PMID(sorted ascending)
quantitative risk assessment of fmd virus transmission via water.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. fmd virus is known to spread by direct contact between infected and susceptible animals, by animal products such as meat and milk, by the airborne route, and mechanical transfer on people, wild animals, birds, and by vehicles. during the outbreak of 2001 in the netherlands, milk from dairy cattle was illegally discharged into the sewerage as a consequence of transport prohibition. this may lead to con ...200515787753
detection of antibody to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural polyprotein 3abc in sheep by elisa.the specificity and sensitivity of an elisa for detecting igg to the 3abc non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus was evaluated in fmd naive, aerosol-infected, aerosol plus direct contact infected and field-exposed sheep. all 12 sheep that were experimentally infected without prior vaccination seroconverted in the test, although fewer field sera from fmd-exposed sheep were scored seropositive compared to test results for structural protein antibodies. the 3abc test specifici ...200515794985
serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia and the united arab emirates.a total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) distributed in saudi arabia (sa) and the united arab emirates (uae) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine adenovirus 3 (bav-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disea ...200515827212
an investigation into the source and spread of foot and mouth disease virus from a wildlife conservancy in zimbabwe.african buffalo were introduced into a wildlife conservancy in the southeast of zimbabwe in an effortto increase the conservancy's economic viability, which is primarily based on eco-tourism. the buffalo were infected with sat serotypes (sat-1, sat-2 and sat-3) of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus, and in order to isolate the conservancy and prevent the transmission of fmd to adjacent populations of domestic livestock, the conservancy was surrounded by a double-fence system, 1.8 m in height. th ...200415861873
enhanced laboratory diagnosis of foot and mouth disease by real-time polymerase chain reaction.the performance of an automated real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was compared to virus isolation (vi) in cell culture and antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the laboratory diagnosis of foot and mouth disease (fmd). the world reference laboratory for fmd in woking, the united kingdom, examined a collection of 334 epithelia received from eighteen countries between august 2002 and january 2004. the results showed that all vi positive (n ...200415861896
transgenic plants for the production of veterinary vaccines.the expression of antigens in transgenic plants has been increasingly used in the development of experimental vaccines, particularly oriented to the development of edible vaccines. hence, this technology becomes highly suitable to express immunogenic proteins from pathogens. foot and mouth disease virus, bovine rotavirus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus are considered to be the most important causative agents of economic loss of cattle production in argentina, and they are thus optimal candidate ...200515877600
rapid protection of cattle from direct challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by a single inoculation with an adenovirus-vectored fmdv subunit vaccine.we have previously demonstrated that swine vaccinated with one dose of a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vector containing the capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were protected when challenged 7 days later with homologous virus. in the current study, we have extended this approach to cattle, the most economically important animals susceptible to fmd. five cattle were vaccinated with the ad5-fmdv subunit vaccine and these animals and ...200515893355
identification and antigenic site analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus from pigs and cattle in korea.from may to june 2002, a total of 16 foot-and mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks due to the serotype o virus, pan asia strain, were recorded in korea. the viruses were identified by antigen elisa, rt-pcr and sequence analysis. the overall nucleotide sequence divergence of the vp1 region among the 4 isolates in 2002 was 0 to 1.4%, but between o/skr/2002 and o/skr/2000 isolates was 1.9-4.9%. phylogenetic analysis with the some known strains from east asian countries showed that the 4 korean isolates in ...200515933431
novel purification method for recombinant 3ab1 nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus for use in differentiation between infected and vaccinated indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for differentiation of animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from vaccinated animals. the test was based on a highly pure and concentrated preparation of recombinant 3ab1 protein obtained by expression in a prokaryotic system, protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and electro elution. experimental- and field-serum samples from naive, vaccinated, and infected cattle w ...200515945381
patterns of spread and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and asia-1 in turkey: a meta-population approach.despite significant control efforts, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) persists in turkey, and new strains of serotypes a, o and asia-1 are periodically reported to enter the country from the east. the status of fmd in turkey is important regionally because the country forms a natural bridge between asia where the disease is endemic, and europe which has disease-free status. this study analysed spatial and temporal patterns of fmd occurrence in turkey to explore factors associated with the disease's ...200515962561
genetic variation and responses to vaccines.disease is a major source of economic loss to the livestock industry. understanding the role of genetic factors in immune responsiveness and disease resistance should provide new approaches to the control of disease through development of safe synthetic subunit vaccines and breeding for disease resistance. the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) has been an important candidate locus for immune responsiveness studies. however, it is clear that other loci play an important role. identifying the ...200415984325
vaccination against foot and mouth disease reduces virus transmission in groups of calves.the aim of vaccination during an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (fmd) is not to induce clinical protection, but to reduce virus transmission. since no quantitative data were available on the effectiveness of vaccination in cattle, we investigated whether a single vaccination against fmd could reduce virus transmission in groups of calves by estimating the reproduction ratio r, i.e. the average number of secondary cases caused by one infectious animal in a susceptible population. we performed ...200516002192
antigenic and genetic analyses of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a isolates for selection of candidate vaccine strain reveals emergence of a variant virus that is responsible for most recent outbreaks in india.recent reports indicated presence of two antigenic and genetic groups (genotypes vi and vii) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a in india and are divergent from the vaccine strains. in order to choose suitable field isolate as candidate vaccine strain, anti-sera against representative isolates from both the genotypes and two in-use vaccine strains are tested in neutralization assay. two candidate vaccine strains from both the genotypes are selected with close antigenic match to the fie ...200516022900
the application of new techniques to the improved detection of persistently infected cattle after vaccination and contact exposure to foot-and-mouth disease.detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsp) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was compared with conventional serological and virological methods and with rt-pcr for the identification of fmdv carrier animals obtained after experimental contact challenge of vaccinated cattle. transmission from carriers to sentinels was also monitored. twenty fmdv vaccinated and five unvaccinated cattle were challenged by direct contact with five donor cattle excreting fmdv and monitored unti ...200516039761
a survey to investigate movements off sheep and cattle farms in new zealand, with reference to the potential transmission of foot-and-mouth quantify the numbers and extent of movements off sheep and cattle farms in new zealand, in order to construct more realistic simulation models to investigate how infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) might spread.200516044181
development of monoclonal antibody-linked elisa for sero-diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv-in) using baculovirus expressed glycoprotein.the gene encoding the envelope glycoprotein (gp) of vesicular stomatitis virus serotype, indiana (vsv-in), was expressed under the polyhedron promoter of baculovirus. the recombinant gp was applied as a diagnostic antigen for the detection of cattle and horse antibodies to vsv. in addition, the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) to gp of vsv-in was used as trapping antibody in a mab-linked indirect elisa (mli-elisa) or detecting antibody in a mab-linked competitive elisa (mlc-elisa). the dia ...200516076499
analysis of the epidemiological dynamics during the 1982-1983 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in denmark based on molecular high-resolution strain epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causing a total of 23 cases in 1982-1983, primarily on the island of funen, denmark, was subjected to molecular epidemiological investigations. in an attempt to exploit the quasi-species nature of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains for molecular high-resolution strain identification in order to analyse the dynamics of this epidemic, full-length vp1 coding regions were sequenced for 17 isolates collected at different farms during the epidemic. the seq ...200516099917
buffalo (bubalus bubalis) interleukin-12: analysis of expression profiles and functional cross-reactivity with bovine system.interleukin-12, a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine, from water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) was analyzed for its for its tissue specific expression and functionality. concanavalin a stimulated splenocytes displayed an up-regulation of the il-12 p40 subunit 8-24h post-stimulation, whereas the p35 subunit did not show any quantitative variation at different time intervals. basal level expressions of both the subunits were observed by rt-pcr in spleen. in addition p40 transcripts could be det ...200616112195
[foot-and-mouth disease:: an old disease--new solutions].the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in united kingdom provoked a crisis in the european union with deleterious consequences not only for livestock industry. public opinion is more and more concerned about stamping out measures used to control the disease even with previously vaccinated animals. presently the trend is to "vaccinate for life". this policy change requires to improve vaccines and diagnostic tools. it is not foreseen nevertheless to come back to a generalized vaccination of ...200516116814
development of a lightcycler-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease step taqman real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (r/t rt-pcr) using a set of primers/probes was developed for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. the gene-specific probes labeled fluorogen for the internal ribosomal entry site, leader sequence and 2b regions were used to detect fmd virus (fmdv). this assay specifically detected fmdv both in cell culture preparations and clinical samples, and was capable of distinguishing fmd from other viral diseases sim ...200516131823
expressions of bovine ifn-gamma and foot-and-mouth disease vp1 antigen in p. pastoris and their effects on mouse immune response to fmd a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) may cause a considerable social-economic loss in those countries affected. ifn-gamma has a wide range of antiviral and immune modulating functions. thus, to study the immune enhancing effects of recombinant bovine ifn-gamma (rboifn-gamma) on a recombinant fmdv vaccine, boifn-gamma, fmdv vp1 and boifn-gamma/vp fusion genes were cloned, expressed, co-expressed in pichia pastoris (p. pastoris) respectively, ...200616135391
a preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in queen elizabeth national park, uganda.a survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging african buffaloes, (syncerus caffer) from may to june 1997 in the queen elizabeth national park, uganda. using the gamma interferon test, exposure to m. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. one dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from ...200516137132
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus confers complete clinical protection in 7 days and partial protection in 4 days: use in emergency outbreak response.recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) demonstrate that this highly contagious viral infection of cloven hoofed animals continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. debate about the most effective way to respond to outbreaks of fmdv in disease free countries continues to center on the use of vaccines. in this report, we present data showing that a commercially available, standard dose vaccine formulation can fully protect cattle against direct challenge with the vir ...200516153756
retrospective genetic analysis of sat-1 type foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in southern areas where foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in wildlife hosts, such as the kruger national park (knp) in south africa, control measures are in place that ensure that potentially infected antelope and buffalo do not come into close contact with domestic animals. in south africa several sat-1 outbreaks occurred nearly simultaneously in cattle and impala between 1971-1981. phylogenetic analysis based on partial 1d gene nucleotide sequencing indicated that several of these outbreaks were ...200616155727
analysis of the immune response to fmdv structural and non-structural proteins in cattle in argentina by the combined use of liquid phase and 3abc-elisa tests.the successful sanitary campaign implemented to control the 2000-2002 outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in argentina was greatly assisted by the combination of an elisa test (3abc-elisa) that detects antibodies directed against fmdv viral non-structural proteins (nsps) and a liquid phase blocking competitive elisa (lpelisa) for the detection of antibodies against the viral structural proteins (sps). the combined use of these two assays in large-scale analysis of field samples allo ...200616171905
the alpha(v)beta6 integrin receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus is expressed constitutively on the epithelial cells targeted in cattle.field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) use a number of alpha(v)-integrins as receptors to initiate infection on cultured cells, and integrins are believed to be the receptors used to target epithelial cells in animals. in this study, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and real-time rt-pcr were used to investigate expression of two of the integrin receptors of fmdv, alpha(v)beta6 and alpha(v)beta3, within various epithelia targeted by this virus in cattle. these studies show tha ...200516186231
analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease virus type a24 isolate containing an sgd receptor recognition site in vitro and its pathogenesis in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection by binding to integrin receptors via an arg-gly-asp (rgd) sequence found in the g-h loop of the structural protein vp1. following serial passages of a type a(24) cruzeiro virus (a(24)cru) in bovine, via tongue inoculation, a virus was generated which contained an sgd sequence in the cell receptor-binding site and expressed a turbid plaque phenotype in bhk-21 cells. propagation of this virus in these cells resulted in the rapid selection of ...200516189001
secretory iga as an indicator of oro-pharyngeal foot-and-mouth disease virus replication and as a tool for post vaccination surveillance.a serotype-specific elisa was developed to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) specific iga antibody in the saliva of cattle, and the method was evaluated for its feasibility in detecting serotype o fmdv carrier animals, particularly amongst vaccinated cattle that had subsequently become sub-clinically infected. for this purpose, saliva samples were collected from naïve cattle (n = 173), fmdv challenged cattle (n = 10), fmdv vaccinated cattle (n = 40) and fmdv vaccinated-and-challenged ca ...200616203061
dna prime followed by protein boost enhances neutralization and th1 type immunity against strategy has been exhibited its potency to enhance immune responses, which would be important to the success to develop a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). an eukaryotic expression construct encoding the fmdv capsid vp1 protein with a recombinant vp1 protein or a commercial fmdv vaccine were tested in the prime-boost strategy in mice and cattle trials. the levels of induced specific antibodies, t cell proliferations, and dth activities were significantly higher ...200516212533
interferon-gamma production in vitro from whole blood of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccinated and infected cattle after incubation with inactivated fmdv.studies were performed to determine whether a rapid method to detect cell mediated immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) could be used either as a diagnostic test or provide a correlate of protection in animals post-vaccination. using protocols based on the bovigam assay for tuberculosis, whole blood samples from fmdv vaccinated or control animals, before and after challenge infection, were stimulated overnight with inactivated fmdv antigen. the quantity of interferon gamma (if ...200616242818
non-capsid proteins to identify foot-and-mouth disease viral circulation in cattle irrespective of vaccination.the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to establish subclinical and even persistent infection, the so called carrier state, imposes the need to reliably demonstrate absence of viral circulation, to monitor the progress of control measures, either during eradication programs or after reintroduction of virus in free areas. this demonstration becomes critical in immunized populations, because of the concern that silent viral circulation could be hidden by immunization. this concern orig ...200516257539
simultaneous detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease non-structural proteins 3abc, 3d, 3a and 3b by a multiplexed luminex assay to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle.for the first time, a multiplex bead immunoassay was used to test simultaneously, with a single sample, the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease non-structural proteins 3abc, 3a, 3b and 3d from experimentally infected and vaccinated cattle. we cloned and expressed these non-structural proteins (nsps) as recombinant antigens. the purified proteins were coupled to microspheres labeled with anti-his monoclonal antibody with different proportions of red and orange fluorescent dyes and reacted a ...200616260073
development of novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease: marker vaccines and antivirals.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is economically the most important viral-induced livestock disease worldwide. the disease is highly contagious and fmd virus (fmdv) replicates and spreads extremely rapidly. outbreaks in previously fmd-free countries, including taiwan, the united kingdom, and uruguay, and the potential use of fmdv by terrorist groups have demonstrated the vulnerability of countries and the need to develop control strategies that can rapidly inhibit or limit disease spread. the curren ...200516289996
development of synthetic peptide elisa based on nonstructural protein 2c of foot and mouth disease was reported that the sera of convalescent animals contain antibodies to foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) 2c, highly conserved nonstructural protein (nsp), whereas the sera of vaccinated animals do not. but elisa methods using this protein were not reported and developed until recently. in this study, nsp 2c peptides were synthesized within the amino acid sequence of the conserved 2c nonstructural region of fmdv according to the sequences from genbank database and used for identifyin ...200516293996
further observations of foot and mouth disease virus type s.a.t 1 infection of cattle in tanzania. 197616300346
utility of automated real-time rt-pcr for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus excreted in milk.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be excreted in milk and thereby spread infection to susceptible animals in other holdings. the feasibility of using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) as a diagnostic tool for detection of fmdv in milk was assessed by studying the excretion of virus from experimentally-infected cattle. fore- and machine milk samples were collected over a 4-week period from two dairy cows infected with fmdv and from two in-contact cows held ...200616336929
a decision-support system for real-time risk assessment of airborne spread of the foot-and-mouth disease virus.[corrected] the application of epidemic models during the first days following the confirmation of a virus outbreak should significantly contribute to minimize its costs. here we describe the first version of a decision-support system for the calculation of the airborne spread of a virus and its application to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). the goal is to provide geographical maps depicting infection risk for various animal species to support the national health authorities.200516342927
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vaccinated cattle.the aim of this study was to evaluate the value of commercially available kits for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus infection in vaccinated cattle. the cattle were vaccinated with a commercial aqueous fmd vaccine type a24 and subsequently challenged 28 days post vaccination with homologous fmd virus. seven of eight animals were protected from clinical disease and all became carriers. they were bled sequentially for up to 130 days post infection and samples of sera were tested ...200516385852
cytokine and toll-like receptor mrnas in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues of cattle during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.the pharyngeal region is known to play an important role in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in relation to acute disease and viral persistence. in this study, the local mucosal immune response in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (nalt) of cattle infected with fmdv (strain o ukg 34/2001) was examined. quantitative "real-time" rt-pcr assays were used to measure mrna expression of cytokines (ifn-alpha, beta and gamma, il-2, il-1alpha and tnf-alpha) and toll-like receptors (tlr)-3 and ...200616423571
presence of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in repeatedly vaccinated cattle.for the purpose of removing infected animals by detecting humoral immune responses to non-structural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus, antibodies induced by contaminated residual non-structural proteins contained in less pure fmd vaccine can be problematic for serological screening. the aim of the present study was to measure the possible presence of antibodies against these non-structural proteins in repeatedly vaccinated calves and beef cattle. five imported fmd vaccines were ...200616446061
effect of emergency fmd vaccine antigen payload on protection, sub-clinical infection and persistence following direct contact challenge of cattle.previous work, in sheep vaccinated with emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine, indicated the benefit of increasing the antigen payload in inhibiting local virus replication and consequently persistence following an indirect aerosol challenge with a virus homologous to the vaccine strain. the work presented here investigates this possibility further using cattle and a more severe semi-heterologous direct contact challenge. the quantitative dynamics of virus replication and excretion in b ...200616488060
integrin-alphavbeta6, a putative receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus, is constitutively expressed in ruminant airways.evolved functions of integrin-alpha(v)beta(6) include roles in epithelial cell-extracellular matrix protein interactions and in the binding and activation of latent tgf-beta(1). integrin-alpha(v)beta(6) is also exploited as a receptor by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and may play a significant role in its transmission and pathogenesis. the ovine beta(6) integrin subunit was cloned and sequenced (embl accession no. aj439062). screening of normal ovine tissues by rt-pcr and immunocytochemist ...200616517977
[recombinant non-structural 3a, 3b and 3ab proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus: use for differentiation of vaccinated and infected cattle].recombinant proteins 3a, 3b and 3ab were obtained by expression in escherichia coli and purified by metal-chelate chromatography. the proteins were used as antigens in indirect elisa to differentiate vaccinated and infected cattle. while testing 200 sera from cattle 3a-elisa was more sensitive and specific than 3b- and 3ab-elisa. compared with "chekit fmd-3abc", 3a-elisa showed the same level of specificity and higher level of sensitivity.200616523703
detection and serotype-specific differentiation of vesicular stomatitis virus using a multiplex, real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay.a multiplex, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay was developed that allowed simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation of vesicular stomatitis virus strains--new jersey (vsv-nj) and indiana 1, 2, and 3 (vsv-in1-3). this assay involves use of a set of vsv universal primers located in the l gene that amplify vsv-in1-3 and vsv-nj using probes that allow differentiation of the major serotypes indiana and new jersey. the assay was evaluated using reference v ...200616617693
studies of the outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in west bengal, india, between 1985 and 2002.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is the major disease constraint on international trade in livestock and their products. in the state of west bengal, india, 1,082 fmd outbreaks were reported in the 18 years from 1985 to 2002. of the prevalent four serotypes, o type fmd virus accounted for the most outbreaks (67%), followed by asia-1 virus type (15%) and a virus type (14%). outbreaks of the type c fmd virus were least prevalent (4%), and no cases have been recorded since 1996. the study shows clearly ...200516642764
selection of foot and mouth disease vaccine strains--a review.the choice of the most appropriate strains of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus vaccines to use in fmd control programmes and to store in vaccine antigen reserves is based on the matching of representative field isolates from outbreaks around the world to available vaccine strains. however, those involved in fmd control at a national level do not always give this work a high priority, while in countries without effective control of fmd there is little incentive to collect samples or to overcome ...200516642769
quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--part i. quality assurance: development of secondary and working movement in animals and animal products has urged organisations like the world organisation for animal health (oie) to draw up guidelines to regulate and facilitate trade between member countries. however, as the global market continues to grow, further standardisation and harmonisation of antibody detection assays for infectious diseases are needed, especially regarding the development and use of reference materials. for oie notifiable diseases for which primary or international r ...200516642770
quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--part ii. quality control: comparison of two charting methods to monitor assay performance.diagnostic laboratories are increasingly required to meet stringent quality standards, and validated assays are needed to achieve formal accreditation. validation of test methods is often considered to be finalised when the assay parameters and characteristics have been established. however, like any process, diagnostic assays are subject to random variation resulting in shifts in the mean test values. continuous monitoring of assays using control charts will alert the interpreter of changes in ...200516642771
embryo transfer as a means of controlling the transmission of viral infections. vii. the in vitro exposure of bovine and porcine embryos to foot-and-mouth disease virus.when 169 zona pellucida-intact bovine embryos were exposed to 10(6) pfu/ml of foot-and-mouth disease virus and then washed, no infectious virus was detected on any of the embryos. fmd viral infectivity was found, however, in association with 14 of 42 hatched (zona pellucida-free) bovine embryos and in a small number of zona pellucida-intact porcine embryos. the porcine embryos were assayed individually and in groups of 8 embryos. four of the 124 individual embryos and 2 of the 9 groups of embryo ...198616726224
embryo transfer as a means of controlling the transmission of viral infections. xiii. failure to transmit foot-and-mouth disease virus through the transfer of embryos from viremic donors.a total of 436 embryos/unfertilized ova was collected from 30 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viremic cattle; 106 of these embryos/ova were from eight donors that had fmd virus in their reproductive tracts. the 436 embryos/ova were washed and then either assayed in cell culture or intradermally in steer tongues or transferred to recipients. foot-and-mouth infectivity was not found to be associated with any of the embryos/ova assayed in cell culture or intradermally. the 149 embryos transferred prod ...199116726913
comparative evaluation of six elisas for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease validate the use of serology in substantiating freedom from infection after foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks have been controlled by measures that include vaccination, 3551 sera were tested with six assays that detect antibodies to the non-structural proteins of fmd virus. the sera came from naïve, vaccinated, infected and vaccinated-and-infected animals; two-thirds from cattle, the remainder from sheep and pigs. the assays were covariant for sensitivity, but not necessarily for specifi ...200616753241
disease constraints for utilization of the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) on game ranches in depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. in these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in zambia. it accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the game management areas and the total hunting revenue earned in zambia, respectively. it is ec ...200616786973
tickborne arbovirus surveillance in market livestock, nairobi, identify tickborne viruses circulating in kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abattoirs in nairobi, kenya. species of ticks collected included rhipicephalus pulchellus (56%), amblyomma gemma (14%), r. appendiculatus (8%), a. variegatum (6%), and others. a total of 56 virus isolates were obtained, 26 from a. gemma, 17 from r. pulchellus, 6 from a. variegatum, and 7 from other species. virus isolates included dugbe virus (dugv), an unknown virus related to dugv, thogo ...200616836823
application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle.there has been much debate about the use of the so-called "vaccinate-to-live" policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in europe, according to which, spread of the fmd virus (fmdv) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of "emergency" vaccination of surrounding herds, reducing the need for large-scale preemptive culling of at-risk animals. since vaccinated animals may become subclinically infected with fmdv following challenge exposure, it is necessary to eithe ...200616872727
multiplexed detection of antibodies to nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.liquid array technology was used to develop a multiplexed assay for the detection of antibodies to viral nonstructural proteins (nsps), raised in cattle in response to infection with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. two assays, one based on recombinant nsps and the other on synthetically produced peptides, were developed and compared side-by-side. serum samples from serial bleeds of cattle, each experimentally infected with one of the seven serotypes (c, a, o, asia, sat1, sat2, sat3) of fmd v ...200616878883
the effect of vaccination on foot and mouth disease virus transmission among dairy cows.the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a single vaccination of dairy cows on foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) transmission. to estimate if vaccination could significantly reduce virus transmission, we performed two replicates of a transmission experiment with one group of vaccinated and one group of non-vaccinated dairy cows (ten animals per group). half of both groups were intranasally inoculated, with fmdv field isolate o/net2001, and housed with the other half of the group (co ...200716949184
geographical and age-stratified distributions of foot-and-mouth disease virus-seropositive and probang-positive cattle herds in the adamawa province of cameroon.six of the seven known serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus occur in africa. this paper describes the results of a population-based cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of fmd and the persistence of the virus in cattle herds and associated sheep flocks in the adamawa province of cameroon. antibody titres measured by the virus neutralising test indicated that serotypes o, a and sat2 viruses had been circulating in the province. the estimates of apparent seroprevalence in cattle ...200616950886
comparisons of original laboratory results and retrospective analysis by real-time reverse transcriptase-pcr of virological samples collected from confirmed cases of foot-and-mouth disease in the uk in 2001.there were 2030 designated cases of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) during the course of the epidemic in the uk in 2001 (including four from northern ireland). samples from 1720 of the infected premises (ips) were received in the laboratory and examined for either the presence of fmd virus (virological samples from 1421 ips) or both fmd virus and antibody (virological and serological samples from 255 ips) or antibody alone (from 44 ips). the time taken to issue final diagnostic results ranged from ...200616980522
development of an inhibition elisa test for the detection of non-capsid polyprotein 3abc in viral suspensions destined for inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.the use during the last decade of immuno-enzymatic tests based on the detection of antibodies to the non-capsid proteins (ncps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to assess viral circulation, irrespective of vaccination, supported the incorporation into the oie code of the 'free from fmdv with vaccination' category and opened the way to a 'vaccination to live' policy. eradication programmes in south america include systematic vaccination accompanied by large serosurveys through ncp antibody ...200617058500
reporting of suspect cases of foot-and-mouth-disease during the 2001 epidemic in the uk, and the herd sensitivity and herd specificity of clinical diagnosis.we described the clinical diagnostic process utilized during the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth-disease in the united kingdom (uk), and considered it as a series of diagnostic tests. premises were classified according to these diagnostic-test results and actual disease status, determined by the reference test, which in this case was one or more internationally accepted laboratory tests. the herd-level sensitivity (hse) and herd-level specificity (hsp) of the clinical diagnostic process were cal ...200717081639
immune enhancing effects of recombinant bovine il-18 on foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in mice model.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and can cause a considerable socio-economic loss for affected countries. interleukin-18 (il-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important role in both the development of a functional immune system as well as the response of the organism to infection. in the present study, bovine il-18 (boil-18), foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 and vp1/boil-18 fusion genes were cloned and expressed in pichia pastoris (p. pas ...200717084491
development and evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein antibody using a chemically synthesized 2b peptide as antigen.forty peptides were synthesized corresponding to hydrophilic clusters of amino acids within the sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins (nsp). six peptides were studied in more detail and the most promising, a 2b peptide, was evaluated in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using sera from naive, vaccinated, and vaccinated-and-challenged cattle as well as bovine sera from field outbreaks. the performance of the new nsp peptide elisa was compared to that of 4 ...200617121081
modeled detection time for surveillance for foot-and-mouth disease virus in bulk tank estimate when foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) would first be detected in bulk tank milk of dairies after exposure to fmdv.200617144803
the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a and o from 1998 to 2004 in turkey.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes significant economic losses in turkish livestock. we have analysed the genetic diversity of the 1d sequences, encoding the hypervariable surface protein vp1, of turkish isolates of serotype a and o collected from 1998 to 2004 in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information.200617144917
characterisation of a sat-1 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in captive african buffalo (syncerus caffer): clinical symptoms, genetic characterisation and phylogenetic comparison of outbreak isolates.african buffalo (syncerus caffer) play an important role in the maintenance of the sat types of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in southern africa. these long-term carriers mostly become sub-clinically infected, maintaining the disease and posing a threat to other susceptible wildlife and domestic species. during an unrelated bovine tuberculosis experiment using captive buffalo in the kruger national park (knp), an outbreak of sat-1 occurred and was further investigated. the clinical signs were rec ...200717194552
european pharmacopoeia foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing in cattle: between test variability and its the event of a foot-and-mouth (fmd) outbreak in a densely populated livestock area within the european community, emergency vaccination will most likely be employed. the objective of the present study was to support the european fmd control policy by evaluating the between test variability of the european accepted method for assessing the potency, a major determinant in vaccine choice, of an fmd vaccine batch. the test system suffers from low in vivo repeatability and reproducibility (67.6 an ...200717227691
consistent change in the b-c loop of vp2 observed in foot-and-mouth disease virus from persistently infected cattle: implications for association with persistence.the mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) persistence are poorly understood. it is thought the existence of viral quasispecies that encompass sub-populations with varying survival competencies and antigenicities may play some role in the maintenance of virus in persistently infected animals. by analyzing nucleotide sequences encoding the viral vp2 protein in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid (probang) samples from cattle at different stages of infection, the significance of any amino acid ...200717241682
serological survey for potential disease agents of free-ranging cervids in six selected national parks from germany.a total of 164 blood samples, collected from free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (dama dama) in six german national parks (np) between 2000 and 2002, were assayed for antibodies against nine viral disease agents. antibodies were only detected against the alpha-herpesviruses; specifically, bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) (22 of 157, 14%), cervid herpesvirus-1 (17 of 157, 10.8%), and caprine herpesvirus-1 (11 of 159, 6.9%). titers ranged from 4 to 10 ...200617255452
temporal and spatial distributions of foot-and-mouth disease under three different strategies of control and eradication in colombia (1982-2003).outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) from january 1982 through december 2003 were used to examine variations in serotype- and species-specific risk for three control programmes in colombia: (1982-1983) vaccination, using an aluminium hydroxide, saponin adjuvant, required but not enforced; (1984-1996) vaccination, using an oil double-emulsion adjuvant, required but not enforced; and (1997-2003) enforced vaccination, using an oil double-emulsion adjuvant, restricted animal movement enforced, ...200717285248
characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains circulating in turkey during 1996-2004.two genotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a were identified as the cause of disease outbreaks in turkey during 1996-2004, while serotype o strains, identified during the same period, seem to represent an evolutionary continuum, and asia1 strains were only rarely identified. the data presented are concordant with the conclusion that serotype a strains are repeatedly introduced to turkey from the east and circulate only transiently in farming communities, while type o strains persist ...200717294092
the potential role of wild and feral animals as reservoirs of foot-and-mouth disease.we investigated the potential role of feral pigs and wild deer as fmd reservoirs with a susceptible-latent-infected-recovered geographic-automata model, using spatially referenced data from southern texas, usa. an uncontrolled fmd outbreak initiated in feral pigs and in wild deer might infect up to 698 (90% prediction interval 181, 1387) and 1557 (823, 2118) cattle and affect an area of 166 km(2) (53, 306) and 455 km(2) (301, 588), respectively. the predicted spread of fmd virus infection was in ...200717316848
identification of a major antibody binding epitope in the non-structural protein 3d of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle and the development of a monoclonal antibody with diagnostic applications.detection of fmdv non-structural protein 3d antibodies has been used as a complementary method for sero-epidemiological studies as an indirect indicator of fmdv infection. in order to develop a sensitive celisa to detect fmdv antibodies, immune dominant epitopes in fmdv-3d protein were identified by peptide array analysis. monoclonal antibodies were then raised to a selected epitope and used in celisa. ninety two peptides corresponding to the complete amino acid sequence of fmdv-3d were synthesi ...200717320098
production and application of recombinant antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3abc.the stamping out of animals to control a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreak results in enormous livestock losses. the implementation of vaccination strategies can reduce these losses; however it complicates the process of establishing freedom from disease following an outbreak. the availability of quality diagnostic tests to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is crucial to prove freedom from disease and allow for the resumption of trade in livestock products. all current fo ...200717328909
development of an epitope-blocking-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate between animals infected with and vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease epitope-blocking elisa (eb-elisa) was developed to distinguish animals infected with foot-and-mouth-disease (fmdv) from those immunized with commercial vaccines. the assay used monoclonal antibodies to target the 3b core repeat motif (qkplk) and purified recombinant 3ab proteins from the major b cell line epitopes of fmdv. sera from uninfected and regularly vaccinated cattle, pigs, goats, and sheep (raised in fmdv free areas) were screened to evaluate the specificity of the eb-elisa. the spec ...200717336400
[retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in west africa from 1970 to 2003].a retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in seven west african countries was conducted for the period 1970 to 2003. the study included three cattle-exporting sahel countries (burkina-faso, mali and niger) and four cattle-importing coastal countries (benin, côte d'lvoire, ghana and togo). foot and mouth disease has been enzootic in these countries since 1990/1991. four of the seven serotypes are regularly notified (o, a, sat 1 and sat 2). in the seven countries as a whole, 198 biological s ...200617361767
a quantitative assessment of the risks from illegally imported meat contaminated with foot and mouth disease virus to great britain.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is considered by many as the most important animal disease in the world. fmd is highly contagious and outbreaks incur significant costs as affected countries are severely limited in their ability to trade. a number of trade commodities may be contaminated with fmd virus (fmdv) including animal products, for example, meat. as a member of the european union, great britain (gb) has put in place a number of regulations to prevent the importation of pathogens in imported ...200717362409
molecular relationships between type asia 1 new strain from china and type o panasia strains of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the complete genome of asia 1/hnk/cha/05 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was sequenced, which was isolated from chinese hongkong in 2005. it is 8187 nt long in size and contains 5'-utr, polyprotein region, and 3'-utr. polyprotein region can be divided into four parts of l, p1, p2 and p3. in this report, these six parts of the whole genome of the strain were compared with 12 reference strains using dnastar and simplot softwares. the comparison of p1 confirmed that asia 1/hnk/cha/05 ...200717380372
characterization of recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus pentamer-like structures expressed by baculovirus and their use as diagnostic antigens in a blocking elisa.non-infectious recombinant pentamer-like structures of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed by baculovirus, and the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the proteins were analyzed in a blocking elisa for the detection of fmdv antibodies. the recombinant pentamer-like structures were produced in insect (sf9) cells that were inoculated with recombinant baculoviruses that expressed, simultaneously, the genes for the p1 and 3c proteins of fmdv from individual promoters. the fmdv pent ...200717386963
seroprevalence of selected viral and bacterial pathogens in free-ranging european bison from the biaƂowieza primeval forest (poland).blood was collected from bison that were selected between 1991 and 2001 for poor body condition, cachexia, lameness and balanoposthitis. sera were tested for antibodies to bovine herpes virus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), parainfluenza virus type 3 (pi-3), brucella abortus, chlamydophila abortus, coxiella burnetti, and leptospira interrogans. the results of serological tests showed a prevalence of low titers of a serological reaction to ...200717388020
implementation of a one-step real-time rt-pcr protocol for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth automated one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) protocol was optimised and evaluated for the routine diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). parallel testing of rna samples (n=257) indicated that this assay has a diagnostic sensitivity at least equivalent to the automated two-step rrt-pcr protocol previously used for the laboratory detection of fmd virus (fmdv). this more rapid and economical one-step protocol will play a key role in contingency plann ...200717397937
genotype differentiating rt-pcr and sandwich elisa: handy tools in epidemiological investigation of foot and mouth disease.years of molecular epidemiological surveillance has revealed co-circulation of two antigenically divergent genotypes of foot and mouth disease virus serotype a in india. genotype differentiating rt-pcr and sandwich elisa were developed as fast, cost-effective and user-friendly alternatives to 1d region based phylogeny for detection and differentiation of genotype vi and vii. the rt-pcr assay targeting 1d region was found to be more sensitive and authentic in distinguishing genotypes than sandwic ...200717400298
proceedings - embryo transfer in the canadian cattle industry status of disease transmission studies and thier relationship to the international movement of bovine embryos.the current, generally accepted approach to formulating health requirements for the international movement of embryos is to base them on the health status of the male and female donor animals. the alternative approach of basing them on the health status of the embryos themselves has been blocked by the lack of scientific information about the potential of the early embryo to transmit agents of infectious disease. consequently, most research into infectious disease transmission by embryos has had ...198617422615
[construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying porcine interferon-gamma and its expression in porcine kidney cells (pk-15)].porcine interferon-gamma (poifn-gamma) of chinese local brand, meishan porcine, was cloned and inserted into retroviral vector plxsn (neo r) . using lipofectamine, this recombinant plasmid was transfected into retroviral packing cell line, pa317 cells. these transfected cells were selected by dmem containing 400microg/ml g418 for one week. rna was extracted from the supernatant of these selected pa317 cells and the poifn-gamma gene could be amplified by rt-pcr. pocine kidney cells and pk-15 cell ...200717436641
performance of a foot-and-mouth disease virus reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with amplification controls between three real-time instruments.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a member of the picornavirus family, possessing an 8-kb single-stranded rna genome of positive polarity. it is highly contagious among several livestock species and can lead to severe economic consequences, as evidenced by the uk outbreak in 2001. the usage of real-time polymerase chain reaction has facilitated rapid detection of fmdv. several real-time pcr instruments are available with various capabilities, such as portability and high sample volume a ...200717459827
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a and o isolated in argentina during the 2000-2002 epizootic.during 2000-2002 a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epizootic affected argentina and spread across the country resulting in more than 2500 outbreaks. in order to study the evolution of the fmd viruses (fmdv) and help with disease control measures, a genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis was performed of 43 field isolates representative of the epizootic. the nucleotide sequence of the vp1-coding region was determined for the viruses and used in this study. two serotype a lineages, a/arg/ ...200717475419
evaluation of laboratory tests for sat serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus with specimens collected from convalescent cattle in zimbabwe.during a field study in zimbabwe, clinical specimens were collected from 403 cattle in six herds, in which the history of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination and infection appeared to be known with some certainty. five herds had reported outbreaks of disease one to five months previously but clinical fmd had not been observed in the sixth herd. a trivalent vaccine (south african territories [sat] types 1, 2 and 3) had been used in some of the herds at various times either before and/or afte ...200717496271
chimeric tymovirus-like particles displaying foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein epitopes and its use for detection of fmdv-nsp antibodies.expression of physalis mottle tymovirus (phmv) coat protein (cp) in escherichia coli (e. coli) was earlier shown to self-assemble into empty capsids that are nearly identical to the capsids formed in vivo. aminoacid substitutions were made at the n-terminus of wild-type phmv cp with single or tandem repeats of infection related b-cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural proteins (nsps) 3b1, 3b2, 3ab, 3d and 3abd of lengths 48, 66, 49, 51 and 55, respectively to produce ...200717499404
guinea pig-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered receptor recognition can productively infect a natural host.we report that adaptation to infect the guinea pig did not modify the capacity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to kill suckling mice and to cause an acute and transmissible disease in the pig, an important natural host for this pathogen. adaptive amino acid replacements (i(248)-->t in 2c, q(44)-->r in 3a, and l(147)-->p in vp1), selected upon serial passages of a type c fmdv isolated from swine (biological clone c-s8c1) in the guinea pig, were maintained after virus multiplication in swin ...200717522230
identification of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus specific t-cell epitope with immunodominant characteristics in cattle with mhc serotype identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) specific t-cell epitopes within the entire polyprotein sequence of the virus, 442 overlapping pentadecapeptides were tested in proliferation assays using lymphocytes from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv. four months post-infection cells from all investigated animals (n = 4) responded by proliferation and interferon-gamma production to a peptide located on the structural protein 1d (vp1), amino acid residues 66-80. major histocompatibility ...200717540158
comparisons of the complete genomes of two chinese isolates of a recent foot-and-mouth disease type asia 1 virus.china reported the first outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype asia 1 in chinese hong kong in march, 2005. subsequently, this type of the virus was reported from mainland of china in april 2005. up to september of 2006, it was detected in more than 15 areas of china. in this paper, the complete genomes of two chinese isolates, asia 1/hnk/cha/05 and asia 1/js/cha/05, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were sequenced and compared with some chinese sequences and reference sequences ...200717557134
[secreted expression of nonstructural protein gene 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sf9 cells and activity analysis].entire 3abc sequence of fmdv containing a 6 x his tag coding sequence at the n-terminal was obtained through pcr amplification using a pair of specific primers, subcloned into shuttle plasmid of pmelbac-b with a melittin secretion signal sequence and finally constructed recombinant plasmid of pmel-3abc. after co-transfected the recombinant plasmid and linearized bac-n-blue dna into sf9 insect cell under intermediary agent of the cellfectin, the result showed that we have already acquired recombi ...200717578009
thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk using high-temperature, short-time pasteurization.previous studies of laboratory simulation of high temperature, short time pasteurization (htst) to eliminate foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in milk have shown that the virus is not completely inactivated at the legal pasteurization minimum (71.7 degrees c/15 s) but is inactivated in a flow apparatus at 148 degrees c with holding times of 2 to 3 s. it was the intent of this study to determine whether htst pasteurization conducted in a continuous-flow pasteurizer that simulates commercial ope ...200717582103
development and validation of a 3abc indirect elisa for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected from vaccinated animals.non-structural protein (nsp) 3abc antibody is considered to be the most reliable indicator of present or past infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vaccinated animals. an indirect elisa was established, using purified his-tagged 3abc fusion protein as antigen, for detection of the antibody response to fmdv nsp 3abc in different animal species. the method was validated by simultaneous detection of the early antibody responses to nsp and structural protein (sp) in fmdv asia 1 infec ...200717601688
complete nucleotide sequence of a chinese serotype asia1 vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the full-length nucleotide sequence of the chinese vaccine strain asia1/ynbs/58 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was determined. the results showed that the complete genome of ynbs/58 is 8,164 nucleotides (nt) in length including a 1,061-nt 5' untranslated region (utr), a 6,990-nt open reading frame (orf), and a 113-nt 3' utr. genome sequences of asia1/ynbs/58 and other known fmdv strains were compared. the homology analysis indicated that non-structural proteins are more conserved than st ...200717619135
antigen and vaccine banks: technical requirements and the role of the european antigen bank in emergency foot and mouth disease vaccination.antigen and vaccine banks are stocks of immunogenic materials ready to be formulated into vaccines (bulk antigens) or ready to use (vaccines) in case of need by one or more of the parties of the bank. these stocks were primarily developed by foot and mouth disease [fmd] free european countries to control unexpected severe fmd episodes after the cessation of routine vaccination in the 1990s. for various reasons, including the lack of suitable antigens or of discriminatory tests to be used followi ...200717633297
growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus in dispersed tissue cells: i. methods of production.methods are described for rapid and economical production of large quantities of foot-and-mouth disease virus in stationary cultures of trypsin-dispersed bovine kidney cells in a simple medium. yields of between 10(7) and 10(8) plaque-forming units per milliliter were obtained from serum-free cultures containing approximately a million and a half viable trypsin-dispersed cells per milliliter. some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods of virus production are discussed.196217649388
the complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/akesu/58 strain and its some molecular characteristics.the complete genome of o/akesu/58 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was sequenced. the phylogenetic analysis revealed that it is not closely related to epidemic strains or previous strains compared with reference sequences (the identities of complete vp1 nucleotide sequences range from 77.5 to 84.0%). its cell-receptor-binding site is a sgd (ser-gly-asp) motif instead of rgd (arg-gly-asp), and 43 bases were deleted in pks region of the 5'utr, although deletions were not found in othe ...200717680320
biosecurity practices and travel history of individuals exhibiting livestock at the 2005 california state determine biosecurity practices and travel history of individuals exhibiting livestock at the 2005 california state fair.200717696860
foot-and-mouth disease non-structural protein serology in cattle: use of a bayesian framework to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of six elisa tests and true prevalence in the field.the diagnostic performance of six foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) assays for detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsp) of the fmd virus (fmdv) was estimated using a bayesian analysis on field sera from cattle of unknown infection status originating from post-fmdv outbreak situations in israel and zimbabwe. estimations of the disease prevalence in both populations were also obtained. the diagnostic sensitivity estimates did not differ between both field studies, although overall b ...200717709157
bovine serum panel for evaluating foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein antibody tests.a panel of 36 sera has been assembled from experimental cattle that had been infected by inoculation or contact exposure with 4 serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with or without prior vaccination. virus replication and persistence had been characterized in all of the animals. the proportion of the sera scored positive by 5 tests for antibodies to the nonstructural proteins of fmdv varied, suggesting that the panel can discriminate between the sensitivity with which such tests are ...200717823399
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