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analytical epidemiology of genomic variation among pan asia strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus.genetic data from field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been used to trace the source of recent outbreaks of fmd, to design better vaccines and diagnostic tests for fmdv, and to make conclusions regarding the general variability in the fmdv genome. though epidemiologic data associated with fmdv isolates are available, these data have been used rarely to explore possible associations of epidemiologic factors with evolution or variation of the fmdv genome. in this study, facto ...200919341389
construction of a recombinant bhv-1 expressing the vp1 gene of foot and mouth disease virus and its immunogenicity in a rabbit model.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) are two important infectious diseases of cattle. using bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) as a gene delivery vector for development of live-viral vaccines has gained widespread interest. in this study, a recombinant bhv-1 was constructed by inserting the synthetic fmdv (o/china/99) vp1 gene in the the ge locus of bhv-1 genome under the control of immediately early gene promoter of human cytomegalovirus (phie cmv) and bovine ...200919343503
enhancement of the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice by oral administration of an extract made from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram).this study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of a water extract made from the rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram) on the immune responses in mice immunized with fmdv type o vaccine. thirty-five icr mice were randomly divided into five groups with seven animals in each group, and orally administered daily for 4 days at a dose equivalent to 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 g of dried ram, respectively. after that, the animals were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmd ...200919356611
identification of cellular genes affecting the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) produces one of the most infectious of all livestock diseases, causing extensive economic loss in areas of breakout. like other viral pathogens, fmdv recruits proteins encoded by host cell genes to accomplish the entry, replication, and release of infectious viral particles. to identify such host-encoded proteins, we employed an antisense rna strategy and a lentivirus-based library containing approximately 40,000 human expressed sequence tags (ests) to randoml ...200919369337
performance of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus during field outbreaks in the united kingdom in 2007.rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). the present report describes the practical steps undertaken to deploy a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-pcr) to process the samples received during the outbreaks of fmd in the united kingdom in 2007. two independent real-time rt-pcr assays targeting different regions (5'utr and 3d) of the fmd virus (fmdv) genome were used to confirm the presence of fmdv in clin ...200919407083
genome analysis and development of infectious cdna clone of a virulence-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia 1 from china.the rna genome sequence of the rabbit passage-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia 1, zb/cha/58(att), was determined to be 8165 nt in length excluding the poly(c) tract in the 5' utr and the poly(a) tail at the 3' end. zb/cha/58(att) was most similar to the vaccine strain asia 1/ynbs/58 in genome sequence and there were no deletions or insertions within the deduced polyprotein between zb/cha/58(att) and ynbs/58, but there were a total of 25 substitutions at the amino aci ...200919410387
fluorescence-based multiplex real-time rt-pcr arrays for the detection and serotype determination of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this study reports the development of distinct fluorescence-based multiplex rrt-pcr arrays, which are comprised of unique primer pairs that are statistically modeled from publicly available sequences, for overall foot-and-mouth disease virus and serotype-specific detection. performance of the multiplex pan fmdv (mpfmdv) array was compared to the 5' utr and two 3d(pol) assays, following tests on the miniopticon (biorad) and 7900ht sds (abi) platforms. the mpfmdv array and a recently developed alt ...200919427333
construction of an infectious cdna clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o 1 bfs 1860 and its use in the preparation of candidate vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in india. a stable,full-length cdna clone of fmdv type o 1 bfs 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage t7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pgem r- - 7zf(-). an 8.2 kb pcr product was amplified from the cdna clone and a full-length rna was generated from it by in vitro transcription.transfection of bhk-21 cells with the in vitro transcripts resulted in the production of infectious reco ...200919430118
a recombinant protein-based elisa for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.a recombinant protein-based elisa was evaluated for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. the recombinant protein (rp13c) was derived from the p1 precursor and 3c protease genes that were cloned into a single expression vector and expressed in insect cells. this protein elicited a low titer of fmdv neutralizing antibodies in pigs. its utility as a diagnostic antigen was explored in a blocking elisa using monoclonal antibodies. the rp13c elisa yielded higher ...200919442854
bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus) integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta6 as fmdv receptors: molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison with other species.integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors that participate in a variety of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix protein interactions. many integrins recognize rgd sequences displayed on extracellular matrix proteins and the exposed loops of viral capsid proteins. four members of the alphav integrin family of cellular receptors, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro, and integrins are belie ...200919443046
genetic characterization of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a region in context of the reemergence of vp359-deletion lineage in india.the 3a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been implicated in host range and virulence. here we analyzed the 3a region of serotype a virus in view of the emergence of a variant group in india with an amino acid deletion at an antigenically critical position of capsid protein, vp3. the 3a region exhibited extreme variability with 38% of the amino acid positions showing substitutions and the c-terminal third (127-151) region was most flexible. genotype inclusive grouping of type a foot-and- ...200919460313
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin receptor expression in tissues from naïve and infected cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals principally affecting cattle, pigs and sheep. fmd virus (fmdv) uses the alpha(v)beta(1), alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(6), and alpha(v)beta(8) integrins as receptors in vitro via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid amino acid sequence motif located within the betag-betah loop of vp1. immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to study the expression of two major fmdv receptors, alph ...200919515380
discriminating foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected and vaccinated animals by use of beta-galactosidase allosteric biosensors.recombinant beta-galactosidases accommodating one or two different peptides from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3b per enzyme monomer showed a drastic enzymatic activity reduction, which mainly affected proteins with double insertions. recombinant beta-galactosidases were enzymatically reactivated by 3b-specific murine monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies. interestingly, these recombinant beta-galactosidases, particularly those including one copy of each of ...200919553549
sheep (ovis aries) integrins alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 related to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison with homologues.four members of the alphav integrin family of cellular receptors, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro, and integrins are believed to be the receptors used to target epithelial cells in the infected animals. to analyse roles of the alphav integrins from a susceptible species as viral receptors, we have cloned sheep alphav, beta1, and beta6 integrin cdnas and compared them to those of other speci ...200919555755
cellular receptors for foot and mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the prototype member of the aphthovirus genus, is a single-stranded, positive-sense rna genome virus, which affects many domestic livestock cloven-hoofed animals, causing substantial lost of milk in dairy cattle, reduction in the growth rate of meat animals, among others. it has been shown that the virus can enter to the cells using different pathways; the main one binding integrins via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway, trafficking throughout the aci ...200919556802
neutralizing monoclonal antibody sandwich liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o antibodies.liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (lpbe) using the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) sandwich method (m-lpbe) for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o antibodies was developed. two neutralizing mabs, 72c1 and 65h6, were raised against the fmdv o/jpn/2000 strain, and used as trapping and peroxidase-labeled detecting antibodies, respectively. sera from animals experimentally infected with fmdv showed specific positive results by m-lpbe, which were corr ...200919564498
[construction and identification of recombinant bhv-1 expressing foot and mouth disease virus vp1 gene].in order to construct the recombinant bovine hepervirus-1 (bhv-1) which expressed foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 gene, we constructed a bhv-1 ge gene transfer vector by inserting the synthetic vp1 gene of fmdv (o/china/99) under the immediate-early promoter of cytomegalovirus.200919637579
highly sensitive fetal goat tongue cell line for detection and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a fetal goat cell line (zz-r 127) supplied by the collection of cell lines in veterinary medicine of the friedrich loeffler institute was examined for susceptibility to infection by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) and by two other viruses causing clinically indistinguishable vesicular conditions, namely, the viruses of swine vesicular disease and vesicular stomatitis. primary bovine thyroid (bty) cells are generally the most sensitive cell culture system for fmdv detection but are prob ...200919656987
different infection parameters between dairy cows and calves after an infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.clinical observations of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus infection in dairy cows and calves were different. this raised the question whether they would also differ with respect to virus excretion and transmission. data were available from transmission experiments carried out with groups of dairy cows and calves. half of each group was inoculated with fmdv o/ned/2001; the other half contact-exposed to inoculated animals. virus excretion, clinical signs and antibody response were measured and ...201019716326
investigations into the cause of foot-and-mouth disease virus seropositive small ruminants in cyprus during 2007.in 2007, serological evidence for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) infection was found as a result of differential diagnostic testing of cypriot sheep suspected to be infected with bluetongue or contagious ecthyma. seropositive sheep and goats were subsequently uncovered on ten geographically clustered flocks, while cattle and pigs in neighbouring herds were all seronegative. these antibodies were specific for serotype-o fmd virus, reacting with both structural and non-structural (ns) fmd viral prot ...200919744234
phenotypic and functional characterization of t-cells and in vitro replication of fmdv serotypes in bovine lymphocytes.peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) from unvaccinated and vaccinated bovine calves were employed to study the alteration of different t-cell subpopulations, functional competence and detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) at different hours post in vitro infection (hpi) with fmdv serotype either o or a or asia1. the alteration in t-lymphocyte subpopulations was analyzed by flow cytometry analysis using t-cell subpopulation specific monoclonal antibodies at various hpi. all the t ...200919751690
genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses, ethiopia, 1981-2007.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic to sub-saharan africa. to further understand its complex epidemiology, which involves multiple virus serotypes and host species, we characterized the viruses recovered from fmd outbreaks in ethiopia during 1981-2007. we detected 5 of the 7 fmdv serotypes (o, a, c, southern african territories [sat] 1, and sat 2). serotype o predominated, followed by serotype a; type c was not recognized after 1983. phylogenetic analysis of virus protein 1 sequences indicat ...200919788808
bola-dr peptide binding pockets are fundamental for foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design in cattle.this large study investigates the associations between bovine major histocompatibility complex drb3 alleles and their binding pockets with the immune response to a 40-mer peptide derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1. a crossbred (charolais and holstein) cattle population (n=197) was immunised with the fmdv peptide and specific igg1 and igg2 responses were measured. eighteen different drb3 alleles were detected in this population, with several exhibiting highly significant associa ...200919833250
differences in the virulence of two strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a with the same spatiotemporal distribution.during the 2000-2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in argentina, two fmdv serotype a viruses were identified among others. since different pathogenic properties between these virus strains were noticed in cattle, we evaluated several biological properties and features of fmdv a/arg/00 and fmdv a/arg/01 in order to compare these viruses in terms of virulence and pathogenicity. our results indicate that fmdv a/arg/00 grows less efficiently than fmdv a/arg/01, exemplified by small ...201019883705
use of a baculovirus-expressed structural protein for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type a by a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with a baculovirus-expressed structural protein was developed for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type a. it exhibited 99% specificity with a cutoff of 53% inhibition. its sensitivity was comparable to the sensitivities of the virus neutralization test and the liquid-phase blocking elisa, indicating its potential as an alternative assay.201019889938
the region between the two polyprotein initiation codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus is critical for virulence in cattle.to explore the role in viral pathogenesis of the region located between the two functional aug (inter-aug) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), we derived viruses containing transposon (tn) inserts from a mutagenized cdna infectious clone of fmdv (pa24-wt). mutant viruses containing an in-frame 57-nt transposon insertion grew at a slower rate and had a smaller plaque size phenotype than the parental virus (a24-wt). a mutant virus containing a 51-nt deletion in inter-aug had a similar phenotyp ...201019896688
effect of fmd vaccine antigen payload on protection, sub-clinical infection and persistence following needle challenge in sheep.the relationship of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus antigen payload and single and double vaccinations in conferring protection against virus challenge in sheep was studied. sheep vaccinated with half the cattle dose (1 ml) containing 15 and 3.75 μg of fmdv antigen with or without booster resisted virulent challenge on 21 days post vaccination or 7 days post booster. fmdv rna could be detected in nasal secretions in 26% of vaccinated sheep (10(3.12) to 10(3.82) viral rna copies) on day 35 pos ...201019896714
optimization of immunohistochemical and fluorescent antibody techniques for localization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animal tissues.immunohistochemical (ihc) and fluorescent antibody (fa) techniques were optimized for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) structural and nonstructural proteins in frozen and paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded (pfpe) tissues of bovine and porcine origin. immunohistochemical localization of fmdv was compared with 7 detection systems, 8 primary antibodies, and 11 epitope retrieval techniques. all serotypes tested (o, a, asia, c [cryosection]; o, a, asia [pfpe]) were localize ...200919901278
prevalence estimates of antibodies towards foot-and-mouth disease virus in small ruminants in uganda.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in uganda with control strategies focusing on vaccination of cattle, while small ruminants are largely ignored. in order for uganda to establish effective control strategies, it is crucial that the epidemiology of the disease is fully understood. this study summarizes results of serological investigations of sheep and goats for antibodies to fmdv from four districts in 2006 following an fmd outbreak in the region and from an attempted comprehensive random ...200919909475
molecular characterization of sat 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in uganda.in uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. in this study, the presence of fmd virus rna was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after fmd quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir i ...201020003615
molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius).bactrian camels can relatively easily be infected with fmdv, but dromedary camels remain resistant even to high doses of the virus. to understand the different susceptibility between the two camel species from the standpoint of viral receptors, this work reports the sequences of the dromedary camel integrin cdnas encoding alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 and compare them to those of other species, especially to bactrian camels. the complete coding sequences for the dromedary camel alphav, beta1 and b ...201020015555
rt-pcr evaluation for identification and sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan.fmd clinically positive 250 tissue samples (mouth and hoof epithelium and vesicle swabs, tongue tissue) and 175 secretion samples (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) were evaluated by rt-pcr for the diagnosis of fmd with different pair of universal and serotype-specific primers from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan. universal primer pair p1/p2 from vp1 gene detected fmd in 182 out of 250 (72.8%) tissues and 92 out of 175 (52.6%) secretion samples, while universal primer 1f/1r from 5'utr region detecte ...201120031216
the effect of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination on virus transmission and the significance for the field.vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) might be one of the control measures used during an fmd epidemic depending on the local epidemiological situation, the status of the country, and the opinion of policy makers. a sound decision on vaccination can be made only if there is sufficient scientific knowledge on the effectiveness of vaccination in eliminating the virus from the population. an important question is whether a single vaccination applied as an emergency vaccine can contribute ...200920046605
a single amino acid substitution in the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus can increase acid lability and confer resistance to acid-dependent uncoating inhibition.the acid-dependent disassembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is required for viral rna release from endosomes to initiate replication. although the fmdv capsid disassembles at acid ph, mutants escaping inhibition by nh(4)cl of endosomal acidification were found to constitute about 10% of the viruses recovered from bhk-21 cells infected with fmdv c-s8c1. for three of these mutants, the degree of nh(4)cl resistance correlated with the sensitivity of the virion to acid-induced inactivation ...201020053737
effect of the extract made from cochinchina momordica seeds on the humoral immune responses of mice to a commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (serotypes o and asia 1).the extract from ecms was investigated for its effect on the humoral immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. fifty-six mice were randomly divided into seven groups with eight animals in each. mice in groups 5 to 7 were subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with 0.5 mg dex daily for 4 days to induce immunosuppression. the animals were then orally given ecms (200 microg in 250 microl saline) in groups 3 and 6 or 250 microl saline in group 2, or s.c. injected with ecms (50 microg in 100 mi ...201020055940
phylogenetic analysis of indian serotype asia1 foot-and-mouth-disease virus isolates revealed emergence and reemergence of different genetic lineages.foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 causes significant number of disease outbreaks in india. indian asia1 virus isolates were shown to be genetically heterogeneous and of the two lineages (lineage b and lineage c) described in india, lineage c caused majority of the outbreaks. emergence of a novel divergent lineage (lineage d) within lineage c has been described in 2001. in the present report, the complete vp1 genomic region of 41 fmdv asia1 field isolates collected between 2003 a ...201020080365
possible use of rna isolate from inactivated vaccine for external positive control in reverse transcription-based detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bull semen.this study has demonstrated the novel use of inactivated and purified vaccine against fmd virus for detection and analysis. rna isolate was efficiently generated from the vaccine for an external positive control for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assays. the target dna fragment sequences from the 2b region and 3d rna polymerase gene of the virus for rt-pcr and rt-lamp respectively were successful ...201020097168
iga antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. control of the disease involves the use of killed-virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. after natural infection, the primary site of replication of fmdv is the pharyngeal area, suggesting that a mucosal immune response is the most effective. humoral immunity to killed-virus vaccination induces antibodies that can prevent the clinical disease but not local infection. determining whethe ...201020107003
hsp70 enhances presentation of fmdv antigen to bovine cd4+ t cells in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious acute vesicular disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep and pigs. the current vaccine induces a rapid humoral response, but the duration of the protective antibody response is variable, possibly associated with a variable specific cd4+ t cell response. we investigated the use of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a molecular chaperone to target viral antigen to the major histocompatibility co ...201020167197
quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking elisa for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.a single serum-dilution liquid phase elisa (slpelisa) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease. the absorbance value at a dilution 1:64 of each serum sample was interpolated in a standard curve by plotting the antibody titers of six control sera determined by end point dilution liquid phase elisa (lpelisa), against the absorbance values for the same control sera at 1:64 dilutions. a straight line was obtained by linear regression anal ...201020170683
limiting the impacts of foot and mouth disease in large ruminants in northern lao people's democratic republic by vaccination: a case study.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is the most important global transboundary livestock disease and is endemic in lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) with outbreaks occurring regularly. lao pdr shares borders with five countries and as a major thoroughfare for transboundary livestock movement, is vulnerable to the social and economic impacts of fmd. the fmd outbreak occurred in january 2009 in the pek district, located in the north-eastern lao pdr province of xieng khuang and involved all 111 v ...201020180923
the relationship between cellular immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus asia 1 and viral persistence in indian cattle (bosindicus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the most contagious animal disease, is associated with persistent viral infection in ruminants, despite the induction of systemic immune response. the present study was performed to decipher the relation between the persistent fmd virus (fmdv) infection and cellular immune response in indian cattle (bosindicus) following experimental inoculation of fmdv asia 1. persistent viral infection (carriers) was detected by antigen capture rt-pcr on the oesophageal-pharyngeal ...201020189208
a recombinant truncated fmdv 3ab protein used to better distinguish between infected and vaccinated cattle.to distinguish the antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection from those induced by vaccination, a recombinant n-terminal truncated fmdv non-structural protein (nsp) of 3ab, designated as r3ab, was constructed by deleting 80 amino acids displayed about 30% homology to transposase is4 family protein of escherichia coli, expressed in e. coli bl21 (de3) and then purified. the r3ab was majorly expressed in soluble fraction and presented as homogeneous monomers after purifica ...201020197135
marker vaccine potential of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial vp1 g-h loop deletion.previous work in cattle and pigs demonstrated that protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) could be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines, in which the vp1 g-h loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. this indicated that the vp1 g-h loop may not be essential for the protection of natural hosts against fmdv. if this could be substantiated there would be potential to develop fmd marker vaccines, characterised by the abse ...201020199761
the development of oral fluid-based diagnostics and applications in veterinary medicine.the purpose of this review was to discuss the history of the development and implementation of oral fluid diagnostics for infectious diseases of humans and domestic animals. the use of oral fluid for the assessment of health and diagnosis of disease in humans and animals has a surprisingly long history. as early as 1909, pollaci and ceraulo reported sensitive and specific agglutination of 'micrococcus melitensis' (brucella melitensis) by oral fluid from patients diagnosed with malta fever. a 198 ...201020202287
[morphological observation of bovine kidney (mdbk) cells effected by foot-and-mouth disease virus l(pro)].in order to explore the morphological changes of bovine kidney (mdbk) cells induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) l protease, we induced the expression of fmdv l protease in bovine kidney cells (mdbk) artificially. all work is carried out on the basis of a stable mdbk cell line inducibly expresses the lab gene under the control of tetracycline. we use cell morphology, hoechst 33258 staining, ao-eb staining, and dna ladder abstraction to research the morphological changes of mdbk cells. ...200920222457
[rescue of bovine asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus from a full-length cdna clone].after sequencing the asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (as01 strain), we amplified the two fragments covering the whole genome by overlapping pcr and long pcr. the 5' fragment was 1.8 kb in length including 15cs, and the 3' fragment was 6.7 kb in length. the two fragments were cloned into the pbluescript sk vector to construct recombinant plasmid pbsas carrying the full-length cdna of fmdv as01 strain. the rna transcript was synthesized in vitro using t7 polymerase and transfected into ...200920222458
genetic characterization of indian type o fmd virus 3a region in context with host cell preference.the 3a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been implicated in host range and virulence. for example, amino acid deletions in the porcinophilic strain (o/taw/97) at 93-102aa of the 153 codons long 3a protein have been recognized as the determinant of species specificity. in the present study, 18 type o fmdv isolates from india were adapted in different cell culture systems and the 3a sequence was analyzed. these isolates had complete 3a coding sequence (153aa) and did not exhibit growth re ...201020302973
an indirect elisa for serodiagnosis of cattle footrot caused by fusobacterium necrophorum.a serodiagnostic elisa (rl-elisa) using recombinant truncated leukotoxin protein pl2 (aa 311-644) of fusobacterium necrophorum as antigen was developed for detection of antibodies against f. necrophorum from cattle footrot. in rl-elisa, the recombinant diagnostic antigen showed no cross-reaction with antisera against bovine foot and mouth disease virus, bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine rotavirus type a, bovine escherichia coli, and bovine salmonella. the rl-elisa ...201020304080
effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor protein and 3c protease expression on bovine herpesvirus 1 replication.several reports have previously shown that expression of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor protein encoding region p1-2a together with the 3c protease (p1-2a/3c) results in correct processing of the capsid precursor into vp0, vp1 and vp3 and formation of fmdv capsid structures that are able to induce a protective immune response against fmdv challenge after immunization using naked dna constructs or recombinant viruses. to elucidate whether bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) mig ...201020333533
foot-and-mouth disease: the question of implementing vaccinal control during an epidemic.the question of whether or not to use vaccines during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has interested veterinary administrators for many decades. this review assesses the historical uses, successes and failures of vaccinal control, and addresses the questions of where, how, and when to use vaccination against fmd. approaching the problem in this manner can aid in identifying which tools are likely to be most effective during an epidemic, and how successful a given contingency plan mig ...201120350828
molecular characterization and expression analysis of porcine integrins alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 that are potentially involved in fmdv infection.in the present study, we report the sequences and characterization of the porcine integrin cdnas encoding alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits and compare them to those of other species. the coding sequences for the porcine alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits were found to be 3141, 2289, 2367 and 2304 nucleotides in length, encoding 1046, 762, 788 and 767-amino-acid-residue protein, respectively. the porcine integrin alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunit shares common structural and func ...201020438833
development of a peptide-based immunochromatographic strip for differentiation of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs.an immunochromatographic strip for discriminating foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected from vaccinated pigs was developed based on synthetic peptide. five peptides designed from the amino acid sequences of nonstructural proteins (nsp) of fmdv were synthesized, and pep5 located in nsp 3b reacted strongly with serum from fmdv-infected pigs but did not react with serum samples from healthy vaccinated pigs. an immunochromatographic strip was developed by using colloidal gold labeled with pep ...201020453216
evaluation of infectivity and transmission of different asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine.most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) display a broad host range. since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of panasia topotype fmdv serotype o has caused epidemics in the far east, africa, the united kingdom, france, the netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout europe and asia. in contrast, there are several fmdv isolates that exhibit a more restricted host range. a cathay topotype isolate of fmdv serotype o from the 1997 epizootic in taiwan (o/taw/97) demonstrated re ...201020458154
differential gene expression in bovine cells infected with wild type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. molecular studies have demonstrated that l(pro) inhibits translation of host capped mrnas and transcription of some genes involved in the innate immune response. we have used microarray technology to study the gene expression profile of bovine cells infected with wild type (wt) or leaderless fmdv. thirty nine out of approximately 22,000 bovine genes were selectively up-regulated by ...201020494391
the efficacy of fmd vaccine reduced non-structural proteins with a mab against 3b protein.a monoclonal antibody, 3bigg, against the prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein (nsp) 3b was obtained. the 3bigg-sepharose conjugant (3bmab-6bff) was prepared by adding the purified 3bigg into epoxy-activated sepharose 6bff, incubating with the inactivated fmdv, and then removing the sepharose by centrifugation. the vaccine was made from the supernatant emulsified with oil-adjuvant isa206. ten guinea pigs, 26 pigs and six cattle were vaccinated, and ...201020512625
foot and mouth disease in animals in sharkia governorate - egypt.this study was carried out to determine the current state of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in different animal species in sharkia governorate in egypt. in addition, we investigated the spreading of the virus through water and soil in the animal environment as well as by rodents. the isolation rates of fmd virus in tissue culture were 39.6%, 11.4%, 41.2% and 100% for cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat respectively. all animals did not show any clinical signs for fmd. in addition, the virus was isolat ...201020537095
difference in the level of interferon gamma mrna transcripts on stimulation of cattle and buffalo mononuclear cells with foot and mouth disease virus-antigen: a possible role of sequence variation in promoter region.in an attempt to resolve the claim that buffaloes differ from cattle in disease progression, this study was undertaken to compare the mitogen (cona) or antigen (foot and mouth disease virus) induced expression levels of interferon gamma (ifn-γ mrna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) by real-time quantitative pcr. in general, the levels of ifn-γ mrna were lower in buffaloes than in crossbred cattle. significantly higher levels of ifn-γ mrna were also observed in crossbred cattle when i ...201120541234
qualitative assessment of the commodity risk for spread of foot-and-mouth disease associated with international trade in deboned beef.the risk of importing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) restricts trade in livestock and their products from parts of the world where the virus is present. this reduces trade opportunities and investment in the livestock sector of many developing countries and constrains global food supply. this review focuses on the risks associated with trade in deboned beef (db) from foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-infected cattle, countries or zones. a definition of db is provided along with a description of ...201020569417
status of foot-and-mouth disease in pakistan.the present study reports the distribution of different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in pakistan during the period 1952-2007. during this time, a total of 1,543 epithelial samples out of 2,484 tested were found positive for various serotypes of fmdv. serotype o was found to be the most prevalent (p < 0.001) followed by serotype asia-1 and a. serotype c was detected only in 1954, 1963 and 1995. the disease was found to be more prevalent (p < 0.0001) in cattle than buffaloes. t ...201020571838
a simulation model for the potential spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the castile and leon region of spain.a spatial stochastic model was used to simulate the spread of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in the castile-and-leon (cyl) region of spain. the model was fitted using information available on premises demographics and on assumptions for animal movements, indirect contacts, and airborne exposure. control measures dictated by spanish and european union regulations constituted a reference strategy to which six alternative control strategies were compared. for the reference strategy, the me ...201020579754
domain disruptions of individual 3b proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus do not alter growth in cell culture or virulence in cattle.picornavirus rna replication is initiated by a small viral protein primer, 3b (also known as vpg), that is covalently linked to the 5' terminus of the viral genome. in contrast to other picornaviruses that encode a single copy of 3b, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) encodes three copies of 3b. viruses containing disrupted native sequence or deletion of one of their three 3b proteins were derived from a fmdv a24 cruzeiro full-length cdna infectious clone. mutant viruses had growth characterist ...201020580394
baculovirus treatment fully protects mice against a lethal challenge of fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that affects cattle, swine, goat and sheep among others. fmdv is able to overcome the initial host innate immune response by inhibiting the induction of antiviral molecules at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. it has been demonstrated that fmdv a/arg/2001 causes the death of adult c57bl/6 mice within 72h. we evaluated the capacity of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis ...201020580746
the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after aerosol inoculation. identification of the nasopharynx as the primary site of infection.to characterize the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle subsequent to simulated natural exposure, 16 steers were aerosol inoculated with fmdv and euthanized at various times. samples were collected from each steer antemortem (serum, nasal swabs, and oral swabs) and postmortem (up to 40 tissues per animal) and screened for fmdv by virus isolation and for fmdv rna by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. tissues that tested positive for fmdv ...201020587691
[prokaryotic expression, protein purification and reactivity analysis of the vp1 and its c terminus of a south african isolate of fmdv serotype sat2].to induce the expression of structure protein vp1 and its c terminus of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype sat2 in e.coli and analyze their reactivities with fmdv positive antiserum.201020619084
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected from sudan.the aim of this study was to characterize foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses collected between 2004 and 2008 from sudan, a country where fmd is endemic. using virus isolation and antigen elisa, three fmd virus serotypes (o, a and sat2) were detected in 24 samples that were submitted to the fao world reference laboratory for fmd. pan-serotypic real-time rt-pcr assays targeting the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) and 3d genes of fmd virus were also used to contribute to the laboratory diagnosis o ...201020626708
confidence in indirect assessment of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency and vaccine matching carried out by liquid phase elisa and virus neutralization tests.the necessity of avoiding the use of animals in vaccine potency testing has been widely recognized. the repeatability and reproducibility of the expected percentage of protection (epp) as a serological potency surrogate for a24 cruzeiro foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain was assessed, and compared with the results obtained with challenge in the protection against podal generalization (ppg) test. to determine the epps, the serum titers obtained by liquid phase blocking competitive elisa ( ...201020643090
development of an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay to quantify foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-capsid proteins in vaccine-antigen batches.in many countries, foot and mouth disease (fmd) is controlled by vaccination and surveillance against non-capsid proteins (ncp); therefore vaccines are required not to induce antibodies against ncp. vaccine purity is evaluated by repeated inoculation of naïve cattle, an expensive and time consuming protocol that raises several animal welfare concerns. we have developed an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (fal-elisa), to detect and quantify ncp in vaccine-antig ...201020685600
antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) population in the argentinean andean altiplano.serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and influenza a virus equine (eiv). samples were collected in cieneguillas province of jujuy, in northern argentina. feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate rv shedding. llamas (la ...201020688660
serotype specificity of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle in selected districts in uganda.uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. a serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by elisa for antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins. three hundred and forty-nine cattle sera were collected from seven districts in uganda, and 65% of these were found positive for antibodies against the non-structural p ...201020696028
outbreak investigations and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in ethiopia in 2008/2009.the study was conducted in three regional states of ethiopia: amhara, oromia, and addis ababa from august 2008 to april 2009 with the objectives of identifying the genetic diversity of serotypes and topotypes in ethiopia, and determining the attack rate and associations of potential risk factors with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) seropositivity. a total of 496 cattle were clinically and serologically examined for presence of specific lesions and nonstructural protein for fmd, respectively. of whi ...201120717724
modelling foot-and-mouth disease virus dynamics in oral epithelium to help identify the determinants of lysis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed livestock; of interest here is the difference in lytic behaviour that is observed in bovine epithelium. on the skin around the feet and tongue, the virus rapidly replicates, killing cells, and resulting in growing lesions, before eventually being cleared by the immune response. in contrast, there is usually minimal lysis in the soft palate, but virus may persist in tissue long after the animal has recov ...201120725794
genetic characterization of the cell-adapted panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/fujian/cha/5/99 isolated from swine.according to office international des epizooties (oie) bulletin, the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was invaded into the people's republic of china in may 1999. it was confirmed that the outbreaks occurred in tibet, hainan and fujian provinces. in total, 1280 susceptible animals (68 cattle, 1212 swine) were destroyed for the epidemic control.to investigate the distinct biological properties, we performed plaque assay, estimated the pathogenicity in suckling mice and determ ...201020807416
specific detection of rinderpest virus by real-time reverse transcription-pcr in preclinical and clinical samples from experimentally infected cattle.a highly sensitive detection test for rinderpest virus (rpv), based on a real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr)system, was developed. five different rpv genomic targets were examined, and one was selected and optimized to detect viral rna in infected tissue culture fluid with a level of detection ranging from 0.59 to 87.5 50% tissue culture infectious doses (tcid(50)) per reaction depending on the viral isolate. the strain sensitivity of the test was validated on 16 rpv strains belonging ...201020844216
a mutant of infectious asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of 10-amino-acid in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 is one of the most predominant endemic serotypes in china. our previous study has generated a full-length cdna clone (pbsas) of an asia 1 serotype fmdv (as1/cha/05) isolated from bovine. to further study the properties of this virus, a mutant in the 3a region of the cdna clone (pbsas-3a10d), containing the deletion at position 93-102 of the 3a protein of as1/cha/05, was generated by pcr and cloning. after synthesis of rna in vitro and transfect ...201020844943
introduction of tag epitopes in the inter-aug region of foot and mouth disease virus: effect on the l protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates translation from two in-frame aug codons producing two forms of the leader (l) proteinase, lab (starting at the first aug) and lb (starting at second aug). in a previous study, we have demonstrated that a cdna-derived mutant fmdv (a24-l1123) containing a 57-nucleotide transposon (tn) insertion between the two aug initiation codons (inter-aug region) was completely attenuated in cattle, suggesting that this region is involved in viral pathogenesis. to ...201120849893
induction of a cross-reactive cd8(+) t cell response following foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. current inactivated fmdv vaccines generate short-term, serotype-specific protection, mainly through neutralizing antibody. an improved understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity would aid design of more effective vaccines. we have previously reported the presence of virus-specific cd8(+) t cells in fmdv-vaccinated and -infected cattle. in the current study, we aimed to identify cd8(+) t ...201020861264
meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination.the objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of fmd emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret the results. peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. clinical protection and virological protection against fmd were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of ...201120869130
enhancement of dna vaccine (p12a3c-pcdna) efficacy against foot-and-mouth disease by coadministration of interleukin-18-expressing (il18 pcdna) plasmid in guinea-pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. the presently used tissue-cultured inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration of immunity. as one of the approaches to develop alternative vaccines, p12a3c-pcdna (containing p12a and 3c coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus) and bovine il18 pcdna plasmids were constructed and the immune response of these constr ...201021039923
risk evaluation of nonvaccinated, weaned calves transported through areas under systematic foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccination.the recurrence and persistence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) could be the consequence of cyclic and massive transportation of calves. for this reason, in south america, vaccination strategies related to livestock dynamic are being promoted. in order to aid the evaluation of such strategies, a method for predicting the risk of transportation of nonvaccinated weaned calves was developed; this method combines expert opinion and empirical evidence using bayesian estimators. it was applied through ...201021071104
regulation of iga responses in cattle, humans and mice.secretory iga (siga) constitutes the largest component of the humoral immune system of the body with gram quantities of this isotype produced by mammals on a daily basis. secretory iga (siga) antibodies function by both blocking pathogen/commensal entry at mucosal surfaces and virus neutralization. several pathways of induction of iga responses have been described which depend on t cells (t cell dependent or td) pathways or are independent of t cells (t-independent or ti) and are mediated by den ...201021074276
the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in sarpang and zhemgang districts of bhutan.this study was undertaken to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in two districts of sarpang and zhemgang in bhutan. zhemgang district recorded a significantly higher cumulative incidence in all species (26.9%) as well as for cattle (29.3%) compared to sarpang (6.5% and 7.4%, respectively). the case fatality for cattle in zhemgang (14.1%) was significantly higher than in sarpang (3.3%). a total of 404 cattle and 73 pigs died of fmd in zhemgang, ...201021078083
development of a dot immunoblot method for differentiation of animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus from vaccinated animals using non-structural proteins expressed prokaryotically.five non-structural proteins (nsps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed in e. coli to develop a dot immunoblot (dot blot) assay for the differentiation of fmdv infected animals from vaccinated animals (diva). the five nsps were 3a (24 kda), 3b (15 kda), major b-cell epitope regions of 2c (23 kda), partial 3d (44 kda) and 3abc (59 kda). the criteria for the dot blot were determined and are described as follows: a test sample is considered positive if four or more nsps demonstrat ...201021087638
fmd subunit vaccine produced using a silkworm-baculovirus expression system: protective efficacy against two type asia1 isolates in cattle.cattle vaccinated with a single dose of subunit vaccine containing the capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain were protected when challenged 28 days later with a homologous virus. here, the 50% bovine protective dose (pd(50)) test was performed to assess the potency of the subunit vaccine. when challenged with two chinese isolates, the subunit vaccine could achieve 6.5 pd(50) (challenged with asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain) and 5.2 pd(50 ...201021109368
foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus within the picornaviridae family. infection of cells with positive-strand rna viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. the origin of these membranes remains unknown; however induction of the cellular process of autophagy is beneficial for the replication of poliovirus, suggesting that it might be advantageous for other picornaviruses. by using confocal microscop ...201021112602
quantitative trait loci for variation in immune response to a foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide.infectious disease of livestock continues to be a cause of substantial economic loss and has adverse welfare consequences in both the developing and developed world. new solutions to control disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. however, identifying selectable markers and the causal genes involved in disease resistance and vaccine response is not straightforward. the aims of this study we ...201021138580
sequence-based prediction for vaccine strain selection and identification of antigenic variability in foot-and-mouth disease virus.identifying when past exposure to an infectious disease will protect against newly emerging strains is central to understanding the spread and the severity of epidemics, but the prediction of viral cross-protection remains an important unsolved problem. for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) research in particular, improved methods for predicting this cross-protection are critical for predicting the severity of outbreaks within endemic settings where multiple serotypes and subtypes commonly co- ...201021151576
beyond the consensus: dissecting within-host viral population diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus by using next-generation genome sequencing.the diverse sequences of viral populations within individual hosts are the starting material for selection and subsequent evolution of rna viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using next-generation sequencing (ngs) performed on a genome analyzer platform (illumina), this study compared the viral populations within two bovine epithelial samples (foot lesions) from a single animal with the inoculum used to initiate experimental infection. genomic sequences were determined in duplic ...201021159860
a differential elisa based on recombinant immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene of shv-1 in a baculovirus-insect cell system to discriminate between pigs infected naturally with pseudorabies and vaccinated pigs.in the present study, the fragment corresponding to the immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene (gepi) from the cl15 argentinean strain of pseudorabies virus was expressed successfully in a baculovirus-insect cell system that contained the m6 gene of bluetongue virus, which encodes the ns1 nonstructural protein. this protein has the ability to polymerize into highly immunogenic tubules inside infected cells that can be purified at large quantities by ultracentrifugation. previously, the ns1 prote ...201021168443
foot-and-mouth disease virus exhibits an altered tropism in the presence of specific immunoglobulins, enabling productive infection and killing of dendritic cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an acute vesicular disease of farm animals. the development of successful control strategies is limited by an incomplete understanding of the immune response to fmdv. dendritic cells (dc) mediate the induction of immunity to pathogens, but their role in fmdv infection of cattle is uncharacterized. bovine monocyte-derived dc (modc) were exposed to integrin-binding and cell culture-adapted strains of fmdv in vitro. modc were not largely susceptible to inf ...201021177807
inhibitors of foot and mouth disease virus targeting a novel pocket of the rna-dependent rna polymerase.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus that infects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to severe losses in livestock production. in the case of an fmd outbreak, emergency vaccination requires at least 7 days to trigger an effective immune response. there are currently no approved inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of fmdv infections.201021203539
gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant enhance the immune effect of protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.cytokines as molecular adjuvant play a critical role in differentiation of effector t cell subsets and in determination of the magnitude of the response after vaccination. in this study, we investigated the effects of gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant on the immune responses of vp1 recombinant protein as a model antigen for foot and mouth disease.201121214955
epidemic and economic impacts of delayed detection of foot-and-mouth disease: a case study of a simulated outbreak in california.the epidemic and economic impacts of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spread and control were examined by using epidemic simulation and economic (epinomic) optimization models. the simulated index herd was a ≥2,000 cow dairy located in california. simulated disease spread was limited to california; however, economic impact was assessed throughout the united states and included international trade effects. five index case detection delays were examined, which ranged from 7 to 22 days. the simu ...201121217024
evaluation of cross-protection between o1 manisa and o1 campos in cattle vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine incorporating different payloads of inactivated o1 manisa antigen.serology is used to predict vaccine induced protection against challenge with a heterologous strain of the same serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to evaluate the accuracy of such predictions, we compared the protection afforded to cattle vaccinated with the o(1) manisa strain of fmdv against challenge with either a homologous (o(1) manisa) or a heterologous strain (o(1) campos). serology by virus neutralization test (vnt) using o(1) manisa antiserum predicted an acceptable protect ...201121236232
study on seroprevalence, risk factors, and economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease in borena pastoral and agro-pastoral system, southern ethiopia.cross-sectional serological study and questionnaire survey were conducted in borana pastoral and agro-pastoral area to determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) infection and to assess community perceptions as to importance of the disease. a multistage random sampling was carried out to select cattle for seroprevalence and households for interviews. totally, 768 sera were collected from 111 herds. the overall individual level seroprevalence of 23.0% ( ...201121249448
short-lived carriage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in human nasal cavities after exposure to infected animals.a quarantine period for potentially contaminated personnel can be used to reduce the risk of transfer of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from infected to susceptible premises. this is set at 72 hours in the uk, on the basis of results from laboratory studies and field observations. previous analysis of fmdv carriage within human nasal cavities has relied upon virus isolation by culture in susceptible cells. this study, involving 51 people, evaluated a pcr method, which detected viral genomic ...201021262692
capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus.chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length fmdv cdnas and characterized. the parental virus cdna was derived from the cell-culture-adapted o1kaufbeuren b64 (o1k b64) strain. chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived from the o/ukg/34/2001 or a/turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the o1k b64 cdna, and viable viruses (o1k/o-ukg and o1k/a-tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in ...201121270284
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a and o with emphasis on korean isolates: temporal and spatial dynamics.we determined complete 1d gene sequences for one serotype a and seven additional serotype o korean foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) and then analyzed them together with published sequences for 180 type a and 300 type o isolates from throughout the world using a bayesian coalescent approach. here, korean serotype a virus was linked with those from laos. korean serotype o viruses were divided into three clades and were closely related to isolates from japan, thailand, the uk, france, ireland, ...201121279395
diagnostic performance and application of two commercial cell viability assays in foot-and-mouth disease research.cell-based assays are still used widely in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) research, despite the existence of a wide variety of molecular techniques. the aim of this study was to validate an automated, quantitative spectrometric reading to replace the time-consuming and subjective microscopic (mic) evaluation of the fmd virus-induced cytopathic effect (cpe). therefore, the diagnostic performance of two commercial cell viability assays (celltiter 96(®) aqueous one solution cell proliferation assay ( ...201121295609
rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral rna samples.foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. it is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has a positive sense rna genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus replication.201121298025
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