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effect of mycobacterium sp. wall and avridine on the antibody response, igg isotype profile and proliferative response induced by foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccination in cattle.different immunomodulators have been previously tested in our laboratory as enhancers of the specific immune response to fmdv vaccines in a murine model [2-4]. here, we present results of two of these immunomodulators, a water-soluble fraction of the cell wall of mycobacterium sp. (wsf) and a synthetic lipoamide, avridine (av), which were tested in bovines included in fmdv oil vaccines. two different concentrations of inactivated viral antigen were employed and the effect of different concentrat ...19999987173
low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating.the family picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. the human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. these viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 c ...199910049311
demonstration of bovine cd8+ t-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus.the aim of this study was to investigate the importance of cellular immunity in foot-and-mouth disease in cattle, in particular to determine whether a cd8+ t-cell response could be detected, as these cells may play a role in both immunity and virus persistence. as attempts to characterize classical cytotoxic t cells had yielded non-reproducible results, largely due to high backgrounds in control cultures, a proliferation assay was developed that was demonstrated to detect antigen-specific, mhc c ...199910092006
evidence of partial protection against foot-and-mouth disease in cattle immunized with a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the precursor polypeptide (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins.a recombinant live vector vaccine was produced by insertion of cdna encoding the structural proteins (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) into a replication-competent human adenovirus type 5 vaccine strain (ad5 wt). groups of cattle (n = 3) were immunized twice, by the subcutaneous and/or intranasal routes, with either the ad5 wt vaccine or with the recombinant fmdv ad5-p1 vaccine. all animals were challenged by intranasal instillation of fmdv 4 weeks after the second immunizations. in th ...199910092007
production of interleukin-12 as a self-processing 2a polypeptide.interleukin-12 (il-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of two disulfide-linked subunits (p40 and p35) encoded by separate genes. we used the apparent autocleavage property of a 2a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to express bovine (bo) il-12 as a self-processing polypeptide (p402ap35). we demonstrate that 2a will mediate the cleavage of p402ap35 into two separate subunits in a manner similar to that observed during the processing of the fmdv polypeptide. furthermore, thi ...199910213462
comparative organization and function of the major histocompatibility complex of domesticated cattle.this review focuses on recent advances in research on the bovine major histocompatibility complex (bola), with specific reference to the genetic organization, polymorphism and function of the class ii genes. the bola region is unlike the mhc of humans and mice in that a large inversion has moved several class ii genes, including the tap/lmp cluster, close to the centromere of bovine chromosome 23. therefore, close linkage of mhc genes and other genes associated with the mhc in humans and mice do ...199910319257
serological survey of viral antibodies in llamas (lama glama) in argentina.this study analysed sera from 390 llamas (lama glama) from nine farms located in three different argentine provinces: buenos aires, cordoba and jujuy. the samples were tested for antibodies against 8 virus known to infect cattle: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine adenovirus (badv iii), bovine enterovirus (bev), bovine rotavirus (brv), bluetongue virus (btv), bovine leukaemia virus (blv), and foot-and-mouth virus (fmdv) by conventional methods such as s ...199910337237
recombinant viruses expressing the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) induce cellular but not humoral antiviral immunity and partial protection in pigs.the importance of the induction of virus neutralizing antibodies to provide protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is well established. however, recent studies with recombinant adenovirus expressing the precursor polypeptide of the viral capsid (p1) indicate that cattle inoculated with this recombinant vector developed partial protection against fmdv infection, in the absence of a detectable specific humoral response. other viral vectors have been widely used to induce ...199910364496
serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus by antigen capture reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction.the technique of capturing of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from clinical material in microcentrifuge tubes coated with type-specific antibodies and amplifying the viral sequences by rt/pcr in the same tube, promoted the detection and serotyping of fmdv with high sensitivity and specificity. the efficiency of antigen capturing and shelf life of the coated tubes was improved by glutaraldehyde fixation of antibodies to the tubes. virus in infected tissues, even after storage for 25-30 years ...199910403675
efficient inactivation of viruses and mycoplasma in animal sera using uvc irradiation.transmission of viruses by animal sera represents a considerable risk for humans and animals particularly when the serum is used for the production of pharmaceutical products such as vaccines. procedures applicable for inactivating large numbers of different viruses, both enveloped and non-enveloped, are therefore mandatory. for this purpose we have developed and validated uvc irradiation as the virus-inactivation procedure of choice for serum to be used in an industrial setting. spiking experim ...199910404882
chaperonin 10 of mycobacterium tuberculosis induces a protective immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus.chaperonin 10 of m. tuberculosis conferred partial or total protection against generalized foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in guinea-pigs challenged with o1 lausanne fmd virus. chaperonin 10-immunized animals mounted an antibody response to the protein, one epitope of which was found in the c-terminal half. a similar recognition pattern was observed in fmd-convalescent guinea-pigs, swine and cattle. anti-chaperonin 10 sera showed antiviral activity against fmdv-infected bhk-21 cells. there was stro ...199910416374
rapidity of specific antibody-antigen interactions.analysis of humoral immune responses against viruses has concentrated on studies with serum dilutions, which reflect characteristics pertaining to the diluent buffer but not the serum environment. the majority of virus-specific antibody in serum from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-vaccinated cattle bound to antigen within 10-60 s, whereas aspecific reactions evolved more slowly. upon dilution of sera, the reaction characteristics no longer related to those obtained with the serum, particula ...199910447921
differentiation of convalescent animals from those vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease by a peptide elisa.we have identified continuous antigenic determinants within the amino acid sequences of the conserved nonstructural region containing proteins 2c and 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus which can distinguish between the sera from vaccinated and infected animals. an elisa based on a 3b peptide gave a positive reaction with sera from cattle, pigs, sheep and guinea pigs infected with all seven serotypes of the virus, but not with sera from vaccinated animals. in experiments with cattle and pigs to ...199910462239
expression in cattle of epitopes of a heterologous virus using a recombinant rinderpest virus.we have investigated the bovine immune response to heterologous proteins expressed using a recombinant rinderpest virus (rpv). a new gene unit was created in a cdna copy of the genome of the vaccine strain of rpv, and an open reading frame inserted that encodes the polymerase (3dpol) and parts of the capsid protein vp1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). infectious recombinant rpv was rescued and shown to express the fmdv-derived protein at good levels in infected cells. the rescued virus ...199910466801
improvement of the immune response to foot and mouth disease virus vaccine in calves by using avridine as adjuvant.the epidemiological analysis of the cattle population during the eradication plan of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in argentina clearly indicated a higher incidence of the disease in animals within their first year of age. it is important to improve the efficacy of the vaccination in those animals. in a previous report, we have shown the effect of an immunomodulator, avridine (avr), in the enhancement of the immune response elicited by fmd virus (fmdv) vaccines in experimental hosts [berinstein, ...199910490231
localization of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna by in situ hybridization within bovine tissues.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious disease of cloven hooved animals. in cattle, both acute and long-term persistent infections occur. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a picornavirus, has been shown, using virus isolation procedures, to replicate in the pharynx and soft palate of cattle. in this study, in situ hybridization has been used to detect fmdv rna within the cells of tissues removed from infected bovines. a digoxigenin-labelled anti-sense rna probe was prepared correspondi ...199910513288
e. coli expressed proteins as diagnostic reagents for typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus.truncated proteins corresponding to the c-terminal half of vp1 of four vaccine strains and two field variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed in e. coli. the expressed proteins were affinity purified and their type specific reactivity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with anti-virus antibodies. antibodies were raised against the purified proteins in guinea pigs and the type specificity of the anti peptide antibodies was confirmed by antigen capture reverse transcription ...199910542020
ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus to form plaques in cell culture is associated with suppression of alpha/beta interferon.a genetic variant of foot-and-mouth disease virus lacking the leader proteinase coding region (a12-llv2) is attenuated in both cattle and swine and, in contrast to wild-type virus (a12-ic), does not spread from the initial site of infection after aerosol exposure of bovines. we have identified secondary cells from susceptible animals, i.e., bovine, ovine, and porcine animals, in which infection with a12-llv2, in contrast to a12-ic infection, does not produce plaques; this result indicates that t ...199910559301
genetic determinants of altered virulence of taiwanese foot-and-mouth disease virus.in 1997, a devastating outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in taiwan was caused by a serotype o virus (referred to here as otai) with atypical virulence. it produced high morbidity and mortality in swine but did not affect cattle. we have defined the genetic basis of the species specificity of otai by evaluating the properties of genetically engineered chimeric viruses created from otai and a bovine-virulent fmd virus. these studies have shown that an altered nonstructural protein, 3a, is a ...200010623761
inhibitors of rt-pcr in serum.amplification by rt-pcr of the rna present in foot-and-mouth disease virus particles is inhibited by substances present in the sera of several species. this inhibition appears to be caused by a direct interaction of the substances with the rna and not the enzymes used for its amplification.200010644091
genetic and antigenic variance of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia1.the capsid protein encoding genes of five recent type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates, representative of three genotypes, were sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequences were aligned to each other and to two published sequences. the sequence differences suggested different antigenic properties of the isolates. one isolate was used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which were analyzed for neutralizing activity and reactivity with trypsinized virus. trypsin removes the major an ...200010664412
a note on outbreaks caused by mixed foot-and-mouth disease virus infections.two outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in vaccinated cattle were investigated wherein a mixed infection due to fmd virus (fmdv) types o and asia 1 was detected by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and confirmed by antigen capture polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the clinical picture and the epidemiological data on these outbreaks are presented. the isolated virus strains were compared to the respective vaccine strains by means of monoclonal antibody (mab) profiling and nu ...199910672344
validation of the specific isotype assay to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in bovine milk.the specific isotype assay (sia) detects igg1 against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in bovine milk. a strong correlation was demonstrated between milk antibody titres, and those in serum as measured by the liquid phase blocking elisa. thus the sia would be useful on a herd basis to monitor the milk of vaccinated cattle to determine when re-immunisation is advisable. the sia titration elisa was then simplified to a single dilution test and optimised to differentiate the reactions in the milk ...200010716352
exposure of in vitro-produced bovine embryos to foot-and-mouth disease virus.the aim of this study was to investigate whether foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) interacts with in vitro produced (ivp) bovine embryos. one milliliter of a suspension of fmdv (2 x 10(7) tcid50/ml) was added to several batches of these embryos 7 d after in vitro fertilization, by which time they had either developed to the morula/blastocyst stage (n = 256) or degenerated (n = 260). six experiments were performed in which developed or degenerated batches of embryos were incubated with fmdv for ...199810734479
monoclonal antibodies to an indian strain of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus.a set of five neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to an indian strain (ind17/77) of type a (subtype a22) foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) was used in the study. four of the mabs (27s, 37s, 85s, and 143s) identified a trypsin-sensitive (ts) epitope(s) and were specific for vp1, while the remaining mab (145s) reacted with a trypsin-resistant (tr) epitope and was specific for vp3 in western blot analysis. both the epitopes (ts and tr) were conformation-independent in nature. results ...199910749367
improvement of a serodiagnostic strategy for foot-and-mouth disease virus surveillance in cattle under systematic vaccination: a combined system of an indirect elisa-3abc with an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) recombinant non-capsideal viral antigens 3a, 3b, 2c, 3d and 3abc were assessed individually in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-elisa) for their ability to screen for persistent infection-specific antibodies in cattle, regardless of vaccination condition. results of sequential serum samples from non-vaccinated animals with experimentally induced persistent infection, and their correlation with virus isolation, indicated that the polypeptides 3a, 3b an ...200010795516
type i interferon production in cattle infected with 2 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus, as determined by in situ hybridization.four calves were exposed via aerosol to 1 of 2 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus. two animals received virus derived from an infectious clone virus (a12-ic) and 2 received virus derived from the same clone but which lacked the leader coding region (a12-llv2) that codes for a protein responsible for turning off host protein synthesis. animals were euthanized at 24 and 72 h post exposure. cattle receiving a12-ic had a rapid course of disease with more virus in tissues while a12-llv2-infected ...200010805253
antigenic variation among foot-and-mouth disease virus type a field isolates of 1997-1999 from iran.the sequences of the antigenically relevant capsid proteins vp1-3 of 10 isolates obtained during an epizootic of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus in iran, and collected within two and a half years, were found to be highly similar. however, each isolate differed by at least one amino acid from all others. this prompted us to analyze the immunological reactivity of the isolates. to this end, monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against one isolate were generated and characterized with regard to neu ...200010831859
a comparison of methods for measuring the antibody response in mice and cattle following vaccination against foot and mouth disease.we present a comparison of methods for evaluating the potency of foot and mouth disease vaccine in the laboratory. the anti-fmdv antibodies (ab) in vaccinated mice were tested by liquid phase (lp) elisa, solid phase (sp) elisa and virus neutralization (vn), and were compared with the ab titres detected by lpelisa, which is the official test in argentina for testing the potency of fmd vaccines and protection against a virulent challenge in cattle. the results demonstrated that it is possible to r ...200010836271
duplicated dq haplotypes increase the complexity of restriction element usage in cattle.the mhc of cattle encodes two distinct isotypes of class ii molecules, dr and dq. unlike humans, cattle lack the dp locus and about half the common haplotypes express duplicated dq genes. the number and frequency of dqa and dqb alleles means that most cattle are heterozygous. if inter- and/or intrahaplotype pairing of dqa and dqb molecules occurs, cattle carrying dq-duplicated haplotypes may express more restriction elements than would be predicted by the number of expressed alleles. we are inve ...200010861045
high-efficiency utilization of the bovine integrin alpha(v)beta(3) as a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus is dependent on the bovine beta(3) subunit.we have previously reported that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which is virulent for cattle and swine, can utilize the integrin alpha(v)beta(3) as a receptor on cultured cells. since those studies were performed with the human integrin, we have molecularly cloned the bovine homolog of the integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and have compared the two receptors for utilization by fmdv. both the alpha(v) and beta(3) subunits of the bovine integrin have high degrees of amino acid sequence similarity to ...200010906183
selection of t-cell epitopes from foot-and-mouth disease virus reflects the binding affinity to different cattle mhc class ii molecules.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-restricted selection of t-cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by individual cattle mhc class ii dr (bola-dr) molecules was studied in a direct mhc-peptide binding assay. by in vitro priming of t lymphocytes derived from animals homozygous for both mhc class i and ii, five t-cell epitopes were analyzed in the context of three mhc class ii haplotypes. we found that the presentation of these t-cell epitopes was mediated by dr molecules, si ...200010941845
characteristics of foot and mouth disease virus in taiwan.since march 1997 two strains of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus have found their way into taiwan, causing severe outbreaks in pigs and in chinese yellow cattle. outbreaks occurred in march 1997 were caused by a pig-adapted virus strain (o/taiwan/97) which did not infect other species of cloven-hoofed animals by natural route. the epidemic spread over the whole region of taiwan within two months and the aftermath was 6,147 pig farms infected and 3,850,746 pigs destroyed. in june 1999, the seco ...200010945282
application of latex beads agglutination test for the detection of the antibody against virus-infection-associated (via) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus.latex beads agglutination (la) for the detection of the antibody against virus infection-associated (via) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus was estimated using experimentally infected animals. the via antibody titer by the la test were compared with the neutralization titer and the titer by agarose gel diffusion (agd) test, which has been used as a standard method for via antibody titration. the latex beads were coated with via antigen in carbonate buffer solution (0.5 m, ph 9.6) for ...200010945307
an integrated model to predict the atmospheric spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the application of a computer model called rimpuff for simulating the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is described. rimpuff is more sophisticated and accurate than other fmd simulation models previously described. it can be run on a desktop computer and performs analyses very quickly. it can be linked to a geographical information system and so the information generated can be integrated with geographical and demographical data for display in a format that can be easily assimilat ...200010982082
the role of management segregations in controlling intra-herd foot-and-mouth disease.transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by aerosol spread can occur over considerable distances. however, this is less effective in hot, dry environmental conditions, and a detailed study of an outbreak within a large dairy herd in saudi arabia has shown that contact spread is the main mode of transmission within a herd: both physical and spatial barriers curtailed the course of disease across the farm. hence, the speed and path of an outbreak can be altered by changing the positioni ...200011059037
carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review.this review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. in particular, knowledge about the carrier state, the period in which virus can be isolated from animals 28 days or longer post infection, is important, because the risk that animals may carry the virus will influence the diagnostic and preventive me ...200011087128
development of reverse transcription-pcr (oligonucleotide probing) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis and preliminary typing of foot-and-mouth disease: a new system using simple and aqueous-phase hybridization.a reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system that detects a relatively conserved region within the rna genome of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been developed. the high specificity of the assay is achieved by including a rapid hybridization step with a biotin-labeled internal oligonucleotide. the assay is highly sensitive, fast, and easy to perform. a similar assay, based on a highly variable region of the fmdv genome and employing ...200011101603
the ability of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) to function as a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus is not dependent on the presence of complete subunit cytoplasmic domains.the integrin alpha(v)beta(3) has been shown to function as one of the integrin receptors on cultured cells for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and high-efficiency utilization of the bovine homolog of this integrin is dependent on the cysteine-rich repeat region of the bovine beta(3) subunit. in this study we have examined the role of the cytoplasmic domains of the alpha(v) and beta(3) subunits in fmdv infection. we have found that truncations or extensions of these domains of either subunit ...200111119622
evaluation of three 'ready to formulate' oil adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine production.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type or(2)/75, grown on bhk 21 clone 13 cell monolayers, was inactivated with formalin. the virus was clarified and was either concentrated with 8% polyethylene glycol 6000 (peg) or used in its untreated form for the preparation of oil adjuvant vaccines. the oil adjuvants used in this study were montanide isa 206 (which renders a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) type of emulsion), montanide isa 57 and montanide isa 50v (both of which render water-in-oil (w/o) typ ...200011137244
association of bovine drb3 alleles with immune response to fmdv peptides and protection against viral challenge.we have analysed the influence of bovine mhc (bola) polymorphism on the immune response and degree of protection induced by peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle. the peptides used for animal immunisation were: a (vp1(138-156)), at (peptide a linked to vp1(21-40)) and act (peptide a, linked to vp1(196-209) and vp1(21-40)). sixteen different drb3 types were found among the 46 cattle analysed by pcr-rflp typing. no absolute correlation was observed, for any type, with the ...200011137253
emergence in asia of foot-and-mouth disease viruses with altered host range: characterization of alterations in the 3a protein.in 1997, an epizootic in taiwan, province of china, was caused by a type o foot-and-mouth disease virus which infected pigs but not cattle. the virus had an altered 3a protein, which harbored a 10-amino-acid deletion and a series of substitutions. here we show that this deletion is present in the earliest type o virus examined from the region (from 1970), whereas substitutions surrounding the deletion accumulated over the last 29 years. analyses of the growth of these viruses in bovine cells sug ...200111152528
genetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o isolates responsible for field outbreaks in india between 1993 and 1999.partial nucleotide sequence at the 3' end of id (vp1-encoding) gene of 90 foot-and-mouth disease virus type o isolates recovered from field outbreaks in india between 1993-9 were determined. the sequences were compared with each other and reference viruses. the published sequences of 15 type o isolates recovered from different parts of asia and one isolate (o1bfs) from europe and one from egypt (o1/sharquia/egypt/72) were also included in the analysis for comparison. on the basis of phylogenetic ...200011218224
the localization of persistent foot and mouth disease virus in the epithelial cells of the soft palate and pharynx.after contact with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), cattle may become persistently infected, regardless of their pre-existing immune status or whether they develop clinical disease. the cellular sites of fmdv persistence have not previously been determined. the use of in-situ hybridization in combination with tyramide signal amplification (tsa) provided the first direct evidence that fmdv rna is localized within the epithelial cells of the soft palate and pharynx during persistent infection, ...200111222004
residual foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies in french cattle and sheep six years after the vaccination ban.a serological survey was carried out on french cattle to establish a reference pattern of residual vaccine antibodies and non-specific reactions against the foot-and-mouth disease virus 6 years after the ban on vaccination and in the absence of any foot-and-mouth disease outbreak. most of the multi-vaccinated cattle still displayed high titres of antibodies and up to 50% of those which had received a single injection still had antibodies. non-specific reactors were also recorded among animals bo ...200111254180
inhibition of l-deleted foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by alpha/beta interferon involves double-stranded rna-dependent protein kinase.we previously demonstrated that the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to form plaques in cell culture is associated with the suppression of alpha/beta interferon (ifn-alpha/beta). in the present study, we used escherichia coli-expressed porcine and bovine ifn-alpha or -beta individually to demonstrate that each was equally effective in inhibiting fmdv replication. the block in fmdv replication appeared to be at the level of protein translation, suggesting a role for double-stranded ...200111356957
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from ruminants in taiwan in 1999-2000.in 1999, 10 sporadic outbreaks of cattle foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred in taiwan. by the time, infection was limited to the chinese yellow cattle (a native species of beef cattle in mainland china), which did not develop vesicular lesions under field conditions. five viruses isolates obtained from individual farms were confirmed to be the serotype o fmd virus (o/taiwan/1999). during january-february 2000, however, this virus has spread to dairy cattle and goat herds, causing severe morta ...200111390103
development of a rapid chromatographic strip test for the pen-side detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most contagious animal virus disease of cloven-hoofed livestock and requires reliable and accurate diagnosis for the implementation of measures to control effectively its spread. routine diagnosis of fmd is carried out at the oie/fao world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease (wrl for fmd), pirbright by the combined use of elisa and virus isolation in cell culture supplemented by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) methods. thes ...200111445149
direct and indirect contact rates among beef, dairy, goat, sheep, and swine herds in three california counties, with reference to control of potential foot-and-mouth disease transmission.to estimate direct and indirect contact rates on livestock facilities and distance traveled between herd contacts.200111453490
a solid-phase competition elisa for measuring antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus.a solid-phase competition elisa has been developed to measure antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus and has been validated using an extensive range of sera from cattle. the assay uses polyclonal antisera and inactivated purified 146s antigens of fmd virus and was compared with the liquid-phase blocking elisa and the virus neutralisation test on a range of serum sets. when examining test sera at a 1:5 dilution with a cut-off point of 30% inhibition of reaction, the solid-phase competit ...200111483215
predicting herd protection against foot-and-mouth disease by testing individual and bulk tank milk samples.four groups of cattle were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus type o(1) over three 70 day vaccination cycles using the liquid-phase-blocking-elisa (lpbe). first lactation cows showed the lowest titres and group protection levels (gpls) against fmd virus strains with 'r' values < or =0.5 while second lactation animals gave the highest results. when mean serum titres for each group and sampling date were plotted against gpl a strong correlation was found. revaccinatio ...200111483220
[molecular characterization of aphthous fever virus isolated during the years 1993-1994 in argentina].nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the vp1 structural protein have been used extensively as diagnostic and epidemiological tools for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this report we have applied this methodology to the analysis of the vp1 coding sequence from fmdv strains isolated in argentina during 1993-1994. the results demonstrated that the field isolates were related to the vaccine strains used at that time. however the involvement of the vaccine virus appeared to be dif ...200111494760
subcellular distribution of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a protein in cells infected with viruses encoding wild-type and bovine-attenuated forms of 3a.picornavirus infection induces the proliferation and rearrangement of intracellular membranes in response to the synthesis of nonstructural proteins, including 3a. we have previously shown that changes in 3a are associated with the inability of a taiwanese strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (otai) to grow in bovine cells and cause disease in cattle, although the virus grows to high titers in porcine cells and is highly virulent in pigs (c. w. beard and p. w. mason, 2000, j. virol. 74, ...200111504550
hbv core particles as a carrier for b cell/t cell epitopes.in the middle 80s, recombinant hepatitis b virus cores (hbc) gave onset to icosahedral virus-like particles (vlps) as a basic class of non-infectious carriers of foreign immunological epitopes. the recombinant hbc particles were used to display immunodominant epitopes of hepatitis b, c, and e virus, human rhinovirus, papillomavirus, hantavirus, and influenza virus, human and simian immunodeficiency virus, bovine and feline leukemia virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, murine cytomegalovirus and ...200111509871
tracing movement of african buffalo in southern africa.genetic characterisation of two pathogens, namely foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus and mycobacterium bovis, isolated from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in southern africa was used to determine the origin of buffalo in situations where the source of infection was obscure. by determining the phylogenetic relatedness of various fmd virus isolates using partial sequencing of the main antigenic determinant, vp1, the origin of buffalo moved illegally to the non-endemic region of south africa was ...200111548532
genetic heterogeneity of sat-1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses in southern africa.genetic relationships of 50 sat-1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses were determined by phylogenetic analysis of an homologous 417 nucleotide region encoding the c-terminal half of the vp1 gene and part of the 2a segment. viruses obtained from persistently-infected african buffalo populations were selected in order to assess the regional genetic variation within the host species and compared with ten viruses recovered from recent and historical cases of clinical infection. phylogenetic reconstr ...200111676416
dynamics of the 2001 uk foot and mouth epidemic: stochastic dispersal in a heterogeneous landscape.foot-and-mouth is one of the world's most economically important livestock diseases. we developed an individual farm-based stochastic model of the current uk epidemic. the fine grain of the epidemiological data reveals the infection dynamics at an unusually high spatiotemporal resolution. we show that the spatial distribution, size, and species composition of farms all influence the observed pattern and regional variability of outbreaks. the other key dynamical component is long-tailed stochasti ...200111679661
sensitivity of primary cells immortalised by oncogene transfection for the detection and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease and swine vesicular disease viruses.primary cells derived from calf thyroid (cty), calf kidney (ck) and piglet kidney (pk) were immortalised by oncogene transfection and their susceptibility to infection by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus and swine vesicular disease (svd) virus examined. eighty-five immortalised cell lines (47 cty, 20 ck and 18 pk) proved stable upon repeated cell culture passage and many supported the growth of fmd virus and several of the pk cell lines supported svd virus. however, none of the immortalised li ...200211750139
anti-3ab antibodies in the chinese yellow cattle infected by the o/taiwan/99 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the o/taiwan/99 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a south asian topotype of serotype o, was introduced into taiwan in 1999. the chinese yellow cattle infected by the virus did not develop clinical lesions under experimental and field conditions. a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit with the 3ab antigen, a polypeptide of fmdv non-structural (ns) proteins, was used to evaluate the development and duration of anti-3ab antibodies, proving active viral replication, in the chine ...200211750140
sequence analysis of recent indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a and asia 1 from clinical materials.partial nucleotide sequences of 1d gene of 38 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotypes o, a and asia 1 originating from various parts of india were determined. field materials were subjected straight to rna extraction, reverse transcription - pcr (rt-pcr) and sequencing. also 3 fmdv vaccine strains, ind r2/75 (serotype o), ind 63/72 (serotype asia 1) and ind 17/77 (serotype a) were included in the analysis. the seqences were compared mutually as well as with available corresp ...200111774894
serological evidence of fmd subclinical infection in sheep population during the 1999 epidemic in morocco.during 1999, 11 outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (fmd) were declared in the east and central part of morocco. all the fmd clinical cases reported were cattle. in order to analyse the serological status of sheep from the fmd outbreak areas, 598 sheep sera were tested using a liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) to detect antibodies against fmdv structural proteins. the study confirmed the presence of fmdv specific antibodies in 77 clinically normal sheep, indicating that unrecognised fmdv-infect ...200211792487
[persistence of fdmv and its effects on disease control strategies].it is well-known that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a persistent infection, lasting for more than 28 days, in cattle, sheep, goat as well as some other ruminant species, but not in pigs. although convincing evidence for virus transmission is missing, these carrier animals have to be considered as a potential risk of infection. some aspects of fmdv persistence are presented and discussed with regard to disease control strategies.200111822166
synthetic peptide-based vaccine and diagnostic system for effective control of fmd.we have designed synthetic peptides corresponding to two different regions of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that are effective as (a) a vaccine or (b) a diagnostic reagent which differentiates convalescent from vaccinated animals, respectively. the peptide vaccine is based on a sequence from the prominent g-h loop of vp1, one of the four capsid proteins. the sequence was optimized by the inclusion of a cyclic constraint and adjoining sequences, and broader immunogenicity was ...200111851319
synthetic peptides as functional mimics of a viral discontinuous antigenic site.functional reproduction of discontinuous antigenic site d of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been achieved by means of synthetic peptide constructions that integrate into a single molecule each of the three protein loops that define the antigenic site. the site d mimics are designed on the basis of the x-ray structure of fmdv type c-s8c1 with the aid of molecular dynamics, so that the five residues assumed to be involved in antigenic recognition are located on the same face of the molecu ...200111851326
isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from japanese black cattle in miyazaki prefecture, japan, 2000.four outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred from march to may 2000 in miyazaki and hokkaido prefectures, japan. fmd virus isolation was achieved by sampling probang materials from japanese black cattle in the third case found in miyazaki prefecture. the probang materials were inoculated to bovine kidney (bk) and bovine thyroid cell cultures. cpe was observed in the bk at two days post-inoculation. specific amplified dna segments for fmd virus (fmdv) were detected by reverse transcrip ...200211853156
genetic diversity in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.complete nucleotide sequence of the 1d (vp1-encoding) gene of 61 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype asia i virus isolates recovered from different outbreaks in india between 1985 and 1999 including two vaccine strains currently used were determined. the sequences were compared with each other and those from other asian countries. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis the viruses could be grouped into four genotypes (genotypes i-iv). all the 61 isolates from india belong to a single genotype ( ...200211855637
a review of emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines.the primary objectives of this paper are to describe emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines and review literature on emergency vaccine efficacy to protect animals against (1) clinical signs and (2) infection (local virus replication). the reviewed experiments suggest that in cattle, sheep and pigs, the vaccine could be effective in preventing disease within 4-5 days post-vaccination. these studies also suggest that the risk of spreading infection decreases as the interval between vaccin ...200211858856
antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv): an analysis of the specificities of anti-fmdv antibodies after vaccination of naturally susceptible host species.of the known neutralizing antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), site 1 or a, formed in part by the g-h loop of vp1, has historically been considered immunodominant because of evidence implicating its importance in the induction of a protective immune response. however, no systematic study has been done to determine the relative importance of the various specificities of antibodies against the known neutralizing antigenic sites of fmdv in the polyclonal immune response of a natu ...200211907326
functional mimicry of a discontinuous antigenic site by a designed synthetic peptide.functional reproduction of the discontinuous antigenic site d of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been achieved by means of synthetic peptide constructions that integrate each of the three protein loops that define the antigenic site into a single molecule. the site d mimics were designed on the basis of the x-ray structure of fmdv type c-s8c1 with the aid of molecular dynamics, so that the five residues assumed to be involved in antigenic recognition are located on the same face of the m ...200211921395
foot-and-mouth disease: a review of the virus and the symptoms.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiologic agent of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), which is a disease of cattle, swine, and other cloven-footed animals. fmd is characterized by the formation of vesicles on the tongue, nose, muzzle, and coronary bands of infected animals. the virus has several unique characteristics that enable it to cause one of the most economically devastating diseases in today's world. the ease with which it may be transmitted by contact and aerosol, combined with it ...200111936028
phylogenetic analysis of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in india between 1977 and 2000.the genetic diversity among the indian serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates sampled over a period of 24 years (1977-2000) was studied by sequencing the vp1 gene. in the phylogenetic tree, constructed from 83 indian and 37 other available sequences, the fmdv type a isolates were distributed into 10 major genotypes (designated as i-x). the indian isolates were distributed in 4 genotypes (i, iv, vi and vii), and co-circulation of at least 2 genotypes (vi and vii) in different sta ...200211958451
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease: the implications for canada.vaccination of susceptible animals against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a well established strategy for helping to combat the disease. traditionally, fmd vaccine has been used to control a disease incursion in countries where the disease has been endemic rather than in countries considered free of the disease. in 2001, the use of vaccine was considered but not implemented in the united kingdom (1), whereas vaccine was used to help to control fmd in the netherlands (2,3). canadian contingency ...200212001500
natural aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus to pigs: minimal infectious dose for strain o1 lausanne.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can spread by a variety of mechanisms, including, under certain circumstances, by the wind. simulation models have been developed to predict the risk of airborne spread of fmdv and have played an important part in decision making during emergencies. the minimal infectious dose of fmdv for different species by inhalation is an important determinant of airborne spread. whereas the doses for cattle and sheep have been quantified, those for pigs are not known. the ...200212002549
further studies to quantify the dose of natural aerosols of foot-and-mouth disease virus for pigs.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by a variety of mechanisms, including wind. simulation models, developed to predict the risk of airborne spread, have played an important part in decision making in some outbreaks. the amount of airborne virus excreted as well as the minimal infectious dose (mid) of fmdv for different species are important determinants of airborne spread. the objective of this study was to obtain data for the o1 lausanne, o skr 2000 and o ukg 2001 strains of fmdv ...200212002550
dose-response relationships for foot and mouth disease in cattle and sheep.the relationships between the inhaled dose of foot and mouth disease virus and the outcomes of infection and disease were examined by fitting dose-response models to experimental data. the parameters for both the exponential and beta-poisson models were estimated using maximum likelihood and bayesian methods. the median probability of infection given a single inhaled tcid50 was estimated to be 0.031 with 95% bayesian credibility intervals (ci) of 0.018-0.052 for cattle, and 0.045 (ci = 0.024-0.0 ...200212002551
the 3a non-structural-protein coding region of the southern african sat type isolates differs from that of other foot-and-mouth disease viruses.the 3a non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses is a relatively conserved protein comprising 153 amino acids. recent studies have demonstrated correlation between mutations in the 3a non-structural-protein-coding region, including a 10-amino acid deletion, and attenuation of the viruses in cattle. although the 3a coding region of several type a, o and c isolates has previously been described, nucleotide sequence data of the 3a coding region of the south african types (sat) 1, 2 a ...200112026059
immune responses of goats against foot-and-mouth disease quadrivalent vaccine: comparison of double oil emulsion and aluminium hydroxide gel vaccines in eliciting immunity.the epidemiological role of small ruminants in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks has been generally neglected. although, the disease in these species is sub-clinical in nature, their role as virus carriers represents a reservoir for further infection and spread of disease. data on the usefulness of polyvalent fmd vaccine (fmdv) in goats is scant. thus, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of a highly potent polyvalent fmdv in goats. in the present investigations, fmdv q ...200212034105
early antibody responses of cattle for foot-and-mouth disease quadrivalent double oil emulsion vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the multiplicity of fmdv serotypes in animals poses a central problem in the policy of vaccination and is of much concern to health authorities. hence it is the practice of vaccination with polyvalent vaccine for prophylactic measure. in the present report, we analysed the early antibody responses elicited by fmdv quadrivalent (fmdv o, a, c and asia 1 serotypes) double emulsion (montanide isa 206) vaccine ...200212034538
use of a portable real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.to evaluate a portable real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay designed to detect all 7 viral serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).200212051502
experimental studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus, strain o, responsible for the 2001 epidemic in the united kingdom.in 2001, the united kingdom experienced its worst epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). to date approximately 3.9 million animals have been culled and direct and indirect revenue losses are probably in excess of pound 12 billion. this study was carried out to investigate the biological characteristics of the fmd virus strain o/ukg/2001 responsible for the epidemic. animal transmission experiments indicated that this strain is not host restricted and will infect the three main susceptible liv ...200212057606
the role of mathematical modelling in the control of the 2001 fmd epidemic in the uk.mathematical models played an important role in guiding the development of the control policies in the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the uk. the variety of approaches that helped to guide the policy can sometimes be confusing. here, the different modelling exercises that were developed over the course of the epidemic are reviewed, describing the difficulties in interpreting the available data and the appropriateness of the various assumptions.200212088664
viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.this review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. subclinical mastitis has been induced after a ...200212119136
quantities of infectious virus and viral rna recovered from sheep and cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus o uk 2001.the profiles of virus production and excretion have been established for sheep experimentally infected with the uk 2001 strain of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus by inoculation and by direct and intensive contact. virus replicated rapidly in the inoculated sheep, from which a peak infectivity of airborne virus of 10(4.3) tcid(50) per sheep per 24 h was recovered. around 24 h later, contact-infected sheep excreted airborne virus maximally. similar amounts of airborne virus were recovered from ...200212124455
detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by real-time, fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.a fluorogenic rt-pcr (5'-nuclease probe-based) assay using a primer/probe set designed from the internal ribosomal entry site region of the virus genome was developed for the specific detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in epithelial suspensions and cell culture virus preparations. the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) specifically detected fmd virus in sample submissions from the uk 2001 fmd outbreak with greater sensitivity than our con ...200212176143
contaminants in feed for food-producing animals.outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and food borne microbial infections, dioxin contaminated animal products, the presence of veterinary drug residues, microbial resistance to antibiotics, mycotoxins, agricultural and industrial chemicals, etc. are serious concerns for the food industry in many countries. since the direct links between feed safety and safety of foods of animal origin are obvious, feed production and manufacture should be considered as an integral part of the food ...200212189948
emergence of a new strain of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus: its phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship with the panasia pandemic strain.in india, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o has been associated with more than 75% of the outbreaks. previous studies with this serotype have indicated that the viruses circulating in india belong to a single genotype. recent (february 2001) fmd epidemics in europe have focussed global attention on the source of the virus and have been traced to a strain, panasia (serotype o), which is present in india since 1990. in this study, to further characterize the isolates belonging to the ...200212206305
a method to detect major serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) is an isothermal technique that allows the rapid amplification of specific regions of nucleic acid obtained from a diverse range of sources. it is especially suitable for amplifying rna sequences. a rapid and specific nasba technique was developed, allowing the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus genetic material in a range of sample material, including preserved skin biopsy material from infected animals, vaccines prepared from denatured c ...200212237113
dose-dependent responses of sheep inoculated intranasally with a type o foot-and-mouth disease virus.unlike foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle and pigs, which spreads rapidly, resulting in easily detectable foci of clinical infection, the disease in sheep is characterized by restricted transmission, low morbidity and sporadic clinical cases. the study described was designed to investigate whether the ability of sheep to transmit and maintain fmd virus was dose-related. the viral isolate used was known to be associated epidemiologically with rapid fade-out of transmission within sheep flocks ...200212354542
foot-and-mouth disease virus: biology and prospects for disease control.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a disease that constitutes one of the main animal health concerns, as evidenced by the devastating outbreaks that occurred in different areas of the world over the last few years. in this review, we summarise important features of fmdv, aspects of its interactions with cells and hosts as well as current and new strategies for fmd control by vaccination.200212361919
diagnosis and screening of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostic methods are reviewed. as the presence of clinical signs alone is inconclusive, laboratory diagnosis should always be carried out. the presence of fmd virus can be demonstrated by cell culture isolation, complement fixation test, elisa or the more recent polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method. serological diagnosis is also a valuable tool. the virus neutralization test has been replaced by elisa and the antibody response to some viral non-structural protein ...200212365807
epidemiological basis useful for the control of foot-and-mouth disease.although known for many years, foot-and-mouth disease is still able to represent a real threat to many farming economies in the world. the recent 2001 western european epizootics linked to o panasia virus strain can illustrate the fact that many questions are still unanswered in the field of foot-and-mouth epidemiology. it also demonstrates that the increase in international trade, including livestock, animal products and animal food, means an increase in the probability of transmitting, through ...200212365808
the possible role that buffalo played in the recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in south africa.african buffalo (syncerus caffer) act as maintenance hosts for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in southern africa. a single buffalo can become infected with all three of the endemic serotypes of fmd virus (sat-1, sat-2, and sat-3) and pose a threat of infection to other susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. the floods of 2000 in southern africa damaged the kruger national park (knp) game fence extensively, and there were several accounts of buffalo that had escaped from the park. the vp1 gene, which c ...200212381589
foot-and-mouth disease: susceptibility of domestic poultry and free-living birds to infection and to disease--a review of the historical and current literature concerning the role of birds in spread of foot-and-mouth disease viruses.ruminants and pigs are the dominant natural hosts of food-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses. approximately 70 additional mammalian species are found to be susceptible under natural or experimental conditions. reptilia, amphibia, and fish are probably naturally resistant to infection. according to the reviewed literature, domestic birds (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks and geese) have been experimentally infected with some strains of fmd viruses and may develop lesions suggestive of fmd such ...200212395578
immune responses of sheep to quadrivalent double emulsion foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: rate of development of immunity and variations among other ruminants.despite representing the majority of the world's foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-susceptible livestock, sheep and goats have generally been neglected with regard to their epidemiological role in the spread of fmd. in the present investigations, fmd virus quadrivalent double emulsion (montanide isa 206) vaccines were tested in sheep. the oil adjuvant elicited a better immune response at any time than did aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine, and the response developed quicker. the animals maintained their ...200212409434
the complete nucleotide sequence of the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in japan.the complete nucleotide sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2000 strain, the panasia strain, was determined by cycle sequencing and primer walking. the 5' end of the genome upstream from homopolymeric poly(c) tract (s-fragment) was 367 nucleotides in length, and the remainder of the genome (l-fragment), excepting the poly(a) tail, was 7808 nucleotides. the l-fragment contains a single open reading frame of 6996 nucleotides terminating at a uaa codon 96 bases from the 3' pol ...200212416675
the effects of gamma interferon on replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in persistently infected bovine cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which has a considerable socio-economic impact on the countries affected. in addition, persistent infection can occur following clinical or sub-clinical disease in either vaccinated or non-vaccinated cattle. the mechanism(s) by which fmdv persistence is established and maintained is not fully understood. to better understand the basic mechanisms controlling the virus infection in cattle, the ef ...200212417950
broad-spectrum virus reduction in red cell concentrates using inactine pen110 chemistry.the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens by transfusion is a persistent problem in medicine. to address this safety issue, inactine pen110 chemistry is being utilized to develop a process for preparing pathogen-reduced red blood cell concentrates (rbcc). the purpose of this study was to characterize the virucidal effectiveness of the inactine pen110 chemistry in full units of rbcc by using a panel of viruses with diverse properties in composition, size and shape.200212437518
foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) affects cloven-footed animals. it is caused by seven species ("types") of foot and mouth virus (fmdv) in the genus aphthovirus, family picornaviridae (). fmdv is a single-stranded rna virus, with a protein coat consisting of four capsid proteins enumerated as vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4 (garland and donaldson 1990).200212443674
a solid-phase blocking elisa for detection of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies suitable for mass serology.a simple solid-phase blocking elisa for the detection of antibodies directed against type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed. the elisa was validated using field sera collected from cattle, pigs and sheep originating from fmdv infected and non-infected dutch farms, reference sera obtained from the world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease at the institute for animal health, pirbright laboratory, uk and sera from experimentally infected animals. testing 2664 sera coll ...200312445942
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/skr/2000.molecular cloning and sequencing of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/skr/2000, one of panasia strain, were performed from fmdv infected cattle. from the poly (c) tract of the 5' nontranslated region (ntr) to the 3' ntr including 14 base pairs (bp) of poly (a) tail, 7813 bp sequences comprising approximately 95% of the whole genome were obtained by reverse transcription polymerase reaction (rt-pcr). the deduced amino acid sequences of the structural and nonstructural proteins ( ...200212457959
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