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evaluation of two mutants of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as candidates for a live attenuated vaccine for johne's disease.control of johne's disease, caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, has been difficult because of a lack of an effective vaccine. to address this problem we used targeted gene disruption to develop candidate mutants with impaired capacity to survive ex vivo and in vivo to test as a vaccine. we selected rela and pkng, genes known to be important virulence factors in mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium bovis, for initial studies. deletion mutants were made in a wild type ma ...201121565243
prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle in northern italy.paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) that affects multiple ruminant species causing important economic losses. therefore, control programmes at herd and regional levels have been established worldwide and prevalence estimates are needed for their implementation. although different herd-level prevalence estimations for paratuberculosis have been reported in europe, very few studies provided comparable and interpretable v ...201121807432
the johne's paradigm: from detection to management to treatment. 201121778821
control of paratuberculosis in beef cattle.as with any susceptible livestock species, the key to control of paratuberculosis in beef cattle is to reduce exposure of the susceptible calves to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map)–contaminated feces. because beef calves remain with mature, potentially shedding cattle until weaning, control strategies are aimed at providing an environment with the least possible fecal burden and removing map shedders as soon as possible. testing and culling or separation may be more important in ...201122023837
Mediation of Host Immune Responses after Immunization of Neonatal Calves with a Heat-Killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Vaccine.A major drawback of current whole-cell vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the interference with diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis (TB) and paratuberculosis. The current study was designed to explore the effects of immunization with a heat-killed whole-cell vaccine (Mycopar) on diagnostic test performance and to characterize host immune responses to vaccination over a 12-month period. Neonatal dairy calves were assigned to treatment groups consisting of (i) control ...201122030370
[new vaccine for paratuberculosis reduces fecal shedding]. 201122111420
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis attenuated mutants against challenge in a mouse model.johne's disease (jd), caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map), results in serious economic losses worldwide especially in cattle, sheep and goats. to control the impact of jd on the animal industry, an effective vaccine with minimal adverse effects is urgently required. in order to develop an effective vaccine, we used allelic exchange to construct three mutant map strains, leud, mpt64 and seca2. the mutants were attenuated in a murine model and induced cytokine responses in ...201122107851
crohn's disease and mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: the need for a study is long overdue.the initial suggestion that mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) might be involved in the pathogenesis of crohn's disease (cd) was based on the apparent similarity of lesions in the intestine of patients with cd with those present in cattle infected with map, the etiological agent of johne's disease (jd). recent investigations have now revealed the presence of map or map dna in blood or lesions from adults and children with cd. of special interest, map has also been found in patient ...201122209202
evaluation of the in vitro activity of gallium nitrate against mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of various field isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (map) to gallium nitrate.201121879983
johne's disease in new zealand: the past, present and a glimpse into the future.abstract extract • johne's disease is endemic in cattle and sheep in new zealand and is spreading in farmed deer. • procedures for the control of johne's disease in new zealand have been sporadic and often ineffective. • characterisation of strains of mycobacterium paratuberculosis using molecular biological techniques have revealed two distinct strain types. one type has been found in cattle, goats and deer, and the other in sheep, goats and deer • vaccination has been identified as an importan ...200221838633
Effectiveness of combination of Mini-and Microsatellite loci to sub-type Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Italian type C isolates.Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis. The aim of our study was to combine Mini-and Microsatellite loci analysis in order to explore the effectiveness of this sub-typing method in a group of Map isolates. For this purpose, 84 Italian Type C Map isolates, each from a different cattle herd, were submitted to MIRU-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeats (VNTRs) typing and Short Sequence repeats (SSRs) sequencing. Moreover, the method was used to analy ...201121929793
detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a direct in situ pcr method.in situ detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is useful for diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis. the aim of this paper was to detect this agent in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by a direct in situ pcr. the technique was performed on ileum or ileocaecal lymph node samples from 8 naturally infected cattle and 1 healthy calf, by using p89 and p92 primers for amplification of is900 sequence. moderate positive signal was detected in all positive samples an ...201121772965
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