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emergence of a new strain of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus: its phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship with the panasia pandemic strain.in india, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o has been associated with more than 75% of the outbreaks. previous studies with this serotype have indicated that the viruses circulating in india belong to a single genotype. recent (february 2001) fmd epidemics in europe have focussed global attention on the source of the virus and have been traced to a strain, panasia (serotype o), which is present in india since 1990. in this study, to further characterize the isolates belonging to the ...200212206305
a method to detect major serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) is an isothermal technique that allows the rapid amplification of specific regions of nucleic acid obtained from a diverse range of sources. it is especially suitable for amplifying rna sequences. a rapid and specific nasba technique was developed, allowing the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus genetic material in a range of sample material, including preserved skin biopsy material from infected animals, vaccines prepared from denatured c ...200212237113
dose-dependent responses of sheep inoculated intranasally with a type o foot-and-mouth disease virus.unlike foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle and pigs, which spreads rapidly, resulting in easily detectable foci of clinical infection, the disease in sheep is characterized by restricted transmission, low morbidity and sporadic clinical cases. the study described was designed to investigate whether the ability of sheep to transmit and maintain fmd virus was dose-related. the viral isolate used was known to be associated epidemiologically with rapid fade-out of transmission within sheep flocks ...200212354542
foot-and-mouth disease virus: biology and prospects for disease control.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a disease that constitutes one of the main animal health concerns, as evidenced by the devastating outbreaks that occurred in different areas of the world over the last few years. in this review, we summarise important features of fmdv, aspects of its interactions with cells and hosts as well as current and new strategies for fmd control by vaccination.200212361919
diagnosis and screening of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostic methods are reviewed. as the presence of clinical signs alone is inconclusive, laboratory diagnosis should always be carried out. the presence of fmd virus can be demonstrated by cell culture isolation, complement fixation test, elisa or the more recent polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method. serological diagnosis is also a valuable tool. the virus neutralization test has been replaced by elisa and the antibody response to some viral non-structural protein ...200212365807
epidemiological basis useful for the control of foot-and-mouth disease.although known for many years, foot-and-mouth disease is still able to represent a real threat to many farming economies in the world. the recent 2001 western european epizootics linked to o panasia virus strain can illustrate the fact that many questions are still unanswered in the field of foot-and-mouth epidemiology. it also demonstrates that the increase in international trade, including livestock, animal products and animal food, means an increase in the probability of transmitting, through ...200212365808
the possible role that buffalo played in the recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in south africa.african buffalo (syncerus caffer) act as maintenance hosts for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in southern africa. a single buffalo can become infected with all three of the endemic serotypes of fmd virus (sat-1, sat-2, and sat-3) and pose a threat of infection to other susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. the floods of 2000 in southern africa damaged the kruger national park (knp) game fence extensively, and there were several accounts of buffalo that had escaped from the park. the vp1 gene, which c ...200212381589
foot-and-mouth disease: susceptibility of domestic poultry and free-living birds to infection and to disease--a review of the historical and current literature concerning the role of birds in spread of foot-and-mouth disease viruses.ruminants and pigs are the dominant natural hosts of food-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses. approximately 70 additional mammalian species are found to be susceptible under natural or experimental conditions. reptilia, amphibia, and fish are probably naturally resistant to infection. according to the reviewed literature, domestic birds (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks and geese) have been experimentally infected with some strains of fmd viruses and may develop lesions suggestive of fmd such ...200212395578
immune responses of sheep to quadrivalent double emulsion foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: rate of development of immunity and variations among other ruminants.despite representing the majority of the world's foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-susceptible livestock, sheep and goats have generally been neglected with regard to their epidemiological role in the spread of fmd. in the present investigations, fmd virus quadrivalent double emulsion (montanide isa 206) vaccines were tested in sheep. the oil adjuvant elicited a better immune response at any time than did aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine, and the response developed quicker. the animals maintained their ...200212409434
the complete nucleotide sequence of the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in japan.the complete nucleotide sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2000 strain, the panasia strain, was determined by cycle sequencing and primer walking. the 5' end of the genome upstream from homopolymeric poly(c) tract (s-fragment) was 367 nucleotides in length, and the remainder of the genome (l-fragment), excepting the poly(a) tail, was 7808 nucleotides. the l-fragment contains a single open reading frame of 6996 nucleotides terminating at a uaa codon 96 bases from the 3' pol ...200212416675
the effects of gamma interferon on replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in persistently infected bovine cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which has a considerable socio-economic impact on the countries affected. in addition, persistent infection can occur following clinical or sub-clinical disease in either vaccinated or non-vaccinated cattle. the mechanism(s) by which fmdv persistence is established and maintained is not fully understood. to better understand the basic mechanisms controlling the virus infection in cattle, the ef ...200212417950
broad-spectrum virus reduction in red cell concentrates using inactine pen110 chemistry.the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens by transfusion is a persistent problem in medicine. to address this safety issue, inactine pen110 chemistry is being utilized to develop a process for preparing pathogen-reduced red blood cell concentrates (rbcc). the purpose of this study was to characterize the virucidal effectiveness of the inactine pen110 chemistry in full units of rbcc by using a panel of viruses with diverse properties in composition, size and shape.200212437518
foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) affects cloven-footed animals. it is caused by seven species ("types") of foot and mouth virus (fmdv) in the genus aphthovirus, family picornaviridae (). fmdv is a single-stranded rna virus, with a protein coat consisting of four capsid proteins enumerated as vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4 (garland and donaldson 1990).200212443674
isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from japanese black cattle in miyazaki prefecture, japan, 2000.four outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred from march to may 2000 in miyazaki and hokkaido prefectures, japan. fmd virus isolation was achieved by sampling probang materials from japanese black cattle in the third case found in miyazaki prefecture. the probang materials were inoculated to bovine kidney (bk) and bovine thyroid cell cultures. cpe was observed in the bk at two days post-inoculation. specific amplified dna segments for fmd virus (fmdv) were detected by reverse transcrip ...200211853156
genetic diversity in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.complete nucleotide sequence of the 1d (vp1-encoding) gene of 61 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype asia i virus isolates recovered from different outbreaks in india between 1985 and 1999 including two vaccine strains currently used were determined. the sequences were compared with each other and those from other asian countries. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis the viruses could be grouped into four genotypes (genotypes i-iv). all the 61 isolates from india belong to a single genotype ( ...200211855637
a review of emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines.the primary objectives of this paper are to describe emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines and review literature on emergency vaccine efficacy to protect animals against (1) clinical signs and (2) infection (local virus replication). the reviewed experiments suggest that in cattle, sheep and pigs, the vaccine could be effective in preventing disease within 4-5 days post-vaccination. these studies also suggest that the risk of spreading infection decreases as the interval between vaccin ...200211858856
antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv): an analysis of the specificities of anti-fmdv antibodies after vaccination of naturally susceptible host species.of the known neutralizing antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), site 1 or a, formed in part by the g-h loop of vp1, has historically been considered immunodominant because of evidence implicating its importance in the induction of a protective immune response. however, no systematic study has been done to determine the relative importance of the various specificities of antibodies against the known neutralizing antigenic sites of fmdv in the polyclonal immune response of a natu ...200211907326
functional mimicry of a discontinuous antigenic site by a designed synthetic peptide.functional reproduction of the discontinuous antigenic site d of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been achieved by means of synthetic peptide constructions that integrate each of the three protein loops that define the antigenic site into a single molecule. the site d mimics were designed on the basis of the x-ray structure of fmdv type c-s8c1 with the aid of molecular dynamics, so that the five residues assumed to be involved in antigenic recognition are located on the same face of the m ...200211921395
serological evidence of fmd subclinical infection in sheep population during the 1999 epidemic in morocco.during 1999, 11 outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (fmd) were declared in the east and central part of morocco. all the fmd clinical cases reported were cattle. in order to analyse the serological status of sheep from the fmd outbreak areas, 598 sheep sera were tested using a liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) to detect antibodies against fmdv structural proteins. the study confirmed the presence of fmdv specific antibodies in 77 clinically normal sheep, indicating that unrecognised fmdv-infect ...200211792487
the hand, foot and mouth disease virus capsid: sequence analysis and prediction of antigenic sites from homology modelling.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is the most common aetiological agent detected in cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) resulting in incidences of neurological complications and fatality in recent years. a comparison of the capsid proteins implicated in the pathogenicity of the fatal and non-fatal strains of ev71, reveals a high degree of homology (93%-100% identity). to facilitate diagnostic immunoassays and vaccine development, a consensus structural model for the ev71 coat protein has been devel ...200215130856
sensitivity of primary cells immortalised by oncogene transfection for the detection and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease and swine vesicular disease viruses.primary cells derived from calf thyroid (cty), calf kidney (ck) and piglet kidney (pk) were immortalised by oncogene transfection and their susceptibility to infection by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus and swine vesicular disease (svd) virus examined. eighty-five immortalised cell lines (47 cty, 20 ck and 18 pk) proved stable upon repeated cell culture passage and many supported the growth of fmd virus and several of the pk cell lines supported svd virus. however, none of the immortalised li ...200211750139
anti-3ab antibodies in the chinese yellow cattle infected by the o/taiwan/99 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the o/taiwan/99 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a south asian topotype of serotype o, was introduced into taiwan in 1999. the chinese yellow cattle infected by the virus did not develop clinical lesions under experimental and field conditions. a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit with the 3ab antigen, a polypeptide of fmdv non-structural (ns) proteins, was used to evaluate the development and duration of anti-3ab antibodies, proving active viral replication, in the chine ...200211750140
role of nonstructural proteins 3a and 3b in host range and pathogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) differs from that of other picornaviruses in that it encodes a larger 3a protein (>50% longer than poliovirus 3a), as well as three copies of protein 3b (also known as vpg). previous studies have shown that a deletion of amino acids 93 to 102 of the 153-codon 3a protein is associated with an inability of a taiwanese strain of fmdv (o/taw/97) to cause disease in bovines. recently, an asian virus with a second 3a deletion (amino acids 133 to 143) h ...200314645558
induction of an antigen-specific immune response and partial protection of cattle against challenge infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) after lipopeptide vaccination with fmdv-specific b-cell epitopes.to evaluate the potential of chemically synthesized lipopeptides for vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), seven lipopeptides containing the immunostimulating principle of bacterial lipoproteins and linear b-cell epitopes of fmdv strain o(1)kaufbeuren (o(1)k) were used to immunize cattle (n=7). animals were vaccinated once and 21 days after immunization animals were infected with the homologous virus. four animals were protected. after vaccination, as well as after challenge infectio ...200314645912
the risks posed by the importation of animals vaccinated against foot and mouth disease and products derived from vaccinated animals: a review.the terrestrial animal health code of the oie (world organisation for animal health) (the terrestrial code) makes recommendations for international movements of live animals and animal products because of a possible generic risk of foot and mouth disease (fmd) for these different commodities. for instance, international movement of vaccinated live animals or products of such animals is restricted due to the possible masking of clinical disease as a result of vaccination and to the perceived risk ...200315005540
new approaches to rapidly control foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.economically, foot-and-mouth disease is the most important viral-induced livestock disease worldwide. the disease is highly contagious and foot-and-mouth disease virus replicates and spreads extremely rapidly. recent outbreaks in previously foot-and-mouth disease-free countries and the potential use of foot-and-mouth disease virus by terrorist groups have demonstrated the vulnerability of countries and the need to develop control strategies that can rapidly inhibit or limit spread of the disease ...200315482155
a solid-phase blocking elisa for detection of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies suitable for mass serology.a simple solid-phase blocking elisa for the detection of antibodies directed against type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed. the elisa was validated using field sera collected from cattle, pigs and sheep originating from fmdv infected and non-infected dutch farms, reference sera obtained from the world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease at the institute for animal health, pirbright laboratory, uk and sera from experimentally infected animals. testing 2664 sera coll ...200312445942
the history of research in foot-and-mouth disease.the history of research in foot-and-mouth disease falls into several distinct areas. in this short chapter i have highlighted what i consider to be the significant advances in our knowledge of the disease and its causal agent. 1. loeffler and frosch's landmark description in 1898 that the disease is caused by a filterable agent, the first observation that an animal disease could be caused by a virus. 2. the search for experimental laboratory animals, culminating in the demonstration by waldmann ...200312527434
molecular basis of pathogenesis of fmdv.current understanding of the molecular basis of pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been achieved through over 100 years of study into the biology of the etiologic agent, fmdv. over the last 40 years, classical biochemical and physical analyses of fmdv grown in cell culture have helped to reveal the structure and function of the viral proteins, while knowledge gained by the study of the virus' genetic diversity has helped define structures that are essential for replication and prod ...200312527435
evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus evolution is strongly influenced by high mutation rates and a quasispecies dynamics. mutant swarms are subjected to positive selection, negative selection and random drift of genomes. adaptation is the result of selective amplification of subpopulations of genomes. the extent of adaptation to a given environment is quantified by a relative fitness value. fitness values depend on the virus and its physical and biological environment. generally, infections involving la ...200312527437
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most economically important veterinary pathogen due to its highly infectious nature, ability to cause persistent infections and long term effects on the condition and productivity of the many animal species it affects. countries which have the disease have many trade restrictions placed upon them. in the last 15 years there have been significant advances in the understanding of fmd epidemiology. these have largely been due to the application of the molecular b ...200312527438
foot-and-mouth disease virus receptors: comparison of bovine alpha(v) integrin utilization by type a and o viruses.three members of the alpha(v) integrin family of cellular receptors, alpha(v)beta(1), alpha(v)beta(3), and alpha(v)beta(6), have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro. the virus interacts with these receptors via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) amino acid sequence motif located within the betag-betah (g-h) loop of vp1. other alpha(v) integrins, as well as several other integrins, recognize and bind to rgd motifs on their natural lig ...200312551988
identification and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from primary suspect cases in korea in 2000.the republic of korea had been free from foot and mouth disease (fmd) since 1934, until a recent outbreak in 2000. from march to april 2000, a total of 15 fmd outbreaks due to the serotype o virus were recorded. coincidental outbreaks of fmd in cattle or pigs by the serotype o virus were reported in the region, including taiwan, china, japan, russia and mongolia. in this report, the results of emergency investigations of fmd cases on a dairy farm located approximately 5-km from the demilitarized ...200312576697
molecular epidemiological investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in korea in 2000.the genetic relatedness of 7 korean type o field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in clinical specimens collected from 5 different geographic locations in 2000 was investigated. the sequence of 162 nucleotides (nt 478-639) at the 3' end of the 1d (vp1) genes was determined from amplified cdna fragments, and subjected to the analysis for the sequence identity/divergence and phylogenetic relationship. the overall nucleotide sequence divergence among the 7 field strains was 0 to 3.8%, ...200312576698
the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the netherlands in 2001.an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in great britain was reported on 21 february 2001, followed by an outbreak of fmd in the netherlands a month later. this dutch index outbreak occurred on a mixed, veal-calf/dairy-goat farm in oene, in the central part of the netherlands. the most-likely route of infection was the import of irish veal-calves to this dutch herd via an fmd-contaminated staging point in france. with hindsight, more herds seemed to be infected by the time the index outbreak ...200312581598
antigenic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 field isolates using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 field isolates (n = 100) were compared using a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies (mab) in sandwich elisa. the majority (over 89%) of the isolates showed either homologous (76% and above reactivity) or reduced affinity (20-75% reactivity) for the mabs 2a, 13, 40, 34 and 81, suggesting that these mab binding epitopes are conserved, whereas a more variable reactivity was observed for the mabs b3, 1a, 24, 72, 82 and 89. polyclonal relationship ('r' ...200312591202
description of an epidemic simulation model for use in evaluating strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.to develop a spatial epidemic model to simulate intraherd and interherd transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus.200312602589
results of epidemic simulation modeling to evaluate strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.to assess estimated effectiveness of control and eradication procedures for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in a region of california.200312602590
development of a foot-and-mouth disease nsp elisa and its comparison with differential diagnostic methods.the gene encoding the nonstructural protein (nsp) of o/skr/2000 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was constructed to express under the polyhedron promoter of baculovirus. the expression of nsp was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and western blotting. the expressed nsp was applied as a diagnostic antigen for indirect-trapping elisa (i-elisa). an i-elisa using monoclonal antibody (mab) against 3a as trapping antibody was developed to differentiate infected from vaccinated ca ...200312615437
use of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the rapid diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in south america.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a limiting factor for the economic progress of the animal industry in south america. the presence of the disease results in the imposition of national and international sanitary barriers to animals and animal products, and, most especially, a reduction in the availability of protein from animal origin and in income. rapid and accurate identification of infected animals, those with either clinical or subclinical disease as well as with persistent infection, is esse ...200312625404
prevalence of seroreagents to fmdv in the cattle population in poland: results of 9-year monitoring studies.the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in sera of cattle in poland. the examinations were performed using the virus neutralization (vn) test and elisa methods: liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) and 3abc-elisa. during 1993-2001, about 681,000 samples of sera collected from animals held on the territory of poland were tested. of about 600,000 sera taken from animals exported to the european union, 963 samples (0.16%) were found to ...200312675463
retrospective genetic analysis of sat-1 type foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in west africa (1975-1981).the complete 1d genome region encoding the immunogenic and phylogenetically informative vp1 gene was genetically characterized for 23 south african territories (sat)-1 viruses causing foot-and-mouth (fmd) disease outbreaks in the west african region between 1975 and 1981. the results indicate that two independent outbreaks occurred, the first involved two west african countries, namely niger and nigeria, whilst the second affected nigeria alone. in the former epizootic, virus circulation spanned ...200312713891
rapid serological profiling by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its use as an epidemiological indicator of foot-and-mouth disease viral activity.frequency distribution of reactivity levels of foot-and-mouth disease infection-specific antibodies in livestock populations was analysed. specific antibody responses against non-capsid polyprotein 3abc were assessed through a highly sensitive indirect enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (i-elisa 3abc). a graphic display of data was designed based on three negative and three positive categories to illustrate reactivity patterns. the resulting patterns were correlated to the epidemiological status. ...200312721797
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: determination and statistical validation of a model using a serological approach.european foot-and-mouth disease vaccine manufacturers are required to quantify the efficacy of their product in accordance with the european pharmacopoeia (ep). the method used most often to establish the potency of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines requires viral challenge of vaccinated cattle. alternative approaches, such as challenge-free serological assessments have many advantages over existing methods and could be used if robust statistical models could be developed that related antibody tit ...200312804854
benefit-cost analysis of vaccination and preemptive slaughter as a means of eradicating foot-and-mouth disease.to assess relative costs and benefits of vaccination and preemptive herd slaughter to control transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv).200312856762
detection of carrier cattle and sheep persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus by a rapid real-time rt-pcr assay.the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in persistently infected carriers among exposed ruminants is of great importance in disease control. for this purpose, a real time, fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-pcr) assay was evaluated for the identification of fmdv carrier animals. the results indicate that this real time rt-pcr assay may be suitable for detection of fmdv carrier animals.200312880924
identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus-specific linear b-cell epitopes to differentiate between infected and vaccinated cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. for several years, vaccination of animals, which had proven to be successful for the eradication of the disease, has been forbidden in the united states and the european community because of the difficulty of differentiating between vaccinated and infected animals. in this study, detailed investigations of the bovine humoral immune response against fmd virus (fmdv) were performed with the aim of identifyi ...200312885881
a synthetic peptide containing the consensus sequence of the g-h loop region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type-o vp1 and a promiscuous t-helper epitope induces peptide-specific antibodies but fails to protect cattle against viral challenge.a pilot study was carried out in cattle to determine the immunogenicity of a synthetic consensus peptide comprising the g-h loop region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type-o vp1 and a non-vp1 t-helper (th) epitope. cattle vaccinated intramuscularly either once (n = 5) or twice (n = 4) with 50 microg of the peptide preparation at a 21-day interval developed antibodies to the peptide as determined by elisa with the exception of one steer that received a single dose. however, neutralizing a ...200312922108
biological effect of varying peptide binding affinity to the bola-drb3*2703 allele.mhc class i and ii molecules are immunoregulatory cell surface glycoproteins, which selectively bind to and present antigenic peptides to t-lymphocytes. murine and human studies show that variable peptide binding affinity to mhc ii molecules influences th1/th2 responses by inducing distinctive cytokine expression. to examine the biological effects of peptide binding affinity to bovine mhc (bola), various self peptides (bola-dq and fibrinogen fragments) and non-self peptides from ovalbumin (ova), ...200312927080
molecular weapons against agricultural vulnerability and the war on terror.the multiple reports in this issue of the journal from the agenda for action conference, coupled with the analysis by the national academy of sciences, the national research council, and the auditor general (uk) on bioterror preparedness and homeland security, highlight the immediate need for rapid disease detection and advanced diagnostic capabilities to protect the public health, animal agriculture, and the numerous associated economies in the united states. in response to the potentially deva ...200312970863
evidence of the coevolution of antigenicity and host cell tropism of foot-and-mouth disease virus in vivo.in this work we analyze the antigenic properties and the stability in cell culture of virus mutants recovered upon challenge of peptide-vaccinated cattle with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c3 arg85. previously, we showed that a significant proportion of 29 lesions analyzed (41%) contained viruses with single amino acid replacements (r141g, l144p, or l147p) within a major antigenic site located at the g-h loop of vp1, known to participate also in interactions with integrin receptors. here w ...200312502839
evaluation of automated rt-pcr to accelerate the laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.automated fluorogenic (5' nuclease probe-based) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) procedures were evaluated for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) using suspensions of vesicular epithelium, heparinised or clotted blood, milk and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid ('probang') samples from the united kingdom (uk) 2001 epidemic and on sera from animals experimentally infected with the outbreak serotype o fmd virus strain. a magna pure lc was initially programmed to autom ...200312505626
validation of a lightcycler-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the detection of the polymerase gene (3d) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed and validated with an analytical sensitivity of equal to, to 1,000 times higher than that of a single passage virus isolation. the performance of the rt-pcr was determined in 180 runs. after implementation, 5.3% of the tests had to be rejected due to invalid controls (e.g. cross-contamination of negative controls). the diagnostic s ...200314500125
adenovirus-mediated type i interferon expression delays and reduces disease signs in cattle challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of livestock. eliminating fmd outbreaks in previously disease-free countries often relies on restriction of animal movement and massive slaughter of infected and in-contact susceptible animals. to develop a more effective and humane fmd control strategy, we explored the possibility of using type i interferon (ifn-alpha/beta) as a novel anti-fmd agent. we have demonstrated previously that swine inoculated with replication-defective ...200314511462
a stochastic-modeling evaluation of the foot-and-mouth-disease survey conducted after the outbreak in miyazaki, japan in 2000.when foot-and-mouth-disease (fmd) was identified in miyazaki prefecture in march 2000, japan conducted an intensive serological and clinical survey in the areas surrounding the index herd. as a result of the survey during the 21 days of the movement-restriction period, two infected herds were detected and destroyed; there were no other cases in the months that followed. to evaluate the survey used for screening the disease-control area and surveillance area, we estimated the herd-level sensitivi ...200314516716
development of a novel quantitative real-time rt-pcr assay for the simultaneous detection of all serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spreads extremely fast and the need for rapid and robust diagnostic virus detection systems was obvious during the recent european epidemic. using a novel real-time rt-pcr system based on primer-probe energy transfer (priproet) we present here an assay targeting the 3d gene of fmdv. the assay was validated for the efficacy to detect all known fmdv serotypes. the test method was linear over a range of at least 7 orders of magnitude and the detection limit was b ...200314551821
studies of quantitative parameters of virus excretion and transmission in pigs and cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by a variety of mechanisms and the rate of spread, the incubation period and the severity of disease depend on a multitude of parameters, including the strain of virus, the dose received, the route of introduction, the animal species and the husbandry conditions. more knowledge with regard to these parameters is urgently needed to improve resource-efficient disease control. this report describes detailed studies of fmdv load, excretion and transm ...200314554125
construction of an infectious chimeric classical swine fever virus containing the 5'utr of bovine viral diarrhea virus, and its application as a universal internal positive control in real-time rt-pcr.rt-pcr is used widely as a diagnostic method to detect and differentiate pestiviruses. the construction of two chimeric classical swine fever virus (csfv) recombinants based on a marker virus constructed previously [j. virol. 72 (1998) 5318-5322] is described. these viruses, termed va187cat_5utrbvd and va187cat_iresbvd, contain the entire 5' untranslated region (5'utr) or the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), respectively. both chimeric viruses proved to ...200314599682
developments in diagnostic techniques for differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically significant disease of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and wild ruminant species. the fmd virus genome encodes a unique polyprotein from which the different viral polypeptides are cleaved by viral proteases, including eight different non-structural proteins (nsps). both structural and non-structural antigens induce the production of antibodies in infected animals. in contrast, vaccinated animals which have not been exposed to replic ...200414623146
detection of foot-and-mouth virus antibodies using a purified protein from the high-level expression of codon-optimized, foot-and-mouth disease virus complex epitopes in escherichia coli.a codon optimized dna sequence coding for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein complex epitopes of vp1 amino acid residues 21-40, 135-160, and 200-213 was genetically fused to the c-terminal end of a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) gene in pgex-6p-1 vector with the synonymous codons preferred by escherichia coli . the gene was synthesized using pcr and subsequently expressed in e. coli producing an intracellular, soluble fusion protein that retained antigenicity associated with fmd ...200415483387
the effect of bovine ifn-alpha on the immune response in guinea pigs vaccinated with dna vaccine of foot-and-mouth disease virus.in this study, we constructed recombinant plasmid pcdna3.1/p12x3c3d including p1, 2a, 3c, 3d and part of 2b gene of fmdv and pcdna3.1/ifn containing the gene encoding bovine ifn-alpha. we inoculated the dna vaccine pcdna3.1/p12x3c3d with or without pcdna3.1/ifn to evaluate the efficiency of this dna vaccine and the immunogenicity of dna vaccine enhanced by the co-delivery with pcdna3.1/ifn. after two times of vaccination with dna vaccine, all of guinea pigs were challenged with 103 id50 fmdv typ ...200415483751
detection of carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus among vaccinated cattle.to investigate and optimise detection of carriers, we vaccinated 15 calves with an inactivated vaccine based on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a turkey strain and challenged them and two further non-vaccinated calves with the homologous virus four weeks later. to determine transmission to a sensitive animal, we put a sentinel calf among the infected cattle from 60 days post-infection until the end of the experiment at 609 days post-infection. samples were tested for the presence of fmdv, vi ...200415504586
comparable sensitivity and specificity in three commercially available elisas to differentiate between cattle infected with or vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease virus.three commercially available elisas for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were evaluated, using sera from uninfected, vaccinated, infected, inoculated, first vaccinated and subsequently infected, and first vaccinated and subsequently inoculated cattle. we compared antibody kinetics to non-structural proteins, sensitivity, and specificity. one of the elisas had a higher sensitivity and much lower specificity than the other two, there ...200415019100
the ultrastructure of the developing replication site in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bhk-38 cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus of the picornaviridae: infection by picornaviruses results in a major rearrangement of the host cell membranes to create vesicular structures where virus genome replication takes place. in this report, using fluorescence and electron microscopy, membrane rearrangements in the cytoplasm of fmdv-infected bhk-38 cells are documented. at 1.5-2.0 h post-infection, free ribosomes, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, g ...200415039536
isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus specific bovine antibody fragments from phage display libraries.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an important veterinary pathogen which can cause widespread epidemics. due to the high antigenic variability of fmdv, it is important to undertake mutation analysis under immunological pressure. to study the bovine antibody response at a molecular level, phage display technology was used to produce bovine anti-fmdv fabs. ch1-vh chains with fmdv specific binding could be isolated after selection from a library made from vaccinated cattle. though their involv ...200415087230
a practitioner's primer on foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by an rna virus of the genus aphthovirus; 7 immunologically distinct serotypes of the virus have been identified. susceptible species are mainly domestic and wild even-toed ungulates, such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, bison, and deer. all body fluids of infected animals can contain the virus and are considered infective. the primary mode of transmission is animal-to-animal transmission through inhalation or ingestion of aerosols containing the virus. the ...200415112774
the use of vaccines in south american foot-and-mouth disease eradication programmes.since the beginning of organized campaigns in the 1960s, vaccination has been a major component of national fmd control and eradication programmes in south america. aqueous vaccines were used in the 1960s and 1970s, and the introduction of oil vaccines in the mid 1980s helped to decrease endemism. bi- and trivalent fmd vaccine production increased from 266 thousand doses in 1967 to 580 million doses in 2002. currently, over 200 million cattle are vaccinated twice yearly throughout the continent. ...200415742616
very fast (and safe) inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus and enteroviruses by a combination of binary ethyleneimine and formaldehyde.for fmd vaccine production, inactivation of the fmd virus is the most critical step. formerly, from 1940 onwards, the virus was inactivated with formaldehyde. this inactivation was relatively slow, about 0.2 - 0.3 log 10 per hour. because formaldehyde not only reacts with the virus produced but with many other components in the medium, such as proteins and amino acids, its concentration can become rate-limiting and inactivation plots may show tailing-off, resulting in residual infectivity. many ...200415742659
past and present vaccine development strategies for the control of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) was the first animal virus to be identified. since then, it has become a model system in animal virology and more information has been obtained about fmdv. the disease causes heavy economic crises in enzootic countries both due to loss of animal health and productivity. the only way of its control in an enzootic area is strict vaccination and restricted animal movement. the first experimental vaccine against fmd was made in 1925 using formaldehyde inacti ...200415745043
an investigation into the source and spread of foot and mouth disease virus from a wildlife conservancy in zimbabwe.african buffalo were introduced into a wildlife conservancy in the southeast of zimbabwe in an effortto increase the conservancy's economic viability, which is primarily based on eco-tourism. the buffalo were infected with sat serotypes (sat-1, sat-2 and sat-3) of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus, and in order to isolate the conservancy and prevent the transmission of fmd to adjacent populations of domestic livestock, the conservancy was surrounded by a double-fence system, 1.8 m in height. th ...200415861873
enhanced laboratory diagnosis of foot and mouth disease by real-time polymerase chain reaction.the performance of an automated real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was compared to virus isolation (vi) in cell culture and antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the laboratory diagnosis of foot and mouth disease (fmd). the world reference laboratory for fmd in woking, the united kingdom, examined a collection of 334 epithelia received from eighteen countries between august 2002 and january 2004. the results showed that all vi positive (n ...200415861896
validation of a foot-and-mouth disease antibody screening solid-phase competition elisa (spce).this paper describes the validation of a solid-phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (spce) for the serological detection of antibody to serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in sheep, cattle and pigs. the specificity of the spce was calculated from the results of testing known negative sera from sheep, cattle and pigs (n=3030, 1418 and 1495, respectively). the mean percentage inhibition (pi) for known negative sheep, cattle and pig sera were 19.3, 24.1 and 20.8%, respectively. t ...200414667530
emergence of a novel subgroup within the widely circulating lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1 in india.the complete vp1 encoding (1d) gene of 54 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype asia1 field isolates, most of which were isolated during 2000 and 2001, was sequenced. the phylogenetic analysis identified a novel subgroup (>10% nucleotide divergence) within the widely circulating lineage of this serotype. the newly emerged viruses were responsible for disease outbreaks in both cattle and buffaloes and were present in six different states in the country. amino acid sequence comparison of the ...200414672859
no foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission between individually housed calves.the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the netherlands in 2001 most likely started on a mixed veal-calf/dairy-goat farm. the outbreak among the 74 calves on this farm appeared to be limited to four animals, and no clinical signs of fmd were reported. also on a second veal-calf farm minor clinical signs and limited virus transmission were observed. since fmd is known to be a very contagious disease, and can cause severe lesions, these observations were disputed. therefore, we carried out two expe ...200414738779
extent of reduction of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna load in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid after peak levels may be a critical determinant of virus persistence in infected cattle.to investigate whether foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna loads in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid (op-fluid) in the early course of infection is related to the outcome of virus persistence, viral rna in op-fluid samples from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv type o was quantitatively analysed by using a quantitative real-time rt-pcr. viral rna was detected within 24 h post-infection (p.i.) in all infected animals. rapid virus replication led to peak levels of viral rna load by 30-53 h ...200414769899
a simulation model of intraherd transmission of foot and mouth disease with reference to disease spread before and after clinical diagnosis.intraherd transmission of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was examined using a simulation model for a hypothetical 1,000-cow dairy, assuming clinical diagnosis was made when at least 1% (10 cows) or 5% (50 cows) had clinical signs of fmd, i index case cow, and transition state distributions for the latent, subclinically infectious, and clinically infectious periods of fmd calculated from published data. estimates assumed for the number of animal-to-animal contacts (k) adequate for transmissi ...200414974841
quantitative estimates of the risk of new outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease as a result of burning pyres.the risk of dispersing foot-and-mouth disease virus into the atmosphere, and spreading it to susceptible holdings as a result of burning large numbers of carcases together on open pyres, has been estimated for six selected pyres burned during the 2001 outbreak in the uk. the probability of an animal or holding becoming infected was dependent on the estimated level of exposure to the virus predicted from the concentrations of virus calculated by the met office, bracknell. in general, the probabil ...200414979669
molecular phylogeny of leader proteinase gene of type a of foot-and-mouth disease virus from india.we previously demonstrated the presence of three genotypes (iv, vi and vii) of type a (subtype a22) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in india based on 1d gene sequence analysis. in the present study, the leader proteinase (l(pro)) gene sequences of 35 type a fmdv field isolates sampled over a period of 24 years (1977-2000) have been analyzed. maximum-likelihood (ml) phylogenetic analysis revealed four distinct genetic lineages (a-d), indicating high divergence in l gene of type a fmdv. lin ...200414991441
comparison of two 3abc enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of multiple-serotype foot-and-mouth disease in a cattle population in an area of endemicity.the development of a serological test for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) which is quick and easy to use, which can identify all seven serotypes, and which can differentiate vaccinated from convalescing or potential virus carriers would be a major advance in the epidemiological toolkit for fmdv. the nonstructural polyprotein 3abc has recently been proposed as such an antigen, and a number of diagnostic tests are being developed. this paper evaluates the performance of two fmdv tests for anti ...200415131177
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in the adamawa province of cameroon.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is one of the most important economic diseases of livestock. most studies of fmdv are done in countries where control measures are being implemented. in contrast, in areas such as sub-saharan africa, where fmdv is endemic and new strains are likely to emerge, there are only sporadic submissions to the world reference laboratory, pirbright, united kingdom. this paper describes the molecular epi ...200415131187
disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia.samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia, were collected during june-august 1999. all 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory ...200415137493
re-emergence of foot-and-mouth disease in botswana.the re-emergence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in botswana is reported. the disease outbreak occurred in the matsiloje extension area of francistown veterinary district situated in the northeastern part of the country in an office international des épízooties (oie) recognized fmd free zone without vaccination. the disease affected cattle only and did not spillover into sheep and goats resident in the same extension area, as demonstrated by lack of seroconversion to fmd when tested. the virus i ...200415158214
differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth-disease: evaluation of an elisa based on recombinant 3abc.recent devastating outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in europe have reopened the discussion about the adequacy of the non-vaccination strategy implemented by the eu in 1991. here we describe the evaluation of a new commercially available test kit for the discrimination between vaccination and infection. the test is based on the detection of antibodies against the recombinant non-structural (ns) protein 3abc. in contrast to immunization with vaccines free of 3abc, these antibodies are eli ...200415223123
risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, african swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the animal by-products regulations. this paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. th ...200415311800
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: specificity at the p2 and p3 positions and comparison with other papain-like enzymes.the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (l(pro)) frees itself from the growing viral polyprotein by self-processing between its own c-terminus and the n-terminus of the subsequent protein vp4. the arglysleulys*glyalaglygln sequence is recognized. the proteinase subsequently cleaves the two isoforms of host cell protein eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4g at the alaasnleugly*argthrthrleu (eif4gi) and leuasnvalgly*serargargser (eif4gii) sequences. the enzyme does not, however, recogni ...200415350134
[expression of fmdv vp1 protein in pichia pastoris and its immunological activity in mice].to express and identify bovine o type foot and mouth disease virus protein 1 (fmdv vp1) in yeast pichia pastoris.200415367336
molecular epidemiology of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from cattle in ethiopia between 1979-2001.partial 1d gene characterization was used to study phylogenetic relationships between 17 serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses in ethiopia as well as with other o-type isolates from eritrea, kenya, south and west africa, the middle east, asia and south america. a homologous region of 495 bp corresponding to the c-terminus end of the 1d gene was used for phylogenetic analysis. this study described three lineages, viz. african/middle east-asia, cathay and south american. within lineage i ...200415373335
preserved antigenicity of hiv-1 p24 produced and purified in high yields from plants inoculated with a tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-derived vector.production of structural proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and bovine herpes virus (bhv-1) in nicotiana benthamiana through the use of a tobacco mosaic virus-based vector (tmv-30b) has been reported previously. the development of the tmv-30b-hisc vector, a new version that adds a c-terminal histidine (his) sequence to the foreign protein expressed is described. coding sequences from the fmdv vpl protein and the core protein, p24, from a clade c hiv-1 isolate from zambia were clon ...200415381357
sequencing and analysis for the full-length genome rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus china/99.the complete nucleotide sequence of genomic rna of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain china/99 from infected bovine tongue epithelium is presented. the nucleotide sequence extending from the 5' end of the genomic rna to the 5' end of poly (a) tail contains 8173 nucleotides (nt). its open reading frame, which encodes a single polypeptide of 2332 amino acids, encompasses 6999 nt starting from the initiation codon aug and terminating at the uaa codon 93 bases upstream from the 5' end of pol ...200415382679
participatory diagnosis of a heat-intolerance syndrome in cattle in tanzania and association with foot-and-mouth disease.a heat-intolerance (hi) syndrome in cattle in tanzania was suspected to be associated with previous, clinical foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). a participatory appraisal (pa) method called "matrix scoring" was used to explore livestock-keeper perceptions of association between hi and cattle diseases. a pa method called 'proportional piling' was used to estimate herd incidence of fmd and other diseases, herd incidence of hi, and association between hi and other cattle diseases. use of matrix scoring ...200415454324
reintroduction of foot-and-mouth disease in argentina: characterisation of the isolates and development of tools for the control and eradication of the disease.this paper describes the antigenic and molecular characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains isolated during the 2000-2002 epidemic in argentina, and the strategy implemented for disease control. two different fmdv serotypes, o and a, were involved. of the various field isolates studied, two distinct o1 lineages (strains corrientes/00 and misiones/00) and two serotype a lineages (a/argentina/00 and a/argentina/01 prototypes) were identified. the genome sequences of these stra ...200415474705
genetic variation and responses to vaccines.disease is a major source of economic loss to the livestock industry. understanding the role of genetic factors in immune responsiveness and disease resistance should provide new approaches to the control of disease through development of safe synthetic subunit vaccines and breeding for disease resistance. the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) has been an important candidate locus for immune responsiveness studies. however, it is clear that other loci play an important role. identifying the ...200415984325
foot-and-mouth disease in the americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.foot-and-mouth disease(fmd) was first recorded in south america (sa) circa 1870, in buenos aires, argentina, in uruguay, and in southern brazil as a result of the introduction of cattle from europe during the early days of colonization. livestock production to trade with neighboring countries was established in the la plata region, and the trade of livestock and products with chile, northeastern and central western states of brazil, to peru, bolivia, and paraguay spread fmd, which reached venezu ...200415604472
recombinant bivalent vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o/a infection in guinea pig.in this study, two dna fragments encoding amino acid (141-160)-(21-140)-(141-160) of the vp1 of fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) serotype o and (138-160)-(21-40)-(138-160) of the serotype a fmdv were chemically synthesized. these two tandem-repeat fragments were ligated and transfected into prokaryotic expression vector ptrchis a to construct pth-o-a. the other vector called pth-o-scigg-a was constructed similarly only that the two tandem-repeat dna fragments were linked by the bovine-igg hea ...200415346195
quantitative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna loads in bovine tissues: implications for the site of viral persistence.to understand better the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the levels of viral rna in various bovine tissues during the acute and persistent stages of fmd virus (fmdv) infection were investigated by using quantitative rt-pcr. the viral rna levels in the tissues examined had peaked by day 1 post-infection (p.i.) and were markedly different among the tissues examined. the epithelium collected from sites of lesion development, i.e. the interdigital area and coronary band on the feet, an ...200415302950
foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in south american camelids, in dromedaries and bactrians is reviewed. recent well-executed experimental studies in new world camels indicate that, although the llama and alpaca can be infected with fmd virus (fmdv) by direct contact, they are not very susceptible and do not pose a risk in transmitting fmd to susceptible animal species. they do not become fmdv carriers. reports on fmd in dromedaries are, however, conflicting. serological investigations in africa and t ...200415301761
development and use of a biotinylated 3abc recombinant protein in a solid-phase competitive elisa for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.a biotinylated 3abc recombinant protein was developed and used in a competitive elisa (celisa) to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antibodies in cattle, sheep and pigs. in this report, we describe the cloning and expression of 3abc protein in escherichia coli cells as fusion protein with 6xhis and biotin. this celisa uses streptavidin to capture bacterially expressed and in vivo biotinylated 3abc antigen. the antigen capture strategy provides a simple and reliable method, which does no ...200415288965
the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in raw and pasteurized milk and milk products.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is not a public health threat, but it is highly contagious to cloven-footed animals. the virus is shed into milk up to 33 h before there are apparent signs of the disease in dairy cows, and, in extreme cases, signs of disease may not appear for up to 14 d. during this time, raw milk can serve as a vector for spread of the disease both at the farm and during transport to the processing plant by milk tanker. raw milk and milk products fed to animals have the ...200415259248
comparison and analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from animals in korea and other panasia strains.during the last 3 years, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o, named panasia, caused two outbreaks in the republic of korea. to determine if there was an obvious genetic relationship between the virus isolated in 2002 (o/skr/2002) and the o/skr/2000, and to further analyze the epidemiological relationships between the panasia viruses and the viruses identified in korea, the complete nucleotide sequence of the o/skr/2002 and the o/skr/2000 were determined by automatic cycling sequencing and pr ...200415215684
sequence variability in the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 field isolates.a total of 30 field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 belonging to two different lineages and five isolates belonging to a divergent group as delineated earlier in 1d (encodingvp1 protein) gene-based phylogeny were sequenced in the structural protein (p1) coding region. phylogenetic comparison of these isolates along with some of the published exotic sequences revealed the presence of five different lineages around the world. similar grouping pattern was observed for ...200415196905
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