 and 72 hours. systemic temperature responses were more completely monitored by radiotelemetry of intraperitoneally located temperature transmitters than by rectal thermometry, but the temperatures indicated by the 2 methods w ...1977319714
immunoblot analysis of humoral immune responses to mycobacterium bovis in experimentally infected cattle: early recognition of a 26-kilodalton antigen.development of a serodiagnostic test for bovine tuberculosis necessitates an understanding of the humoral immune responses of animals following infection with mycobacterium bovis. the antibody responses in groups of calves challenged intranasally with different doses of m. bovis (approximately 10(2), 10(4), and 10(6) cfu) or placed in contact with the infected animals were analyzed by immunoelectrophoretic blotting in which a whole-cell sonicate of m. bovis was utilized as an antigen. antibody r ...19948556509
molecular epidemiological studies of mycobacterium bovis infections in humans and animals in sweden.forty-nine isolates of mycobacterium bovis from humans and animals in sweden were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) patterns probed by the insertion element is6110. most isolates had patterns indicating the presence of only one or two genomic copies of the is6110 insertion element. this simple type of pattern was found in all human isolates. in contrast, isolates from m. bovis infections in five herds of farmed deer in sweden showed a specific rflp pattern with seven ba ...19958586698
a simple method to obtain an in vitro primary immune response to dinitrophenyl coupled to bovine gamma-globulin.this paper describes a simple method of achieving a primary in vitro response to dinitrophenyl coupled to a soluble protein. mice are carrier-immunized, then irradiated and restored with spleen cells from normal donors. spleen cells are then cultured in the presence of dinitrophenyl on homologous carrier. the anti-hapten antibody synthesis is dose-dependent, and the highest response is obtained with the lowest dose used in the experiments. the higher level of hapten conjugation reduces the immun ...19806162415
synthesis of mycocerosic acids from methylmalonyl coenzyme a by cell-free extracts of mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis bcg.multimethyl-branched acids extracted from the cells of mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis bcg were identified by combined capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. these mycocerosic acids consisted of the products expected from elongation of n-c18 and n-c20 primers with methylmalonyl-coa. a soluble enzyme preparation from m. tuberculosis var. bovis bcg incorporated methylmalonyl-coa into mycocerosic acids. this incorporation was partially dependent on the addition of arachido ...19836402506
bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of dorset. i. tuberculosis in cattle.a major outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in cattle on a farm in dorset between 1970 and 1976. six hundred and twenty-six cattle were slaughtered either because they reacted to the tuberculin test or had been exposed to infection. no source of infection was found until 1974 when badgers infected with mycobacterium bovis were first discovered. an analysis of the tuberculin test records of this herd and the six surrounding herds indicated that tuberculosis had been a sporadic problem since the ear ...19826752270
use of dna restriction fragment typing in the differentiation of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from animals and humans in burundi.bubanza hospital and veterinary laboratory in bujumbura, burundi.19968758111
the zoonotic importance of mycobacterium bovis.the zoonotic importance of mycobacterium bovis has been the subject of renewed interest in the wake of the increasing incidence of tuberculosis in the human population. this paper considers some of the conditions under which transmission of m. bovis from animals to humans occurs and reviews current information on the global distribution of the disease. the paper highlights the particular threat posed by this zoonotic disease in developing countries and lists the veterinary and human public healt ...19968762842
bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of dorset. ii. the badger population, its ecology and tuberculosis status.following a major outbreak of tuberculosis in cattle on a farm in dorset, badgers were discovered to be infected with mycobacterium bovis. two hundred and forty sets were found in the 1200 hectares of the study area. the sets were found predominantly in areas of portland sand. a high prevalence of tuberculosis was found in the badger population which was removed and repopulation prevented for 3 years. the removal of the infected badgers led to the resolution of the problem in cattle. re-coloniza ...19826752271
laboratory study of mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and calves.two experiments with badgers infected with mycobacterium bovis are described. in the first, badgers were infected by intravenous inoculation of a bovine isolate of m bovis. the course of the disease in these and its spread to healthy badgers and calves was monitored by clinical, immunological and bacteriological means. in the second experiment a group of naturally infected badgers were observed for a period of up to four years. they were found to excrete m bovis in their faeces for periods of be ...19826761950
distribution of lesions in cattle infected with mycobacterium bovis.detailed postmortem examinations were conducted on 30 cattle from a dairy herd with bovine tuberculosis to determine the distribution of lesions in mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. twenty-four different tissue specimens from each animal were examined for gross lesions and collected for bacteriologic culturing and histologic examination. tuberculosis was confirmed in 15 cattle with evidence of infection in 1 or more of the following tissues: medial retropharyngeal, parotid, tracheobronchial, ...19968844579
vaccination of the badger (meles meles) against mycobacterium bovis.this review summarizes current knowledge relating to the potential development of a vaccine against mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) for use in badgers. the serious economic loss incurred from bovine tuberculosis in ireland is highlighted. the problems presented to national bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes by wildlife reservoirs of m bovis, in particular the badger and the brushtail possum, are outlined. badger and possum ecology and the epidemiology of m. bovis infection in these specie ...19968870197
bacteriological survey of tuberculous lymphadenitis in south-east england: 1973-80.during the eight years 1973-80 the public health laboratory service regional centre for tuberculosis bacteriology received cultures of mycobacteria from 2339 patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis. of these, 2272 were m tuberculosis (2207 human and 65 bovine strains) and 67 were other mycobacterial species, usually m avium and its intracellulare variant. disease due to the human strains of m tuberculosis occurred most often in young women of asian ethnic origin. many bovine strains isolated fro ...19826815295
adaptive surface antigen variation in mycoplasma bovis to the host immune response.the variability of predominant mycoplasma bovis surface antigens in the presence of specific immune pressure was analyzed in an in vitro assay to determine if m. bovis could escape immune destruction. we have shown that serum antibodies from immunized or experimentally infected calves and monoclonal antibodies which specifically react with previously characterized or as yet undefined major m. bovis membrane surface proteins cause repression of expression or shortening of the target protein, or i ...19968900072
[immunoenzyme analysis for the identification of mycobacterium bovis by using monoclonal antibodies].three monoclonal antibodies (mab) were obtained after fusion of mouse balb/c splenocytes immunised with gamma-irradiated field strains m. bovis and cells of mouse myeloma. mab specificity was determined at enzyme immunoassay of the bacteria. the antibodies were able to identify various epitopes of the protein (molecular mass under 31 kd). one of the antibodies obtained served the basis for the test-system intended for rapid identification of m. bovis. the system requires 0.5-1 mg of the bacteria ...19968907486
epidemiological features of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in great britain.particular epidemiological features of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle herds in great britain during the period 1972-8 were examined. during these seven years 1099 herds became infected, the mean annual incidence of herd infection being of the order of one infected herd per 1000 cattle herds. infection in herds was predominantly a sporadic occurrence; 938 (85.4%) herds experienced only one incidence of infection which persisted for less than 12 months. the concentration of infected herds ...19836833744
characterization of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex direct repeat sequence for use in cycling probe reaction.cycling probe technology (cpt) is a unique and simple method for the detection of specific target sequences. cpt utilizes a chimeric dna-rna-dna probe providing an rnase h-sensitive scissile linkage when bound to a complementary target sequence. for this study a diagnostic assay based on cpt was developed for the detection of the 36-bp direct repeat (dr) region in mycobacterium tuberculosis. to determine the feasibility of using the dr for detecting m. tuberculosis by cpt, a wide variety of myco ...19968940435
alveolar macrophage subpopulations identified by differential centrifugation on a discontinuous albumin density gradient.mononuclear phagocytes are functionally heterogeneous. to study the relationship of the heterogeneous populations of macrophages from the lung, alveolar macrophages from syrian hamsters that had been immunized and rechallenged intratracheally with mycobacterium bovis (strain bcg) were separated by discontinuous albumin gradient centrifugation into 5 subpopulations designated a, b, c, d, and e. an activated alveolar macrophage subpopulation (defined by the ability to destroy tumor target cells) w ...19827073115
tuberculosis in wildlife in the ruwenzori national park, uganda (part ii).the results of post-mortem examinations of 90 warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) conducted in the ruwenzori national park, uganda during a survey of tuberculous infection in wildlife are described. nine per cent of warthog were found to show gross lesions on autopsy and of these organisms which could by typed, mycobacterium bovis was isolated in 2 of 6 cases and 5 atypical mycobacterial strains were isolated from the remaining 4. the distribution and character of the lesions is described and it ...19827123664
cytokine mrna expressed in tuberculin skin test biopsies from bcg-vaccinated and mycobacterium bovis inoculated obtain a better understanding of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to mycobacterium bovis, we measured the expression of cytokine mrna from tuberculin skin test biopsies of cattle. non-vaccinated and bcg-vaccinated cattle were inoculated intratracheally with a low dose of virulent m. bovis or sham-inoculated and 20 weeks later were skin tested with tuberculin. at necropsy 1-2 weeks later, tuberculous lesions were found in six of the nine non-vaccinated and three of the nine bcg-vacci ...19957493774
characterization of a specific mycobacterium paratuberculosis recombinant clone expressing 35,000-molecular-weight antigen and reactivity with sera from animals with clinical and subclinical johne's disease.johne's disease is a chronic enteritis of ruminants associated with enormous worldwide economic losses for the dairy cow- and goat-rearing industries. management limitations and eradication programs for this disease have been hampered by the lack of a simple and specific diagnostic test for the detection of subclinical cases. we used a recombinant clone expressing a 35,000-molecular-weight mycobacterium paratuberculosis antigen (p35 antigen) from a previously constructed expression library of m. ...19979196196
identification of bovine t-cell epitopes for three mycobacterium bovis antigens: mpb70, 19,000 mw and mpb57.bovine tuberculosis remains a serious problem in several regions, partly due to a lack of specific diagnostic tests. the aim of this study was to identify bovine t-cell epitopes for defined mycobacterium bovis antigens using an experimental model of the natural disease. panels of synthetic peptides (16-mers with five residue overlaps) were produced from published amino acid sequences for mpb70, the 19,000 mw antigen and mpb57. in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assays were used to identify t-cell ...19947519175
[identification of the m. tuberculosis-m. bovis complex using the polymerase chain reaction].high-specific and sensitive method of identification of mycobacteria human and bovine species by using pcr was created. the pair of primers from dna sequence, coding protein mbaa was chosen. as a target for amplification was taken the sequence of dna from 1796 to 2115 pb coding region of protein from 407 to 514 amino acid with lesser hydrophobicity index. that gave the possibility to choose the specific for m. tuberculosis--m. bovis part of dna. simple and effective method of preparing mycobacte ...19937519470
interaction between fibronectin-bearing surfaces and bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) or gelatin microparticles.gelatin, prepared commercially by degradation of animal collagen, was studied to see whether it had an affinity for fibronectin, which has a known affinity for collagen, and whether gelatin-based drugs could be used to target fibronectin-excreting tumours. bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) vaccine, an attenuated strain of mycobacterium bovis, is currently the most effective treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. the living cells of the bcg vaccine associate with the f ...19957602476
an analysis, using monoclonal antibodies, of the role of interferon-gamma in ovine immune responses.a mab (ifn-9) which neutralizes biologically active ovine and bovine ifn-gamma was used to deplete levels of the cytokine in vivo in sheep and examine the consequences for immune responses to adjuvanted antigen and skin reactivity to bacillus-calmette-guerin (bcg). groups of sheep were immunized with ovalbumin in the adjuvants, quil a or dextran sulphate (mw 500,000; dxs), both of which elicit production of ifn-gamma. mab anti-ifn-gamma or an isotype control mab (anti-carbonic anhydrase positive ...19957797234
peptide mapping of bovine t-cell epitopes for the 38 kda tuberculosis antigen.mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle continues to be a problem in several regions, partly due to inadequate diagnostic tests. the aim of this study was to use an experimental model of the natural disease to identify t-cell epitopes from the mycobacterial 38 kda antigen as potentially specific diagnostic reagents. a panel of overlapping synthetic peptides (16-mers with a five-residue overlap) were produced from the published amino acid sequence. it was found that peripheral blood lymphocytes f ...19957824893
diagnosis and epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis using molecular biological approaches.conventional methods for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of bovine tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are far from ideal. in the last twelve years, molecular biology has provided new approaches which have enabled detailed studies to be made of the molecular characteristics of mycobacterium bovis, the causative organism of bovine tuberculosis. these characteristics have been investigated for their potential use in diagnosis and epidemiological studies. restriction fragment analys ...19947915446
zoonotic aspects of mycobacterium bovis infection.the bovine tuberculosis eradication campaigns in many industrially developed countries have led to a huge reduction in the incidence of human tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis. overt disease in man may, however, manifest decades after the initial infection and the occurrence of such disease raises several important questions. in particular, it is important to determine whether man-to-man transmission occurs, thereby rendering man a continuing reservoir of infection, and whether, if this ...19948073621
tuberculosis in badgers (meles meles).this review examines the incidence of tuberculosis in badgers, the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the disease in the badger, and the control prospects related to spread of tuberculosis from badgers to cattle.19948073624
specific differentiation between mycobacterium bovis bcg and virulent strains of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.a pcr procedure based on the intergenic region (ir) separating two genes encoding a recently identified mycobacterial two-component system, named senx3-regx3, was developed and was shown to be suitable for identifying mycobacterium bovis bcg. the senx3-regx3 ir contains a novel type of repetitive sequence, called mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (mirus). all tested bcg strains exclusively contained 77-bp mirus within the senx3-regx3 ir, whereas all non-bcg m. tuberculosis complex stra ...19989705376
bovine tuberculosis control and eradication programs in australia and new zealand.this paper reviews the current and future programs for control of bovine tuberculosis in australia and new zealand. the paper highlights the similarities between the approach taken in these countries and compares and contrasts the strengths and weaknesses of these campaigns. the successful australian campaign was based on a sound technical program, with good cattle control and strong industry support. in contrast, the presence of a significant wildlife reservoir (brushtail possum) of mycobacteri ...19948073626
an mpb-64 flanking sequence specific for mycobacterium bovis.a clone carrying a plasmid with the mpb-64 gene and 3' flanking sequences (plasmid pmba122) was detected during the screening of a mycobacterium bovis genomic library with sera from infected cattle. when the pmba122 insert was used as a probe in southern blots against pvuii-digested mycobacterial dna, it distinguished the different m. tuberculosis complex species. this probe hybridized with a 7-kb band in m. tuberculosis, a 5-kb band in m. bovis and a 3-kb band in m. tuberculosis complex strains ...19979765821
post mortem diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle.a tentative diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis can be made following the macroscopic detection at necropsy of typical lesions. histo-pathological examination of the lesion may increase the confidence of the diagnosis but bacteriological isolation of mycobacterium bovis from the lesion is the only way to make a definitive diagnosis. the sensitivity of gross post mortem examination is affected by the method employed and the anatomical sites examined. careful examination of as few as 6 pairs of lymph ...19948073629
a versatile model of disease transmission applied to forecasting bovine tuberculosis dynamics in white-tailed deer populations.a model was derived for disease transmission in dynamic host populations and its application was demonstrated in forecasting possible outcomes of a bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) epidemic in a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) population. the approach was mechanistic, based disease transmission on the probability of each susceptible individual becoming infected per unit time, and afforded the flexibility necessary to model epidemics in dynamic wildlife populations. this appro ...19989813841
hiv/aids and its implications for the control of animal tuberculosis.the hiv/aids pandemic is associated with a number of opportunist mycobacterial infections, principally tuberculosis and disease due to the avian tubercle bacillus, mycobacterium avium. tuberculosis occurring early in the course of hiv infection is usually caused by m. tuberculosis. however some cases are due to the bovine tubercle bacillus, m. bovis, which, in turn, is transmissible from man to animals, principally by the aerogenous route although the majority of cases in man are non-pulmonary. ...19938298954
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