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molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine toll-like receptor 7 involved in recognition of single-stranded rna virus/ssrna.the interest in understanding interaction between the toll-like receptor and the viral infection has increased because of its importance in disease control. here we have cloned the porcine tlr7 (ptlr7) cdna encoding for 1050 amino acids. the ptlr7 exhibits 90, 87, 87, 86, 84 and 78% similarity to tlr7 from cattle, dog, horse, cat, human and mouse, respectively. rt-pcr data suggested that ptlr7 mrna was mostly synthesized in secondary lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph node and tonsil) and antigen-p ...200817889367
animal vaccination and the evolution of viral pathogens.despite reducing disease, vaccination rarely protects against infection and many pathogens persist within vaccinated animal populations. circulation of viral pathogens within vaccinated populations may favour the development of vaccine resistance with implications for the evolution of virus pathogenicity and the emergence of variant viruses. the high rate of mutations during replication of ribonucleic acid (rna) viruses is conducive to the development of escape mutants. in vaccinated cattle, unu ...200717892155
assessment of the diagnostic potential of immuno-rca in 96-well elisa plates for foot-and-mouth disease virus.the need for fast and very early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection has yielded different types of diagnostic tools over the past decades: whereas very sensitive techniques such as virus isolation (vi) and more recently also real-time rt-pcr can provide evidence for the presence of low virus quantities, vi requires additional confirmation of the nature of the virus strain and both techniques (currently) lack the ability for direct serotyping. the latter usually depends on ...200817913251
further evaluation of higher potency vaccines for early protection of cattle against fmdv direct contact challenge.the effect of administering higher payload fmd vaccines 10 days prior to severe direct contact challenge on protection from clinical disease and sub-clinical infection was investigated in cattle using two antigen payloads (single strength and 10-fold). regardless of antigen payload, vaccination was shown to significantly reduce the number of clinically infected animals, and significantly reduce virus excretion shortly after challenge, when compared with the unvaccinated group (p<0.05). although ...200717913309
use of a standardized bovine serum panel to evaluate a multiplexed nonstructural protein antibody assay for serological surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease.liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof of principle of a multiplexed nonstructural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected and vaccinated animals. the current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3a, 3b, and 3d and the recombinant protein signature 3abc in combination with four controls. to determine the diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a n ...200717913861
cytokine mrna responses in bovine epithelia during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains the single most important constraint to international trade in live animals and animal products. the factors which regulate the pathogenesis and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are poorly understood. mrna levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (il)-1alpha, tumour necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha and the antiviral cytokines interferon (ifn)-alpha, beta and gamma in microdissected epithelium from cattle acutely infected with fmdv o ukg 3 ...200917920964
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. in contrast, fmd in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. in order to investigate the pathogenesis of fmd in lambs, two groups, aged 10-14 days, were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o ukg. one group of lambs (n=8) was inoculated with fmdv in the coronary band, while the other (n=4) was infec ...200817942248
the nsp immune response of vaccinated animals after in-field exposure to fmdv.the aim was to examine the immune response (ir) to non-structural proteins (nsps), in order to assess the validity of the detection of antibodies to nsps as a means of diagnosing foot and mouth disease (fmd infection) infection when vaccinated populations are in close contact with clinically sick animals. the study was performed during fmd outbreaks in israel in january 2004; the ir was examined in vaccinated dairy and feedlot cattle herds under natural field exposure to fmdv, and in vaccinated ...200717981376
a highly sensitive and specific multiplex rt-pcr to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus in tissue and food samples.three sets of primers to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) using multiplex rt-pcr were designed based on several reference nucleotide sequences, and their reaction conditions were determined. by testing ten-fold serial dilutions of fmdv, the sensitivity of multiplex rt-pcr is 100 times higher than conventional rt-pcr. meanwhile, its specificity was confirmed compared with other related vesicular disease viruses. furthermore, 30 field samples from different animals were tested, and the r ...200817987350
[development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against vp1 protein of asiai type foot-and-mouth virus].to prepare the monoclonal antibodies against vp1 protein of type asiai foot-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and identify the characterization.200717988586
genetic characterisation of the recent foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a/irn/2005.according to the world reference laboratory for fmd, a new subtype of fmdv serotype a was detected in iran in 2005. this subtype was designated a/irn/2005, and rapidly spread throughout iran and moved westwards into saudi arabia and turkey where it was initially detected from august 2005 and subsequently caused major disease problems in the spring of 2006. the same subtype reached jordan in 2007. as part of an ongoing project we have also detected this subtype in pakistan with the first positive ...200718001482
measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus: preliminary evaluation of two portable air sampling devices.until now measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the field has not been attempted or been practical; measurements have been restricted to the laboratory and isolation units using instruments developed in the 1960s. however, with the development of air sampling devices for other biological purposes, there is now the possibility that this short-coming can be overcome and as a result earlier detection of virus may be possible in the future. two recently-introduced commercial ...200918023217
potential of antiviral therapy and prophylaxis for controlling rna viral infections of livestock.with intensification of trade, livestock are increasingly exposed to severe animal diseases caused by a range of rna viruses. recent prime examples include outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), peste des petits ruminants, rift valley fever and bluetongue. to minimise their impact, controlling the spread of virus is of utmost importance. good quality, reliable vaccines exist for some, although not all, of these diseases, but suffer from a set of drawbacks, not the least of which being the ti ...200818035428
cedivac-fmd can be used according to a marker vaccine principle.in this study, we investigated whether cedivac-fmd, an emergency vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), is suitable for use conjointly with a screening program intended to confirm freedom from disease in vaccinated herds based on evidence of virus replication in vaccinates. different sets of sera were tested using the ceditest fmdv-ns elisa for the detection of antibodies against non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus. during a vaccine safety study, serum samples were collected from ...200818035508
non-structural protein 3a for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease infected and vaccinated animals in haryana (india).there are severe international trade restrictions on foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) affected areas. because of endemic nature of fmd, india started fmd control programme (fmd-cp) using mass vaccination in selected states including haryana (year 2003). although no significant incidence of the disease was reported after launching fmd-cp in the state but in order to participate in international trade of animal and animal products, veterinary authorities have to prove that there is no fmd virus (fmdv) ...200718035976
application of modelling to determine the absence of foot-and-mouth disease in the face of a suspected incursion.to use disease modelling to inform a response team about the number of animals per herd/flock to be examined, and the start date and duration of clinical surveillance required to be confident that foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was not present on an island in new zealand with a population of approximately 1,600 cattle, 10,000 sheep and a small number of pigs, goats and alpacas.200718059646
[molecular cloning and characteristics of cdna encoding pig beta6 subunit for fmdv receptor].in order to study the roles of integrin beta6 in foot-and-mouth disease virus infection, pig integrin beta6 was firstly molecularly cloned from rna of the tongue and lung of recovered pig infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv), and was compared with the beta6 gene of other animals available in genbank at nucleotide and amino acid leves. genebank association number of the beta6 gene is ef432729. pig integrin beta6 gene (2367bp) encodes a polypeptide of 788 amino acids co ...200718064756
experimental studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1, responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china.this study was carried out to investigate the biological characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strain asia-1 china/2005, which is responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china. the result showed that this strain is not host restricted, and could not only cause fmd in cattle and sheep but also in pigs by either inoculation or direct contact.200818155114
molecular and phylogenetic analyses of bovine rhinovirus type 2 shows it is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus.bovine rhinovirus 2 (brv2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family picornaviridae. a nearly full-length cdna of the brv2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence determined. brv2 possesses a putative leader proteinase, a small 2a protein and a poly(c) tract, which are characteristic of aphthoviruses. alignment of brv-2 and fmdv polyproteins showed that 41% of amino acids were identical within the p1 region. furthermo ...200818201745
diagnostic evaluation of multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr microsphere array assay for detection of foot-and-mouth and look-alike disease viruses.a high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from viruses that cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. this assay simultaneously screens for five rna and two dna viruses by using multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr (mrt-pcr) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. two of the 17 primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from prev ...200818216216
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in egypt.we describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype a virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in egypt. phylogenetic analysis of vp1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent fmd virus isolates from east africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the middle east.200718258017
[cloning and sequence analysis of cdna encoding porcine alphav subunit for fmdv receptor].receptors play a crucial role in determining the pathogenesis and tissue tropism of virus. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been showed to use four integrins, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 as receptors to initiate infection. in this study, the porcine integrin alphav gene was cloned by rt-pcr from the lung tissue of healed pig infected experimently with fmdv, and compared its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence with the av gene of other animals. the 3141bp c ...200718268814
an mhc-restricted cd8+ t-cell response is induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection and also following vaccination with inactivated fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals that carries enormous economic consequences. cd8(+) cytotoxic t lymphocytes play an important role in protection and disease outcome in viral infections but, to date, the role of the cd8(+) t-cell immune response to fmdv remains unclear. this study aimed to investigate major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i-restricted cd8(+) t-cell responses to fmdv in vaccinated and in infected cattle. an in ...200818272757
genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from afghanistan in 2003-2005.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates collected from various geographic locations in afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete vp1 coding region. three serotypes of fmdv (types a, o, and asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in afghanistan during this period. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type a viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in iran ...200818278548
orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protomer vaccine displayed on t4 bacteriophage surface: 100% protection from potency challenge in mice.an orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine has not previously been reported. by using a t4 bacteriophage nanoparticle surface gene-protein display system (t4-s-gpds), we created a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) entire capsid protein vaccine candidate. on the t4 phage surface soc site, a full length fmdv capsid precursor polyprotein (p1, 755 aa) and proteinase 3c (213 aa) derived from an infected pig of serotype o strain gd-10 (1999), were separately displayed on different t4 p ...200818289743
quantitative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna duration in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.quantitative analysis of the duration of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna in tissues was carried out in pigs experimentally infected with fmdv o ukg 34/2001 and o skr 1/2000. the results showed that the viral rna was still detectable in cervical lymph nodes, mandibular lymph nodes and tonsils collected from both inoculated and contact pigs at 28 days post infection. there was no detectable viral rna in the soft palate or pharynx, which are thought to be tissue sites for viral persistence ...200918294878
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cattle using infrared thermography.in this study, infrared thermography (irt) was assessed as a means of detecting foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cattle before and after the development of clinical signs. preliminary irt imaging demonstrated that foot temperatures increased in fmdv-infected animals. the maximum foot temperatures of healthy (n=53), directly inoculated (di) (n=12), contact (ct) (n=6), and vaccine trial (vt) (n=21) cattle were measured over the course of fmd infection. a cut-off value was established a ...200918308596
high potency vaccines induce protection against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus.in a series of three homologous and eight heterologous challenge experiments, it was shown that high potency vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype a can induce protection even against heterologous challenge infection with viruses that give low r-values with the vaccine strains. the challenge virus specific neutralizing antibody response on the day of challenge (21 days post vaccination) generally correlated with protection.200818313814
modelling foot-and-mouth disease: a comparison between the uk and denmark.whilst the uk 2001 fmd (foot-and-mouth disease) outbreak provides an extremely rich source of spatio-temporal epidemic data, it is not clear how the models and parameters from the uk can be translated to other scenarios. here we consider how the model framework used to capture the uk epidemic can be applied to a hypothetical fmd outbreak in denmark. whilst pigs played a relatively minor role in the uk epidemic (being the infected animal on just 18 farms), they dominate the danish livestock lands ...200818328581
chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses: evaluation of their efficacy as potential marker vaccines in cattle.previous work in pigs, has demonstrated that full protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines, in which the vp1 g-h loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. if proven to be effective in other economically important species such as cattle, such vaccine constructs could be trialed as potential marker vaccines. here, we determine if g-h loop chimera fmdv vaccines can: (i) protect c ...200818342409
pathogenic characteristics of the korean 2002 isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pigs and cattle.experimental infection of susceptible cattle and pigs showed that the o/skr/as/2002 pig strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an infection that is highly virulent and contagious in pigs but very limited in cattle. pigs directly inoculated with, or exposed to swine infected with, strain o/skr/as/2002 showed typical clinical signs, including gross vesicular lesions in mouth and pedal sites. in addition, fmdv was isolated from, and fmdv genomic rna was detected in, blood, serum, nasa ...200818384806
serological survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wildlife in eastern africa and estimation of test parameters of a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for buffalo.in this study we estimate the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in wildlife from eastern and central africa. sera were sourced from between 1994 and 2002 from a rinderpest surveillance program. our study compared a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cedi test) with a virus neutralization test. the study shows that there is only a low seroprevalence of fmdv in sampled nonbuffalo species. the seroprevalence in the cape buffalo was high for sat2, lower for ...200818385460
[gene cloning of ligand binding domain of porcine beta3 as fmdv receptor and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].to clone and express the ligand binding domain (lbd) cdna of porcine integrin beta3 as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) receptor and prepare its polyclonal antibody.200818394343
assessment of suitability of two serotype a candidate vaccine strains for inclusion in fmd vaccine in india.the recent type a foot and mouth disease virus field isolates recovered in india are shown to be antigenically quite divergent from the in-use vaccine strain (ind 17/82), warranting the selection of a suitable vaccine strain which can cover this diversity in antigenic spectrum. in earlier studies employing neutralization test with anti-146s rabbit sera raised against eight candidate vaccine strains, ind 81/00 and ind 40/00 belonging to genotype vii were found to offer the best antigenic coverage ...200818394827
foot-and-mouth disease virus concentrations in products of animal origin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals which can have devastating economic consequences. maintaining an fmd-free status is a priority for non-endemic countries, which restrict importation of animals and animal products from countries in which the disease is present or sporadic, thus presenting a considerable barrier to international trade. this review examines the concentration of fmd virus in animal tissues during the viraemic stage of disease and i ...200818397496
rate of foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission by carriers quantified from experimental data.upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. these carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. an analysis was carried out using data from previously published experiments in order to quantify the transmission rate parameter beta of fmdv infection from carriers to susceptible animals. the parameter beta was estimated at 0.02 ...200818419650
quantitative risk assessment of foot-and-mouth disease introduction into spain via importation of live animals.spain has been a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-free country since 1986. however, the fmd epidemics that recently affected several european union (eu) member countries demonstrated that the continent is still at high risk for fmd virus (fmdv) introduction, and that the potential consequences of those epidemics are socially and financially devastating. this paper presents a quantitative assessment of the risk of fmdv introduction into spain. results suggest that provinces in north-eastern spain are ...200818430478
foot-and-mouth disease in north american bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni): susceptibility, intra- and interspecies transmission, clinical signs, and lesions.there is limited information about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north american bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in these two experimental infection studies, we compared the susceptibilities of bison and elk to fmd virus (fmdv), respectively, with that of cattle; determined whether intra- and interspecies transmission could occur in bison and cattle, and elk and cattle; determined suitability of conventional available laboratory tests to ...200818436660
serotype-independent detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven hoofed animals and is considered the most economically important disease worldwide. recent fmd outbreaks in europe and taiwan and the associated need for rapid diagnostic turnaround have identified limitations that exist in current diagnostic capabilities. to aid improved diagnosis, a serotype-independent fmdv antigen capture assay was developed using antibodies directed against a highly conserved c ...200818440078
epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in landhi dairy colony, pakistan, the world largest buffalo colony.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and causes huge economic losses. this work focus on the landhi dairy colony (ldc), located in the suburbs of karachi. ldc is the largest buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). each month from april 2006 to april 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage ...200818445264
use of continuous results to compare elisas for the detection of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.six tests for detection of antibodies against the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were compared at an international workshop in brescia, italy in 2004 on the basis of dichotomous test results. however, as results from all of these assays were also available on a continuous scale, validation was extended by calculating and subsequently analysing the receiver-operator characteristic (roc) curves and likelihood ratios (lr) for each test method. for the purposes of the ...200818450336
a bayesian evaluation of six diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease for vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle.the sensitivity and specificity of six elisa tests for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) to discriminate between sero-converted (for non-structural fmd virus proteins) and non-sero-converted cattle were evaluated for vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle. since none of the tests could be considered as a proper reference test and for about half of the tested sera the true status (sero-converted or not for non-structural proteins, i.e. presence of antibodies) of the animals was unknown, a bayesian analysi ...200818455817
comparative study of experimental foot-and-mouth disease in cattle (bos indicus) and buffaloes (bubalis bubalus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious diseases affecting wide range of host species with variable severity and decreased productivity. the present study was undertaken to compare the clinical and leucocytic changes in indigenous indian cattle and buffaloes experimentally infected with fmd virus (fmdv) asia 1. a mild type of disease was observed in the cattle, more so in buffaloes infected with fmdv. difference in terms of type, site and healing of lesion was observed between ...200818491212
development and characterization of a bovine serum evaluation panel as a standard for immunoassays based on detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease viral non-capsid proteins.the widespread perception of the effectiveness of applying tests based on the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral non-capsid proteins (ncps) to assess virus circulation irrespective of vaccination triggered the demand for international standards to evaluate the comparative performance of the upcoming assays against the oie index test developed at the pan american foot-and-mouth disease center, paho/who. to this end, a panel was developed composed of 34 cattle sera ...200818499275
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing in cattle using homologous and heterologous challenge strains: precision of the "protection against podal generalisation" test.the level of protection conferred by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines in primovaccinated animals primarily depends on the potency of the vaccine and the relatedness of the vaccine strain and circulating field isolate. the "gold standard" fmd vaccine potency test is the in vivo test performed in the target species. the objective of the study was to determine the precision of the in vivo "protection against podal generalisation" (ppg) fmd vaccine potency test in cattle using homologous (vacci ...200818499310
diagnostic specificity of a real-time rt-pcr in cattle for foot-and-mouth disease and swine for foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever based on non-invasive specimen collection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and classical swine fever virus (csfv) are highly contagious and can cause great economic losses when introduced into disease-free regions. accurate estimates of diagnostic specificity (sp) are important when considering the implementation of surveillance for these agents. the purpose of this study was to estimate diagnostic sp of a real-time reverse-transcriptase pcr assay developed for detection of fmdv in cattle and domestic swine and csfv in domestic swine ...200818499360
expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in silkworm-baculovirus expression system and its utilization as a subunit vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that causes severe economic loss in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. although the traditional inactivated vaccine has been proved effective, it may lead to a new outbreak of fmd because of either incomplete inactivation of fmdv or the escape of live virus from vaccine production workshop. thus, it is urgent to develop a novel fmdv vaccine that is safer, more effective and more economical than traditional vaccines.200818509464
partial sequence analysis of vp1 of indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1.nucleotide sequence of 3' end of vp1 (1d region) was determined using rt-pcr amplified dna of 31 foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia-1 field isolates originating from 11 different geographically distinct states of india during the period 1987-2000. these field strains exhibited an average of 7.5% divergence among them and were found to be divergent from the indian vaccine strains asia-1 wbn 117/85, ind 8/79, and ind 63/72, by an average 5.9, 14.8, and 7.4% divergence, respectively. phy ...200818512139
john burns brooksby cbe: 25 december 1914 - 17 december 1998.john brooksby was an outstanding veterinary virologist, who worked at the animal virus disease research institute, pirbright, for 40 years, for 16 of which he was director of the institute. he will be remembered for his contributions to the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease, for his discovery of four new types, for the classification of subtypes and for fundamental studies of the virus. as deputy director and director he was responsible for programmes on fundamental investigations of foot-and- ...200718543463
fred brown: 31 january 1925 - 20 february 2004.fred brown was a major figure in british and international virology during most of the latter half of the twentieth century. he brought to the subject a rigorous and critical attitude acquired during his early training in chemistry. in addition, he was passionately interested in the practical application of his work and that of others to the prevention and alleviation of disease. he always believed that his research would make a significant contribution to the welfare of agricultural livestock. ...200718543464
foot and mouth disease in the borana pastoral system, southern ethiopia and implications for livelihoods and international trade.participatory epidemiology (pe) was used on the borana plateau of southern ethiopia to understand pastoralist's perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in cattle. matrix scoring showed good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs of acute and chronic fmd, and findings were cross-checked by clinical examination of cattle and assessment of previous clinical fmd at herd level by detection of antibody to non structural proteins of fmd ...200818551776
generation and characterization of an npro-disrupted marker bovine viral diarrhea virus derived from a bac cdna.in vitro studies showed that n(pro) protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) interferes with cellular antiviral defense. to understand the role of n(pro) protein in successful viral invasion of the host and establishment of the lifetime persistence, an infectious n(pro)-disrupted virus with a noncytopathic (ncp) background is desired. in this study, an n(pro)-disrupted cdna, pbsd1-n(pro)/egfp2a, was constructed based on an infectious full-length bac cdna clone of ncp bvdv strain sd1, pbsd1. ...200818555541
evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the sat serotypes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in south africa. vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (as) adjuvanted vaccines containing the south african territories (sat) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlli ...200818575060
variation in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a associated with epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks in the 2001 epizootic in argentina.a mixed binomial bayesian regression model was used to quantify the relation between nucleotide differences in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a, and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreaks from which the viruses were obtained between january and december 2001 in argentina. an increase in the probability of different nucleotides between isolates was associated with a longer time between isolation dates, a greater distance between isolation locations, an increa ...200818599847
experimental transmission of foot-and-mouth disease among indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and from buffalo to cattle.indian buffalo and cattle were infected experimentally with a serotype o strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus of buffalo origin. whereas intradermolingual inoculation of buffalo produced largely sub-clinical infection, inoculation in the dental pad produced vesicles in the mouth and on the feet. a buffalo infected via the dental pad transmitted infection to cattle and buffalo by direct contact with them for 24h. the contact-exposed buffalo developed (1) delayed-onset clinical signs, and (2) sh ...200818619607
microarray-based detection of viruses causing vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals.definitive diagnosis of vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals presents challenges both for veterinary clinicians and diagnostic laboratories. it is often impossible to diagnose the causative disease agent on a clinical basis alone and difficult to collect ample vesicular epithelium samples. due to restrictions of time and sample size, once laboratory tests have ruled out foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease a definitive diagnosis may remain ...200918621489
uv inactivation and model of uv inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suspension.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes one of the most contagious diseases affecting cloven-hoofed animals (e.g., cattle and swine) and causes severe economic loss for many countries. the resistance to uv irradiation of fmdv strains isolated from outbreaks in thailand was investigated in phosphate-buffered saline at 25 degrees c. since the regression coefficients of linear regression were large and root mean square errors were small, uv inactivation could be appropriately summarized and fitt ...200818625534
herd reproduction ratio and time-space analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in peru in 2004.the herd reproductive ratio (rh) and spatio-temporal clustering were estimated in the 2004 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in peru. the epidemic lasted 39 days and involved 26 herds. movement of cattle was restricted, all susceptible species within a 25-km buffer zone were revaccinated, and infected animals with clinical signs of fmd were killed or destroyed to control and eradicate the disease. the rh declined from 5.3 on the second day of the epidemic to 1.31 on the 25th day. spatio-temp ...200818631231
multiplexed molecular assay for rapid exclusion of foot-and-mouth disease.a nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from fmdv infection in cattle, sheep and swine. the fmdv "look-alike" diagnostic assay panel contains 5 pcr and 12 reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) signatures for a total of 17 simultaneous pcr amplifications for 7 diseases plus ...200818634827
kinetics of immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (type asia 1) in experimental cattle.humoral and mucosal (secretory antibody)immune response to fmdv type asia 1 in cattle was analyzed after vaccination and infection using virus neutralizing test (vnt). vaccination (1/16th the usual dose) failed to protect cattle from generalized clinical disease following experimental fmdv asia 1 infection. our results showed that infection induced higher and prolonged serum antibody titres indicating antigen mass is important for optimal immune response. experimental fmdv infection induced sign ...200918648998
enhanced mucosal immune response in cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the mucosal immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 was examined in experimentally infected cattle by assaying antibodies by the virus-neutralizing test (vnt) and iga elisa in two secretory fluids, oesophageal pharyngeal fluid (opf) and oro-nasal fluid (onf). out of 17 animals infected by the intradermo-lingual route, 12 became persistently infected (carriers), as defined by positive antigen capture rt-pcr reactions for fmdv rna in opf samples collected at 28 days or l ...200818656268
clinical and laboratory investigations of the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in southern england in 2007.a case of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) on a cattle farm in normandy, surrey, was confirmed on friday august 3, 2007, the first case in the uk since 2001. the infection was detected nearby on a second farm on august 6. on september 12, fmd was confirmed on a farm approximately 20 km from normandy in egham, and this was followed by cases on five more farms in that area in the next three weeks. the majority of the infected farms consisted of multiple beef cattle holdings in semi-urban areas. in tot ...200818676997
comparison of the characters of the plaque-purified viruses from foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/2000.at least two biotypes were observed at the 2nd passage stage after the isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2000 strain. these 2 types of viruses differed from their plaque phenotypes and were distinguishable by using a monoclonal antibody (mab) 64g8 that was made for the fmdv o/jpn/2000 strain. one of these 2 biotypes formed small plaque (sp) and with immuno staining showed a positive reaction to mab 64g8, while the other formed clear large plaque (lp) and did not react with m ...200818685235
[construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying lab gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its expression in bovine kidney (mdbk) cells].in this study, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain oa/58 rnas were used as templates for rt-pcr. by the molecular cloning, the lab gene encoding leader protease called lpro were cloned in retroviral vector pbpstr1 to obtain reconstruction retroviral vector termed pbpstr1-lab. at different concentrations of puromycin and tetracycline respectively in the cell culture mediums, the growth of bovine kidney cells (mdbk) showed that the optimal puromycin resistant selection concentration was 3 m ...200818724691
[cloning of foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin receptor beta1 subunit and antibody production to its ligand-binding domain].we produced beta1 gene which is about 2400 bp by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) from bovine trachea, reclaimed and purified, then cloned the amplified fragment to pgem-t easy vector, confirmed by sequencing. the immune-dominant epitope of beta1 gene was chosen by computer analysis and then syncretized ligand-binding domain from 346 bp to 843 bp of ecytoplasm with six histidine, expressed lbd protein massly in e. coli bl21 (de3), and identified by sds-page. the fusion pr ...200818724711
foot-and-mouth disease virus, but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton via the nonstructural protein 3cpro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a member of the picornaviridae, is a pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals and causes a disease of major economic importance. picornavirus-infected cells show changes in cell morphology and rearrangement of cytoplasmic membranes, which are a consequence of virus replication. we show here, by confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, that the changes in morphology of fmdv-infected cells involve changes in the distribution of microtubule and intermediate ...200818753210
rapid methodology for antigenic profiling of fmdv field strains and for the control of identity, purity and viral integrity in commercial virus vaccines using monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) developed against different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strains were extensively used to study any possible antigenic variations during vaccine production in argentine facilities. additionally, a typing elisa using strain specific mabs was developed to detect potential cross contaminations among fmdv strains in master and working seeds with high specificity and sensitivity and to confirm strains identity in formulated vaccines. this assay was carried ...200918774662
foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in south sudan: benefit-cost analysis and livelihoods impact.a benefit-cost analysis of vaccination for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was conducted in an area of south sudan, which due to chronic conflict, had been subject to large-scale humanitarian assistance for many years. the study used participatory epidemiology (pe) methods to estimate the prevalence and mortality of acute and chronic fmd in different age groups of cattle, and the reduction in milk off-take in cows affected by fmd. the benefit-cost of fmd vaccination was 11.5. losses due to the chro ...200818786073
dromedaries (camelus dromedarius) are of low susceptibility to inoculation with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type o strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the sheep developed typical fmd. the inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible signs of illness or vesicular lesions. however, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infect ...200818789453
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: the influence of serotype, type of adjuvant, valency, fractionation method, and virus culture on the dose-response curve in cattle.the aim of this study was to determine a relationship between vaccine potency (amount of pd50 per dose) and fraction of clinically protected cattle following homologous challenge with infectious foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus, and to determine the effect of method of fractionation, serotype, type of adjuvant, valency and type of virus culture on the dose-response curve. data from 297 potency tests of fmd vaccines, comprising 4004 vaccinated cattle, performed at the fmd vaccine production fac ...200818822336
bovine viral diarrhea virus is a suitable viral vector for stable expression of heterologous gene when inserted in between n(pro) and c genes.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a group of small enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive-oriented rna genome of approximately 12.3 kb. bvdv genome directs the production of a viral polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved to release the mature viral proteins. to explore the potential of using bvdv as viral vector for stable expression of heterologous genes, egfp2a was inserted in between n(pro) and c genes of a noncytopathic type-i bvdv strain sd1. egfp2a was designed with egfp ...200818824056
updating of the correlation between lpelisa titers and protection from virus challenge for the assessment of the potency of polyvalent aphtovirus vaccines in argentina.routine vaccination campaigns are carried out in argentina twice a year, involving more than 100 million doses of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine. although the challenge test in cattle has not been totally replaced for the assessment of fmd vaccine potency, argentine animal health authorities have used an indirect alternative method based on specific correlation studies of protection against podal generalization (ppg) tests performed in cattle with a validated liquid phase blocking elisa (l ...200818835312
specificity of non-structural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in a target population in new zealand.to determine the diagnostic specificities of two commercial screening elisa, the bommeli/idexx chekit fmd 3abc indirect elisa (elisa-1) and the ceditest fmdv ns blocking elisa (elisa-2), for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle, sheep and pigs in new zealand, and to compare them with other published studies. to consider the implications for fmd surveillance of using two elisa in series, a consideration arising from the absence of a gold standard virus neutralisation test (vnt) in new zealand.200818836503
development and laboratory validation of a lateral flow device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in clinical samples.a lateral flow device (lfd) for the detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed using a monoclonal antibody (mab 1f10) shown to be pan-reactive to fmdv strains of each serotype by elisa. the performance of the lfd was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia (304 positive and 1003 negative samples) from suspected cases of vesicular disease collected from 86 countries between 1965 and 2008 and negative samples collected from healt ...200918848845
foot and mouth disease virus transmission during the incubation period of the disease in piglets, lambs, calves, and dairy cows.transmission of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus by infected animals may already occur before clinical signs are evident. quantitative data for fmd transmission rates during this so-called high-risk period are currently lacking and would provide useful information to develop surveillance systems in which the number of new outbreaks is an outcome variable. in order to address this, we used experimental data to quantify transmission in cattle, swine and sheep during the non-clinical phase of the ...200918929417
early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after controlled aerosol exposure.the goal of this study was to identify the primary sites of replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cattle subsequent to aerogenous inoculation. a novel aerosol inoculation method was developed to simulate natural, airborne transmission and thereby allow the identification of early replication sites. virus distribution after aerosol inoculation was compared at 24h post inoculation with simple nasal instillation. aerosol inoculation of fmdv consistently resulted in virus detection b ...201018930417
foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most contagious viruses of animals and is recognised as the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. two fundamental problems remain to be understood before more effective control measures can be put in place. these problems are the fmdv "carrier state" and the short duration of immunity after vaccination which contrasts with prolonged immunity after natural infection. here we show by laser capture microdis ...200818941503
ginseng stem-leaf saponins (gsls) and mineral oil act synergistically to enhance the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice.saponins extracted from ginseng stems and leaves (gsls) as well as the synergistic effect between gsls and oil emulsion were investigated for their adjuvant effects on the immune responses of mice to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. in experiment a, icr mice were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmdv antigen with or without gsls (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 microg) at 3 week intervals. highest fmdv-specific igg level was observed 2 weeks after the boosting in mi ...200918973783
evidence of recombination in a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of vp1 revealed that a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 identified in mongolia in 2005 was related to chinese and russian strains isolated during the same year. in this study, these strains were defined as east asian strains having a common geographical origin, and the complete genomic sequence of the mongolian strain (as1/mog/05) was determined and compared to other strains of serotype asia 1. as1/mog/05 showed 1 ...200918977402
infectious bursal disease subviral particles displaying the foot-and-mouth disease virus major antigenic site.an antigen delivery system based on subviral particles formed by the self-assembly of the capsid protein of infectious bursal disease virus and carrying foreign peptides at the top of the projection domain was investigated. we report here the effective insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunodominant epitope in one of the four external loops of the subviral particles. out of the two loops tested, one of them tolerated an insert of 12 amino acids without disrupting the subviral ...200918983883
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus nucleotide sequence variation within naturally infected epithelium.an important epidemiological tool in the control of epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is genetic tracing using complete virus genome sequence data. however to interpret these genetic data, it is important to quantify underlying variation present in fmdv populations from individual tissue samples. cloned complete capsid sequences from two virus populations from epithelium from a cow (n=26) and from a sheep (n=15) infected during the uk 2001 outbreaks were generated. genetic diversity of t ...200919027805
some guidelines for determining foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain matching by serology.the selection of matching strains for use in outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus can be assessed in vivo or by serological r-value determination. sera from animals involved in vaccine potency and cross-protection trials performed using the "protection against podal generalization" (ppg) test for two serotype a strains were collected and analyzed by the virus neutralization test (vnt) and liquid-phase elisa (lpelisa) in three laboratories. the average vnt r-values for medium and high ...200919041355
a conserved domain in the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus is required for proper subcellular localization and function.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (ifn) and by reducing the immediate-early induction of ifn-beta mrna and ifn-stimulated genes. in addition to its role in shutting off cap-dependent host mrna translation, l(pro) is associated with the degradation of the p65/rela subunit of nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab). bioinformatics analysis suggests that l(pro) contains a sa ...200919052079
transient inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by sirnas silencing vp1 protein coding region.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, a severe, clinically acute, vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. rna interference (rnai) is a mechanism for silencing gene expression post-transcriptionally that is being exploited as a rapid antiviral strategy. to identify efficacious small interfering rnas (sirnas) to inhibit the replication of fmdv, candidate sirnas corresponding to fmdv vp1 gene were designed and synthesized in vitro using t7 rna pol ...200919062053
understanding the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the use of molecular epidemiology is an important tool in understanding and consequently controlling fmdv. in this review i will present basic information about the disease, needed to perform molecular epidemiology. i will give a short introduction to the history and impact of foot-and-mouth disease, clinical picture, infection route, subclinical and persistent infections, general aspects of the transmission of fmdv, serotype-specific epidemiological characteristics, field epidemiology of fmdv, ...200919100342
antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen drb3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance.due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. in argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) drb3.2 gene associated with blv-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. a potential risk in expanding or segregati ...200919109295
diagnosis of foot-and mouth disease by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction under field conditions in brazil.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important and highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) are the gold standard tests for diagnosis of fmd. as these methods are time consuming, assays based on viral nucleic acid amplification have been developed.200819117507
[screening and stability of madin-darby bovine kidney cell strain co-expressing the capsid precursor protein p1-2a gene and the protease 3c gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus].to screen the madin-darby bovine kidney [co1] cell strains for stable expression of capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv [co2]).200819149169
analysis of the leader proteinase (l(pro)) region of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus with due emphasis on phylogeny and evolution of the emerging vp3(59)-deletion lineage from india.genotype inclusive grouping of indian type a isolates as observed in 1d region based phylogeny was distorted at complete l(pro) region, where the vp3(59)-deletion group lineages of genotype vii clustered away from both genotypes vii and vi, confirming its uniqueness and independent evolution of l(pro) and 1d region. akin to the 1d region, this deletion group is gradually diverging genetically even at l region forming more number of lineages and inter-lineage distance at l region is considerably ...200919167441
foot-and-mouth disease virus can induce a specific and rapid cd4+ t-cell-independent neutralizing and isotype class-switched antibody response in naïve cattle.the role of t-lymphocyte subsets in recovery from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in calves was investigated by administering subset-specific monoclonal antibodies. the depletion of circulating cd4(+) or wc1(+) gammadelta t cells was achieved for a period extending from before challenge to after resolution of viremia and peak clinical signs, whereas cd8(+) cell depletion was only partial. the depletion of cd4(+) cells was also confirmed by analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens 5 ...200919176618
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from south east asia 1998-2006: the lao perspective.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes sporadic disease outbreaks in the lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) and appears to be endemic within a livestock population largely susceptible to infection. as lao pdr is a major thoroughfare for transboundary animal movement, regular fmd outbreaks occur causing economic hardship for farmers and their families. the dominant serotype causing outbreaks between 1998 and 2006 was type o. using phylogenetic analysis, type o isolated viruses were divided i ...200919181459
immune response in goats to two commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccines and the assessment of maternal immunity in their kids.in this investigation, the immune response of goats to two commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccines (fmdv) was compared. highest mean antibody titre was observed on days 60 and 21 in goats vaccinated with two doses of algel (group 1) and oil adjuvant (group 2) quadrivalent vaccines, respectively. there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in mean antibody titre between the two vaccine groups. however, the antibody titres for type o fell below the protective titres by day 180 and 270 for gr ...200919200298
identification of major histocompatibility complex restriction and anchor residues of foot-and-mouth disease virus-derived bovine t-cell epitopes.despite intensive research on the identification of t-cell epitopes in cattle after foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection during the last 20 years, knowledge of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) restriction and anchor residues of such epitopes is still sparse. therefore, as a first step, we tested lymphocytes from two experimentally fmdv serotype a24-vaccinated and -challenged cattle for recognition of fmdv-derived pentadecapeptides in proliferation assays. two epitopes were identif ...200919211750
influence of exposure intensity on the efficiency and speed of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by direct animal-to-animal contact, indirect contact facilitated by contaminated materials or by airborne spread. the rate of spread and the incubation period, as well as the severity of disease, depends on many variables including the dose received, the route of introduction, the virus strain, the animal species and the conditions under which the animals are kept. quantitative data related to these variables are needed if model predictions are t ...200919215941
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus: strategies and effectiveness.although present conventional foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines can prevent clinical disease, protection is short lived ( approximately 6 months), often requiring frequent revaccination for prophylactic control, and vaccination does not induce rapid protection against challenge or prevent the development of the carrier state. furthermore, it is clear that the clinical protection depends upon the length of immunization and the duration of exposure/challenge methods. this review summarizes the ...200919249976
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using glycoprotein and monoclonal antibody for detecting antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus serotype new jersey.in this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using glycoprotein and a monoclonal antibody (mab) was developed for the detection of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) serotype new jersey (nj). the glycoprotein to be used as a diagnostic antigen was extracted from partially purified vsv-nj, and a neutralizing mab specific to vsv-nj was incorporated to compete with antibodies in a blocking elisa using glycoprotein (gp elisa). the cutoff of the gp elisa was set at 40% inhi ...200919279165
foot and mouth disease in the lao people's democratic republic: ii. seroprevalence estimates, using structured surveillance and surveys of abattoirs.an examination of the seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus was conducted in the lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) from 1996 to 2005, using structured surveillance and abattoir-based studies. under structured surveillance, seropositivity ranged from 65.7% (vientiane capital, 1996) to 3% (houaphan, 2005) for cattle and buffalo; and from 2.8% (vientiane capital, 1998) to 0% in separate studies of pigs. in each study, species composition was significantly associated with ser ...200819284052
molecular characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide insertion in the 3'untranslated region.a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide (nt) insertion in the 3'untranslated region (3'utr) was generated by transposon (tn)-mediated mutagenesis. characterization of the mutant virus (a24-3'utr8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency or virulence in cattle compared to the a24 wild-type virus. rna modeling showed that the structures predicted in the 3'utr were not affected by the tn insertion. these results revealed that the 3'utr can to ...200919288053
the effect of vaccination on undetected persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds and sheep flocks.the importance of carrier animals (those in whom virus persists after recovery from disease or acute infection) and their potential role in the spread of disease remain open questions within foot-and-mouth disease epidemiology. using simple probabilistic models we attempt to quantify the effect of emergency vaccination--and especially the time of application--on the likely number of such animals, using data from challenge experiments on both cattle and sheep to determine the probability of persi ...200919288960
molecular characterization of sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in limpopo province, south africa.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. the virus is a single-stranded rna virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. in southern africa the south african territories (sat) 1-3 serotypes of fmd virus are maintained by large numbers of african buffaloes (syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. during february 2001, an ...200819294983
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