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experimental challenge models for johne's disease: a review and proposed international guidelines.an international committee of johne's disease (jd) researchers was convened to develop guidelines for jd challenge studies in multiple animal species. the intent was to develop and propose international standard guidelines for models based on animal species that would gain acceptance worldwide. parameters essential for the development of long-term and short-term infection models were outlined and harmonized to provide a "best fit" jd challenge model for cattle, goats, sheep, cervids, and mice. t ...200717467201
development of a method for bayesian nonparametric roc analysis with application to an elisa for johne's disease in dairy cattle.six hundred and sixty-eight dairy cattle were tested for johne's disease using a direct-fecal real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), fecal culture, and serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). likelihood ratios (lrs) were estimated for five categories of sample-to-positive (s/p) values for the elisa: <0.1, 0.1-0.249, 0.25-0.399, 0.4-0.999, > or =1.0. the statistical method assumed a single multinomial model for cross-classified rt-pcr, fecal culture results, and elisa category str ...200717482696
environmental mycobacteria in soil and water on beef ranches: association between presence of cultivable mycobacteria and soil and water physicochemical characteristics.exposure to environmental mycobacteria has been reported to be a factor contributing to false-positive results on bovine serological tests detecting antibodies to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (mptb). this study was conducted to investigate the association between recovery of mycobacteria from the environment of cattle and both (i) historically high or low seroprevalence to mptb, and (ii) soil and water physicochemical characteristics. eighty-two samples (soil and water) from nine ...200717512144
pooled faecal culture for the detection of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in goats.to evaluate pooled faecal culture for herd diagnosis of caprine johne's disease and relate these findings to faecal shedding rates of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (map).200717547638
isolation of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from non-ruminant wildlife living in the sheds and on the pastures of greek sheep and goats.this study aimed to: (1) investigate whether non-ruminant wildlife interfacing with dairy sheep and goats of four greek flocks endemically infected with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) harboured map and (2) genetically compare the strains isolated from the wildlife to those isolated from the small ruminants of these flocks. we cultured and screened, by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), pooled-tissue samples from 327 wild animals of 11 species for the map-specific is900 inser ...200817578601
diagnostic validity and costs of pooled fecal samples and individual blood or fecal samples to determine the cow- and herd-status for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.two tests are used on a regular basis to detect mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map): elisa and fecal culture. fecal culture is considered more sensitive and specific but is costly and requires 3-4 months for results. pooling of fecal samples of individual animals may reduce the high costs of fecal culture. the objective of the study was to investigate the diagnostic validity and costs for pooling of fecal samples in dairy farms relative to culture or an elisa on individual samples ...200717597241
diagnostic performance of the pourquier elisa for detection of antibodies against mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in individual milk and bulk milk samples of dairy herds.the objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic performance of the pourquier elisa for detection of antibodies against mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in individual milk samples and in bulk milk samples. for individual milk samples the specificity of the pourquier elisa was estimated by testing a panel of individual milk samples from certified map-free herds. the relative sensitivity of the assay in individual milk samples and agreement of the results with those of s ...200717601689
what is human inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) more like: johne's disease in cattle or ibd in dogs and cats? 200817680652
differential cytokine gene expression profiles in the three pathological forms of sheep paratuberculosis.johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut caused by infection with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map). symptoms include wasting, diarrhoea, loss of condition and eventual death. three forms of johne's disease have been described in sheep - paucibacillary, multibacillary and asymptomatic. the paucibacillary form is characterized by an inflammatory, th1-type immune response. the multibacillary form of the disease, which disseminates the infection, is character ...200717697353
sero-prevalence of bovine johne's disease in buffaloes and cattle population of north india using indigenous elisa kit based on native mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'bison type' genotype of goat origin.present pilot study is the first attempt in the country to estimate sero-prevalence of bovine johne's disease (bjd) by screening cattle and buffaloes representing large population belonging to farmer's and farm herds in the home tracts (uttar pradesh (up) and punjab) of hariana cattle and murrah buffaloes in north india. indigenous and in-house plate elisa kit (using protoplasmic antigen from native mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 'bison type' strain of goat origin), originally devel ...200817854892
the etiology of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in crohn's disease.the etiology of crohn's disease (cd) has drawn heated controversy in the literature. compelling evidence in the literature has accumulated lately that could incriminate the mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), the well-known agent of john's disease in cattle. the evidence is isolation of the organism or its dna and rna, detection of the anti-map antibodies in crohn's patients, increasing incidents of cd in areas close to the cattle pastures, and the possibility of treating the ...200717914503
in utero infection of cattle with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a critical review and meta-analysis.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (mptb) causes johne's disease in ruminants. disease control programmes aim to break the faecal-oral cow-calf transmission cycle through hygienic calf rearing and removal of affected cows from the herd, but these programmes do not take account of the potential for congenital infection. the aims of this study were to critically review research on in utero infection, determine the prevalence of fetal infection in cattle through meta-analysis and estimate ...200917928247
the mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis map3464 gene encodes an oxidoreductase involved in invasion of bovine epithelial cells through the activation of host cell cdc42.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle takes place through the intestinal mucosa. to identify m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes associated with the invasion of bovine epithelial cells in vitro, we screened a library of transposon mutants. several mutants of m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were identified which invaded madin-darby bovine kidney (mdbk) epithelial cells less efficiently than wild-type (wt) m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. the deltaox mutant had the t ...200817938223
role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the differential response of bovine monocytes to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.we compared the kinetics of activation and antimicrobial activities of mapk-p38 and mapk-erk in bovine monocytes infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa). monocytes were incubated with map or maa organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the mapk-p38 pathway (sb203580), and mapk phosphorylation and antimicrobial functions of monocytes were evaluated. at early time points mapk-p38 phosphorylation was greater in map-infected ...200718035573
lipopentapeptide induces a strong host humoral response and distinguishes mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from m. avium subsp. avium.many non-tuberculous mycobacteria synthesize abundant glycopeptidolipids (gpls). these surface-located gpls are involved in pathogenicity by interfering with the host immune system. in mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (mav), gpls consist of a lipopeptide core composed of a tetrapeptide o-linked to mono- and oligo-saccharides. the biosynthesis pathway of the simplest gpls is now relatively well understood and involves probably more than fifteen genes. whereas it is very obvious that most, if not ...200818068277
bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum in alberta beef and dairy cattle.identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. the objective of this study was to map the risk for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map - the causative agent of johne's disease) and neospora caninum (nc - t ...200718189052
current value of historical and ongoing surveillance for disease freedom: surveillance for bovine johne's disease in western australia.'confidence' in freedom from disease is generally derived from multiple sources of varied surveillance information, and typically this surveillance evidence has been accumulated over time. in the state of western australia (wa) the main surveillance evidence supporting free zone status in the national bovine johne's disease (bjd) program comprises periodic surveys and the ongoing clinical diagnostic system. this paper illustrates a simple approach to current valuation of historical surveillance ...200818243373
immune responses in mice to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis following vaccination with a novel 74f recombinant polyprotein.johne's disease (jd) is a chronic infectious disease of ruminants caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map). here, we report the cloning and expression of a 74kda recombinant polyprotein (map74f) and its protective efficacy against map infection in mice. map74f was generated by the sequential linkage of the orfs of the approximately 17.6-kda c-terminal fragment of map3527 to the full-length orf of map1519, followed at the c-terminus with approximately 14.6-kda n-terminal portio ...200818243427
milk quality assurance for paratuberculosis: simulation of within-herd infection dynamics and economics.a bulk milk quality assurance programme for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in dairy herds was simulated with a stochastic simulation model (johnessim). the aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and economic effects of preventive management measures and various test schemes in a simulated population of closed dutch dairy herds over a 20-year period. herds were certified as ;low-map bulk milk' if, with a certain probability, the concentration of map in bulk milk ...200818258169
longterm investigation in an austrian dairy herd with low prevalence of paratuberculosis detection of antibodies in blood and milk.paratuberculosis (johne's disease), which is widely distributed throughout the world, is caused by mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map). diagnosis of subclinically infected cattle is challenging and is especially problematic in herds with low prevalence of map. the aim of this long-term study was the comparison of different diagnostic tests for map and specific antibodies in a herd with low prevalence of map. three different commercially available serum-elisa (svanovir-elisa, sv ...200718265703
sequence polymorphisms in a surface ppe protein distinguish types i, ii, and iii of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.in the last 2 decades, a variety of different molecular typing methods have been developed to differentiate strains of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. the most successful techniques are based on insertion sequences, repetitive loci, comparative genomics, or single nucleotide polymorphisms. in the present study, we chose to examine whether a single m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis gene could serve as a means of differentiation of a variety of isolates. the map1506 gene locus encodes ...200818272710
genetic resistance of mice to mycobacterium paratuberculosis is influenced by slc11a1 at the early but not at the late stage of infection.we have recently described the development of a luminescent mycobacterium paratuberculosis strain of bovine origin expressing the luxab genes of vibrio harveyi. with this luminescent isolate, fastidious and costly enumeration of cfu by plating them on agar can be replaced by easy and rapid luminometry. here, we have reevaluated the effect of slc11a1 (formerly nramp1) polymorphism on susceptibility to m. paratuberculosis, using this luminometric method. a series of inbred mouse strains were infec ...200818285491
cross species transmission of ovine johne's disease from sheep to cattle: an estimate of prevalence in exposed susceptible cattle.to determine the prevalence of infection of cattle with the sheep strain of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis at least two years after exposure at < 6 months old.200818363982
mycobacterium porcinum strains isolated from bovine bulk milk: implications for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection by pcr and culture.in this study, the isolation of 52 mycobactin-independent fast growing mycobacteria from 631 bulk milk samples (8.2%), is reported. these strains, isolated during a bulk milk survey for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map), strongly affected map detection both by pcr and by culture, as they gave a positive is900 pcr signal and resulted to totally inhibit the growth of map when spotted on heym slants already inoculated with 200 microl of 10-fold dilutions containing from 5 x 10 to 5 ...200818378411
association among results of serum elisa, faecal culture and nested pcr on milk, blood and faeces for the detection of paratuberculosis in dairy cows.paratuberculosis is a chronic, infectious disease of ruminants that entails a serious concern for the cattle industry. one of the main issues relates to the efficiency of diagnosis of subclinically infected animals. the objective of this field study was to analyse the association among results of a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), faecal culture and nested pcr tests on milk, blood and faeces for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection in dairy cows. faeces, blood a ...200818397500
comparison of three methods of surveillance with application to the detection of johne's disease seropositivity in texas cattle.surveillance and monitoring are important for measuring the level of disease in a population, documenting changes in prevalence over time, determining high-risk areas for implementation of control measures, eradicating disease, and documenting freedom from disease. the documentation of freedom from disease has importance for international trade and the resumption of production after an outbreak. johne's disease (jd) is an example of an endemic disease of cattle that has variable prevalence relat ...200818406483
prevalence on beef carcasses of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis dna.fifty samples were collected from each of skinned and dressed carcasses, from each of culled beef breeding cows and fed beef cattle <18 months old at two beef packing plants a and b, and from culled dairy cows at a packing plant c. the 450 samples were collected by swabbing an area of about 1000 cm2 in the anal region of each carcass. dna extracted from each swab was tested for the is900 and f57 sequences of the mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) genome by two stage, nested polyme ...200818450311
paratuberculosis in holstein-friesian cattle farms in central iran.paratuberculosis is an important disease of ruminants with a worldwide distribution. in developing countries where funding constraints challenge establishment of control schemes, large losses are incurred on cattle farmers due to paratuberculosis. in this study, faecal specimens from holstein-friesian cows with progressed and moderate clinical paratuberculosis (n = 223) from 13 dairy farms in isfahan, central iran, were subjected to bacterial culture. culture growth diagnostic for m. avium subsp ...200818484118
effects of nuclear factor-kappab on regulation of cytokine expression and apoptosis in bovine monocytes exposed to mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.to evaluate the role of the nuclear factor-kappab (nf-kappab) in the response of bovine monocytes to exposure to mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (map).200818518662
the recovery of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the intestine of infected ruminants for proteomic evaluation.johne's disease is a slowly developing intestinal disease, primarily of ruminants, caused by mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. the disease contributes to significant economic losses worldwide in agricultural industry. analysis of bacterial proteomes isolated directly from infected animals can provide important information about the repertoire of proteins present during infection and disease progression. in this study, m. avium subspecies paratuberculosis has been extracted from jo ...200818547663
evaluation of five elisa test kits for the measurement of antibodies against mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in bovine serum.five commercially available elisa tests for the detection of antibodies against mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum were evaluated at the individual animal level using sera from 286 paratuberculosis-free and 110 paratuberculosis-infected dairy cattle. sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of the tests were estimated after determination of the cut-off dtheta by tg-roc analysis or using the cut-off values recommended by the manufacturers, respectively. when the dtheta cut-o ...200818557524
detection of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: comparing fecal culture versus serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct fecal polymerase chain reaction.mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) is the etiologic agent of johne's disease in cattle. the disease causes diarrhea, reduced milk production, poor reproductivity, emaciation, and eventually death. culture on herrold's egg yolk agar is considered to be the definitive test for diagnosis of johne's in cattle. this method has moderate sensitivity (30 to 50%) and is 100% specific; however, it can take up to 16 wk due to the slow growth of map. currently, serum elisa is used to screen her ...200818565921
the importance of culling in johne's disease control.johne's disease is caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) infection and results in economic losses in the dairy industry. to control map transmission in herds, test-based culling has been recommended and immediate culling of high shedding animals is typically implemented. in this study, we quantified the effects of map control in us dairy herds, using the basic reproduction ratio r(0). the effectiveness of culling strategies was evaluated for good and poor herd management (l ...200818573505
transitions in diagnostic tests used for detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in cattle.diagnosis of infections with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) is difficult due to a long incubation period and lack of tests which can accurately predict the future status of animals. early detection of infectious animals is necessary to reduce transmission of map. the objective of this study was to determine the time from first detection of map-antibodies in milk elisa to start of map shedding, for animals with various shedding patterns. an observational longitudinal study was ...200818599225
scenario analysis of changes in consumption of dairy products caused by a hypothetical causal link between mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and crohn's disease.johne's disease is an infectious disease of cattle caused by mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map). crohn's disease (cd) is a human disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by chronic bowel inflammation. no causal link has been scientifically established between map and cd, but it is important to understand possible impacts on society should such a causal link be established. the goal of this paper is to analyze the implications and the possible economic impacts that fin ...200818650302
vaccination against paratuberculosis.johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, is a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) affecting principally cattle, sheep and goats. primarily, there are two clinical signs: cachexia and chronic diarrhea (less common in goats and sheep). this disease results in considerable economic losses in livestock industry, particularly the dairy sector. the route of transmission is mostly by the fecal-oral route, but hygienic measures and cullin ...200818665779
transcriptional analysis of diverse strains mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages.in this study we analyzed the macrophage-induced gene expression of three diverse genotypes of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map). using selective capture of transcribed sequences (scots) on three genotypically diverse map isolates from cattle, human, and sheep exposed to primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages for 48 h and 120 h we created and sequenced six cdna libraries. sequence annotations revealed that the cattle isolate up-regulated 27 and 241 genes; the human isolate u ...200818692151
cows, crohn's and more: is mycobacterium paratuberculosis a superantigen?the plausibility of a causal role of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) in crohn's disease has gone from controversial to compelling. this century old debate is resolving because of unfolding understanding of shared genetic susceptibilities for crohn's and mycobacterial infection in addition to newer laboratory tests to detect map which have linked map and crohn's. mycobacterial heat shock proteins are associated with a multitude of "autoimmune" diseases, including type 1 diab ...200818789596
agreement between elisa and complement fixation test used for diagnosing of paratuberculosis in goats.an elisa with a lipoarabinomannan as an antigen, developed for diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis, has been adapted for use in goats, and compared with complement fixation test. kappa value of 0.62 indicated good agreement between cft and the adapted elisa and proved that the investigated elisa may be helpful in diagnosis of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in goats. the elisa has been used to screen a randomly selected representative sample of polish breeding goat populat ...200818942542
effect of paratuberculosis on the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a cattle herd with a mixed infection using interferon-gamma detection assay.interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) detection assay is being applied as an ancillary test to tuberculin tests in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis to detect the maximum number of infected animals. among possible factors influencing the performance of tuberculosis-diagnostic tests, paratuberculosis, a widespread disease in spain and other european countries, has been pointed out as a cause of false positive reactions. still, its effect on the sensitivity of these tests in cattle has yet to be fully c ...200918986776
colostrum and milk as risk factors for infection with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle.mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) infections cause major losses to the dairy industry. transmission of map occurs primarily via feces and in utero, but map can also be excreted in colostrum and milk. the objective of this study was to determine whether colostrum and milk fed to calves are important risk factors for infection with map. a questionnaire was sent to 1,050 farms participating in the danish control program on paratuberculosis in early 2007. details on practices regarding ...200819038936
on the effect of thalidomide on mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in culture.without known mechanisms of action, thalidomide is used to treat a variety of non-malignant 'idiopathic' diseases. there is increasing concern that mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) may be zoonotic. recently, methotrexate, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine (6-mp), 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-asa), cyclosporine a, rapamycin, and tacrolimus have been shown to inhibit map growth in culture, indicating that, unknowingly, map infections may have been treated for decades. we herein test ...200919303801
expression of nramp1 and inos in mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally infected cattle.paratuberculosis (ptb) is a chronic disease caused by m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) that affects several animal species, and some studies have suggested that there may be a relationship between crohn's disease and ptb. significant aspects of ptb pathogenesis are not yet completely understood, such as the role of macrophages. natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (nramp1) and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) molecules have shown nonspecific effects against several ...201019345998
a bovine macrophage screening system for identifying attenuated transposon mutants of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with vaccine potential.johne's disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map). the disease is responsible for considerable economic losses in the livestock industry and in particular within the dairy sector. a more effective vaccine against johne's disease would be of major benefit. in this study, we developed an efficient procedure for identifying mutants of map with reduced virulence that are potential live vaccine candidates against johne's dise ...200919386227
first isolation of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from wild guanacos (lama guanicoe) on tierra del fuego island.the aim of this study was to search for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) infection in a free-ranging wild animal species in a region where johnes's disease has yet to be reported and to classify map isolates using a genomic typing method. fecal samples were obtained from 501 wild guanacos (lama guanicoe) from tierra del fuego island, chile, in august 2006. samples were cultured using herrold's egg yolk medium with and without mycobactin j. after 9 mo of incubation, suspected map ...200919395739
efficacy of feeding plasma-derived commercial colostrum replacer for the prevention of transmission of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in holstein calves.to estimate the relative risk of paratuberculosis (johne's disease [jd]) in calves fed a plasma-derived colostrum-replacement (cr) product versus raw bovine maternal colostrum (mc).200919405889
role of nitric oxide production in dairy cows naturally infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.nitric oxide (no) is a crucial mediator in host defense and is one of the major killing mechanisms within macrophages. its induction is highly affected by the types of cytokines and the infectious agents present. in the current study, no production was evaluated after in vitro infection of unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) after 8h, 3 and 6 days of culture for cows in different stages of disease. in addition, the effe ...200919409621
neutralization of interleukin-10 from cd14(+) monocytes enhances gamma interferon production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected goats.the gamma interferon assay is used to identify mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected animals. it has been suggested that regulatory mechanisms could influence the sensitivity of the test when it is performed with cells from cattle and that the neutralization of interleukin-10 (il-10) in vitro would increase the gamma interferon responses. to investigate the regulatory mechanisms affecting the gamma interferon assay with cells from goats, blood was collected from m. avium subsp. pa ...200919420185
a whole genome association analysis identifies loci associated with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status in us holstein cattle.the purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) infection status in us holsteins using the illumina bovinesnp50 beadchip whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) assay. two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in new york, pennsylvania and vermont enrolled in longitudinal herd studies between january 1999 and november 2007 were assessed for the presence of map in both faecal and tissue samples. an animal was considered ...200919422364
biomarker discovery in subclinical mycobacterial infections of cattle.bovine tuberculosis is a highly prevalent infectious disease of cattle worldwide; however, infection in the united states is limited to 0.01% of dairy herds. thus detection of bovine tb is confounded by high background infection with m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. the present study addresses variations in the circulating peptidome based on the pathogenesis of two biologically similar mycobacterial diseases of cattle.200919424492
comparison of faecal culture and is900 pcr assay for the detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine faecal samples.comparative efficacy of faecal culture and is900 polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay of faecal samples was investigated in 40 clinically suspected cases of johne's disease in dairy cattle. the sensitivity of faecal culture and pcr assay in this study was 52.5% (21/40) and 90% (36/40) respectively. all isolates appeared only on the mycobactin j supplemented herrold's egg yolk medium (heym) at 8-16 weeks post-inoculation, were acid-fast and were positive for is900 pcr yielding a single amplicon ...200919440851
on the evolution of 'indian bison type' strains of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), the causative agent of johne's disease (jd) in animals, has also been linked with crohn's disease in human beings. lack of indigenous diagnostics and vaccine hampered control of jd in india. designing effective control strategies require thorough understanding of the etiological agent at phenotypic and molecular levels. on the basis of cultural phenotypes and is1311 pcr-rea typing, map strains have been genotyped as 'cattle type', 'sheep typ ...201019442500
a longitudinal study on the impact of johne's disease status on milk production in individual cows.longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast united states were collected from 2004 to 2007. johne's disease status, as indicated by mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection levels, was determined through quarterly elisa serum testing, biannual fecal culture, and culture of tissues at slaughter. milk production data were collected from the dairy herd improvement association. the effect of johne's disease status on milk production was analyzed using a mixed linear m ...200919447998
sample handling substantially affects johne's elisa.detection methods for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) are imperfect, yet crucial for diagnosis of johne's disease. our purpose was to test for significant and biologically relevant changes in johne's elisa results associated with how field-collected blood samples were transported to the laboratory, prepared and stored prior to testing, while removing potential confounding by test kit and laboratory variables. blood samples were collected from 21 cows that previously had map eli ...200919477542
contamination of food products with mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis: a systematic review.although a causal link between mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) and crohn's disease has not been proved, previous studies suggest that the potential routes of human exposure to map should be investigated. we conducted a systematic review of literature concerning the likelihood of contamination of food products with map and the likely changes in the quantity of map in dairy and meat products along their respective production chains. relevant data were extracted from 65 resear ...200919486426
reliability of environmental sampling to quantify mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis on california free-stall dairies.the reliability of environmental sampling to quantify mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) based on collector and time was evaluated. fecal slurry samples were collected using a standardized protocol simultaneously by 2 collectors of different experience levels. samples were collected from 30 cow pens on 4 dairies every other day on 3 occasions while cow movements between pens were minimal. the 4 study herds had moderate map seroprevalence and were housed in free-stall dairies in cent ...200919620644
prevalence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ileocecal lymph nodes and on hides and carcasses from cull cows and fed cattle at commercial beef processing plants in the united states.clinical associations between crohn's disease in humans and mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) have been suggested but not confirmed. cattle could be sources for map, but little information on map prevalence with beef has been reported. samples of ileocecal lymph nodes and swabs of hides and carcasses from 343 animals at cull cattle slaughtering facilities and 243 animals at fed cattle slaughtering facilities across the united states were analyzed for the presence of map. amplific ...200919681269
identification and functional characterization of the iron-dependent regulator (ider) of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), the causative agent of johne's disease in cattle and sheep, has unique iron requirements in that it is mycobactin-dependent for cultivation in vitro. the iron-dependent regulator (ider) is a well-characterized global regulator responsible for maintaining iron homeostasis in mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb). we identified an orthologous segment in the map genome, map2827, with >93 % amino acid identity to mtb ider. electrophoretic mobility sh ...200919684064
a mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis luxr regulates cell envelope and virulence.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis adapts to the environment via the regulation of genes affecting its envelope's composition. bacteria grown in milk (in vivo conditions) presented differences in the cell wall-associated lipids and in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism (fade8, fade6 and map1420) and host cell invasion (map1203, lprl). a different lipid profile was also observed in the envelope of intracellular bacteria after 1 h of infection. intracellular bacteria sho ...201019710090
detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples of cattle and buffaloes.tissue samples were collected at random from cattle (bos taurus) and buffalo (bubalus bubalis) from an abattoir of the district of lahore and were analyzed for the presence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium bovis through acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). body condition of animals and diarrhea were recorded. most of the animals were emaciated. diarrhea was noticed in 15.6% of buffaloes and 19.2% of cattle. intestinal pathology was observed in 2 ...201019816784
production of and applications for a polyclonal igy diagnostic reagent specific for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.antibodies specific to the cell surface antigens of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) have multiple useful applications, e.g. organism detection, immunoconcentration, and cell visualization. the aim of this study was to produce and compare polyclonal antibodies for such research and diagnostic purposes. three polyclonal antibodies to map were produced using sera from immunized rabbits and chickens plus naturally infected cows. cross-reactive antibodies in each map antibody prepar ...200919851733
analysis of correlations between the occurrence of anti-map antibodies in blood serum and the presence of dna-map in milk.paratuberculosis (johne's disease) is a chronic, infectious enteritis of both domestic and wild ruminants. unfortunately, the problem of map infections is not linked only with the health status of animals and potential direct and indirect economic losses in bovine herds (of dairy cattle in particular). map bacilli present in food of animal origin (milk in particular) are likely to lead to the development of the disease in humans. fast and effective diagnosis of the disease in animals, especially ...200919886260
susceptibility to paratuberculosis infection in cattle is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 2 which modulate immune responses against mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.paratuberculosis is a chronic intestinal infection in ruminants, caused by mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map). to study the role of host genetics in disease susceptibility, the toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) gene, selected based on its potential role in immunity to mycobacterial infections, was analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (snp) and their potential association with disease. for snp discovery and to study snp association with disease, a case-control study including ...201020005587
lack of evidence for fecal shedding of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in calves born to fecal culture positive dams.the objective was to detect presence of calves excreting mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in their feces as a consequence of being born to map fecal culture positive (vs. negative) dams. for each cow that was about to calf, approximately 10g of feces was collected manually by the herdsmen from the rectum using a disposable plastic examination sleeve within 48-72h prior to actual calving. between 1 and 3d of birth, herd personnel collected approximately 10g of fecal samples follo ...201020015557
detection of spatial and temporal spread of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment of a cattle farm through bio-aerosols.environmental samples were collected to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in a dairy cattle barn before and after the introduction of two groups of map-shedding animals. samples collected off the floor of the barn reflected the moment of sampling whereas samples collected by microfiber wipes at a minimal of 3m height contained the accumulated settled dust over a 3-week period. samples were analysed by is900 qpcr for the presence of m ...201020036081
comparison of three methods for extraction of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis dna for polymerase chain reaction from broth-based culture systems.conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays were used to measure the recovery of dna from mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) extracted with 3 different methods (magmax, dneasy(r), and phenol-chloroform) after growth in a broth-based culture system. of the 304 samples tested, bacterial dna was detected in 197 (65%) of samples after magmax, 156 (51%) after phenol-chloroform, and 123 (40%) after dneasy extractions. by acid-fast stain, 177 (58%) of the sample ...201020093685
a bayesian weibull survival model for time to infection data measured with delay.survival analysis methods can be used to identify factors associated with the time to induction of infection. in the absence of a perfect test, detection of infection is generally delayed and depends on the duration of the latent infection period. we assess, via simulations, the impact of ignoring the delayed detection of infection on estimated survival times and propose a bayesian weibull regression model, which adjusts for the delayed detection of infection. the presence of non-differential de ...201020129683
prevalence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in adult danish non-dairy cattle sampled at slaughter.a voluntary, risk-based control program for paratuberculosis in dairy herds was started in 2006 in denmark. the program does not include non-dairy herds, and the occurrence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in these herds is unknown. the objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of map infected adult non-dairy cattle in denmark. serum samples were collected between october, 2008 and january, 2009 from every 6th animal over 24 months of age, sent to slaughter to d ...201020153536
effect of changes in testing parameters on the cost-effectiveness of two pooled test methods to classify infection status of animals in a herd.monte carlo simulation was used to determine optimal fecal pool sizes for identification of all mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map)-infected cows in a dairy herd. two pooling protocols were compared: a halving protocol involving a single retest of negative pools followed by halving of positive pools and a simple protocol involving single retest of negative pools but no halving of positive pools. for both protocols, all component samples in positive pools were then tested individual ...201020207038
successful control of johne's disease in nine dairy herds: results of a six-year field trial.the objective was to evaluate if a standardized johne's disease control program significantly reduced the prevalence of cattle infected with mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds with a moderate to high initial infection prevalence of >or=10% elisa-positive adult cattle. nine wisconsin dairy herds of diverse sizes and management styles completed the 6-yr study. the control program involved changes to heifer rearing practices in combination with a routine testing program. for h ...201020338441
identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine solute carrier family 11 member 1 (slc11a1) gene and their association with infection by mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.johne's disease is a chronic enteritis caused by mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) that causes substantial financial losses for the cattle industry. susceptibility to map infection is reported to be determined in part by genetic factors, so marker-assisted selection could help to obtain bovine populations that are increasingly resistant to map infection. solute carrier family 11 member 1 (slc11a1) was adjudged to be a potential candidate gene because of its role in innate immunity, ...201020338449
map in the environment of dairy herds - a comment. 201020357935
peripheral blood mononuclear cell population changes associated with age and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in red deer (cervus elaphus).in this study we aimed to document the maturation of the immune system in red deer and investigate the hypothesis that an immature immune system may predispose young red deer (cervus elaphus) to an increased susceptibility to johne's disease. peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations were analysed using flow cytometry techniques to monitor changes associated with age and severity of infection with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in red deer. the percentage of cells expressing ...201020378187
partial proteome of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis under oxidative and nitrosative stress.the growth pattern and protein expression profiles of sheep (s) and cattle (c) strains of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) under oxidative and nitrosative stress were characterised. oxidative stress was induced using 0.05% (v/v) h(2)o(2) in bactec medium, and was lethal for an inoculum of 10(4) cells. however, an inoculum of 10(7) cells survived and proteomic changes were observed at 7 days. nitrosative stress was induced using 1mm nano(2); it slowed the growth of an inoculum of ...201020413229
exposure of young dairy cattle to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) through intensive grazing of contaminated pastures in a herd positive for johne's disease.this study investigated the susceptibility of 1- to 2-year-old cattle to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) on pasture previously grazed by infected cattle. the exposure of yearling cattle to pastures contaminated with map resulted in infection with map, showing that age resistance to infection can be overcome by pressure of infection.201020436867
crohn's disease and ruminant farming. got lactase?crohn's disease (cd) is a well known chronic pathological condition whose aetiology has remained unrecognized for nearly a century. complex immune mechanisms in a specific genetic background causing an abnormal local inflammatory response are thought to be directly responsible for the clinical picture, but no external factor triggering such host responses has been identified. humans lose the capability of breaking down milk lactose early in life and, afterwards, ingestion of large amounts of lac ...201020451331
assessing virulence of vaccine strains of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in a calf model.the purpose of this investigation was to characterise the virulence of two mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (m.a. paratuberculosis) vaccine strains and compare them with a recent virulent isolate in new born calves over a time course of 8 months post-inoculation. paratuberculosis-free new born calves were inoculated orally with either a vaccine strain (2e or 316f) or a wild type strain (f13) of m.a. paratuberculosis. blood and faecal samples were collected throughout the experimen ...201020472374
genetic association between bovine nod2 polymorphisms and infection by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in holstein-friesian cattle.nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (nod2) has been reported to be a candidate gene for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) infection in a bos taurus × bos indicus mixed breed based on a genetic association with the c.2197t>c single nucleotide polymorphism (snp). nevertheless, this snp has also been reported to be monomorphic in the b. taurus species. in the present work, 18 snps spanning the bovine nod2 gene have been analysed in a genetic association study of two independ ...201020477790
lack of association between the occurrence of crohn's disease and occupational exposure to dairy and beef cattle herds infected with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.a cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify associations between crohn's disease (cd) and mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) exposure. a questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to cattle infected with map, and personal and family history of cd in dairy and beef cattle producers with and without map-infected herds, and in veterinarians who did or did not have contact with map-infected herds. cases of cd were selected from respondents and matched 1:4 with cont ...201020494145
development of an immunocapture-polymerase chain reaction assay using igy to detect mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.a diagnostic assay using immunomagnetic separation was developed to capture mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) from bovine feces by means of igy derived from chicken eggs. the antibody was coupled directly onto the surface of magacell cellulose/iron oxide beads or indirectly by being mixed with magabeads and a rabbit igg linker against chicken antigen. optimization parameters for the immunocapture included incubation time, temperature, volume, and type of immunocapture beads. anal ...201020592839
bayesian estimation of the receiver operating characteristic curve for a diagnostic test with a limit of detection in the absence of a gold standard.the receiver operating characteristic (roc) curve is commonly used for evaluating the discriminatory ability of a biomarker. measurements for a diagnostic test may be subject to an analytic limit of detection leading to immeasurable or unreportable test results. ignoring the scores that are beyond the limit of detection of a test leads to a biased assessment of its discriminatory ability, as reflected by indices such as the associated area under the curve (auc). we propose a bayesian approach fo ...201020603894
b-cell epitope specificity of carboxy terminus of mycobacterium paratuberculosis modd.epitope mapping of modd of mycobacterium paratuberculosis was performed using overlapping peptides. in total, 80 overlapping peptides, covering the entire mature modd, were commercially synthesized. each peptide spanned 14 amino acids with an offset of 4 amino acids, i.e., with an overlap of 10 amino acids. synthetic peptide antigenicity was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using rabbit antisera to culture filtrate (cf) of m. avium or m. paratuberculosis or recombinant modd ...201020623405
presence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples collected on commercial dutch dairy farms.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of johne's disease in cattle, was identified in settled-dust samples of dutch commercial dairy farms, both in the dairy barn and in the young stock housing. bioaerosols may play a role in within-farm m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission.201020656861
age at which dairy cattle become mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis faecal culture positive.age at which cattle become faecal culture positive for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) can be used as a proxy parameter for age at onset of faecal shedding, which is an important parameter in the control of map in cattle herds. to investigate the age at becoming faecal culture positive, survival analysis methods were applied. the analyses were carried out on asynchronous interval censored data of faecal culture results of samples collected from 18,979 female holstein-frisian ca ...201020708807
maximizing capture efficiency and specificity of magnetic separation for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells.in order to introduce specificity for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis prior to a phage amplification assay, various magnetic-separation approaches, involving either antibodies or peptides, were evaluated in terms of the efficiency of capture (expressed as a percentage) of m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and the percentage of nonspecific binding by other mycobacterium spp. a 50:50 mixture of myone tosylactivated dynabeads coated with the chemically synthesized m. avium subsp. p ...201020851966
direct inoculation of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis into ileocecal peyer's patches results in colonization of the intestine in a calf model.the objective of this study was to develop an intestinal model of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) infection in the calf for evaluation of mucosal pathology and local and systemic immunologic responses. map was inoculated into peyer's patches of young calves using a right flank surgical approach in standing calves to exteriorize the ileocecal junction. inoculum doses ranging from 10(3) to 10(9) colony-forming units of strain k10 map were injected through the serosal surface ...201020930105
different mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis miru-vntr patterns coexist within cattle herds.a better understanding of the biodiversity of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) offers more insight in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis and therefore may contribute to the control of the disease. the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity in bovine map isolates using pcr-based methods detecting genetic elements called variable-number tandem repeats (vntrs) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (mirus) to determine if multiple map strains can coex ...201021035277
herd-level prevalence of johne's disease in utah and adjacent areas of the intermountain west as detected by a bulk-tank milk surveillance project.the objectives of this study were to estimate the dairy herd-level prevalence of johne's disease (jd) in utah and nearby areas of the intermountain west and to estimate the sensitivity of a single bulk-tank milk test for jd detection. two milk samples from all bulk tanks on the study farms were collected 1 mo apart. samples were frozen and shipped to a laboratory for jd testing. an elisa to measure total igg antibody specific against mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, the etiological age ...201021094751
assessment of dietzia subsp. c79793-74 for treatment of cattle with evidence of paratuberculosis.the objective of the present investigation was to determine whether the bacterium dietzia subsp. c79793-74, previously shown to inhibit growth of mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis under in vitro culture conditions, has therapeutic value as a probiotic for adult cattle with paratuberculosis.  animals were obtained from several herds with evidence of disease based on seropositivity and/or fecal shedding.  sixty-eight cows with initial evidence of stage ii or iii paratuberculosis and 2 with an ...201021178433
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a longitudinal study of three dairy herds.the objective of this study was to evaluate whether cows that were low shedders of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were passively shedding or truly infected with m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. we also investigated whether it is possible that these m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected animals could have been infected as adults by contemporary high-shedding animals (supershedders). the m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates were obtained from a longitudinal study of three da ...201121209171
an efficient dna extraction method for polymerase chain reaction-based detection of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in bovine fecal samples.due to the lipid rich cell wall of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), the complex nature of bovine feces, and intermittent organism shedding by infected cattle, it is difficult to recover a sufficient amount of high-quality map dna from fecal samples, directly affecting the sensitivity of downstream polymerase chain reaction (pcr) tests. in the current study, a dna extraction method, designated the mississippi veterinary research and diagnostic laboratory (mvrdl) method, was ...201121217026
predicting fadeout versus persistence of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd for management and control purposes: a modelling study.abstract: epidemiological models enable to better understand the dynamics of infectious diseases and to assess ex-ante control strategies. for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map), possible transmission routes have been described, but map spread in a herd and the relative importance of the routes are currently insufficiently understood to prioritize control measures. we aim to predict early after map introduction in a dairy cattle herd whether infection is likely to fade out or pers ...201121324117
development of a novel oral vaccine against mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis and johne disease: a patho-biotechnological approach.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) is the etiological agent of johne disease, a granulomatous enteritis of cattle and other domesticated and wild ruminant species. johne disease is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. current vaccines against johne are insufficient in stemming its spread, and associated side-effects prevent their widespread use in control programs. effective and safe vaccine strategies are needed. the main purpose of ...201021326921
decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and increased expression of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in paratuberculosis-infected cattle in the elisa-negative subclinical stage.we investigated the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (mmp-9) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (timp-1) in peripheral blood cells from infected cattle with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in the elisa-negative subclinical stage compared with uninfected control cattle. significant decreased mmp-9 expression and increased timp-1 expression were found in peripheral blood cells from map-infected cattle after stimulation with map lysate and map purif ...201121328105
paratuberculosis in european wild rabbits from the iberian peninsula.of the non-ruminant wildlife species known to harbor mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (map), the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) is thought to pose the greatest risk of transmission to cattle. we analyzed 80 hunter-harvested wild rabbits from a core study area in southern spain, and sera from 157 wild rabbits sampled opportunistically on seven additional sites. gross lesions compatible with paratuberculosis were observed in two of 80 necropsied rabbits. histopathology revealed focal to diffus ...201121367439
mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy products, meat, and drinking water.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) is the cause of johne's disease, a chronic infection of the gut, in ruminant animals that provide milk and/or meat for human consumption. map also may be involved in crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes in humans. although the role of map in human diseases has not been established, minimizing the exposure of humans to the organism is considered desirable as a precautionary measure. infected animals can shed map in feces and milk, and the organism ...201121375889
experimental infection of a bovine model with human isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map), the etiologic agent of johne's disease (jd) in ruminants, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of crohn's disease (cd) in humans. we developed a bovine ileal cannulation model to facilitate comparison of the immune response to map and the mechanisms of pathogenesis in cattle and humans. initial studies showed a t cannula could be maintained for up to a year in calves without inducing inflammation or adversely affecting intestinal function. ma ...201121477870
occurrence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw water and water treatment operations for the production of potable water.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) causes johne's disease of cattle and is implicated as a cause of crohn's disease in humans. the organism is excreted in animal faeces and can contaminate water catchment areas. this coupled with map's survival in the environment means that water destined for domestic use may be a source of exposure. this work was designed to determine the occurrence of map in lough neagh (the largest freshwater lake in the british isles), used as a reservoir, and ...201121529886
apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from danish slaughter cattle.presence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain map in tissues that are used for human consumption. associations between map carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable map an ...201121547261
divergent cytokine responses of macrophages to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains of types ii and iii in a standardized in vitro model.based on epidemiological and clinical observations, different strains of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) are suspected to significantly differ in their virulence for ruminants. in the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis, macrophages represent the principal target cell for map. in order to judge the ability of different map-genotypes to modulate macrophage responses, the cytokine responses of the monocyte cell line thp-1 were studied after challenge with three different map strains ...201121555192
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