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clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: cattle.foot and mouth disease (fmd) in cattle is usually clinically obvious in the unvaccinated herds of countries in which the disease occurs only occasionally. however, in vaccinated herds and in some breeds indigenous to areas in which fmd is endemic, the disease may circulate undetected.200212523690
unapparent foot and mouth disease infection (sub-clinical infections and carriers): implications for control.unlike animals which are carriers of foot and mouth disease (fmd), sub-clinically infected animals may be highly contagious. the implications of sub-clinical infections for the control of fmd are serious because such animals are likely to disseminate the disease when in contact with susceptible livestock. recent dissemination of fmd virus (fmdv) in europe shows that sub-clinically infected animals render trade in animals or animal products a potential risk for importing countries. this clearly d ...200212523693
predicting the spread of foot and mouth disease by airborne virus.foot and mouth disease (fmd) can spread by a variety of mechanisms which, under certain climatic and epidemiological conditions, includes the windborne spread of disease. recent advances in knowledge of the aerobiological features of fmd are described. the strain of virus and species of infected animal are major determinants of airborne virus emission. pigs emit most virus, cattle and sheep lesser but similar amounts to each other. peak excretion of airborne virus by sheep occurs before the clin ...200212523697
foot and mouth disease: the experience of south africa.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park (knp) and surrounding game parks in south africa. the last outbreak of the disease in domestic stock outside the fmd control zone occurred in 1957. due to the success in containing the disease, the country was accorded zone freedom from fmd without vaccination by the office international des epizooties (oie: world organisation for animal health) in 1995. this status was lost in september 2000 ...200212523712
a method to detect major serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) is an isothermal technique that allows the rapid amplification of specific regions of nucleic acid obtained from a diverse range of sources. it is especially suitable for amplifying rna sequences. a rapid and specific nasba technique was developed, allowing the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus genetic material in a range of sample material, including preserved skin biopsy material from infected animals, vaccines prepared from denatured c ...200212237113
broad-spectrum virus reduction in red cell concentrates using inactine pen110 chemistry.the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens by transfusion is a persistent problem in medicine. to address this safety issue, inactine pen110 chemistry is being utilized to develop a process for preparing pathogen-reduced red blood cell concentrates (rbcc). the purpose of this study was to characterize the virucidal effectiveness of the inactine pen110 chemistry in full units of rbcc by using a panel of viruses with diverse properties in composition, size and shape.200212437518
the complete nucleotide sequence of the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in japan.the complete nucleotide sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2000 strain, the panasia strain, was determined by cycle sequencing and primer walking. the 5' end of the genome upstream from homopolymeric poly(c) tract (s-fragment) was 367 nucleotides in length, and the remainder of the genome (l-fragment), excepting the poly(a) tail, was 7808 nucleotides. the l-fragment contains a single open reading frame of 6996 nucleotides terminating at a uaa codon 96 bases from the 3' pol ...200212416675
evaluation of automated rt-pcr to accelerate the laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.automated fluorogenic (5' nuclease probe-based) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) procedures were evaluated for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) using suspensions of vesicular epithelium, heparinised or clotted blood, milk and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid ('probang') samples from the united kingdom (uk) 2001 epidemic and on sera from animals experimentally infected with the outbreak serotype o fmd virus strain. a magna pure lc was initially programmed to autom ...200312505626
the history of research in foot-and-mouth disease.the history of research in foot-and-mouth disease falls into several distinct areas. in this short chapter i have highlighted what i consider to be the significant advances in our knowledge of the disease and its causal agent. 1. loeffler and frosch's landmark description in 1898 that the disease is caused by a filterable agent, the first observation that an animal disease could be caused by a virus. 2. the search for experimental laboratory animals, culminating in the demonstration by waldmann ...200312527434
molecular basis of pathogenesis of fmdv.current understanding of the molecular basis of pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been achieved through over 100 years of study into the biology of the etiologic agent, fmdv. over the last 40 years, classical biochemical and physical analyses of fmdv grown in cell culture have helped to reveal the structure and function of the viral proteins, while knowledge gained by the study of the virus' genetic diversity has helped define structures that are essential for replication and prod ...200312527435
evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus evolution is strongly influenced by high mutation rates and a quasispecies dynamics. mutant swarms are subjected to positive selection, negative selection and random drift of genomes. adaptation is the result of selective amplification of subpopulations of genomes. the extent of adaptation to a given environment is quantified by a relative fitness value. fitness values depend on the virus and its physical and biological environment. generally, infections involving la ...200312527437
the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the netherlands in 2001.an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in great britain was reported on 21 february 2001, followed by an outbreak of fmd in the netherlands a month later. this dutch index outbreak occurred on a mixed, veal-calf/dairy-goat farm in oene, in the central part of the netherlands. the most-likely route of infection was the import of irish veal-calves to this dutch herd via an fmd-contaminated staging point in france. with hindsight, more herds seemed to be infected by the time the index outbreak ...200312581598
detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by real-time, fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.a fluorogenic rt-pcr (5'-nuclease probe-based) assay using a primer/probe set designed from the internal ribosomal entry site region of the virus genome was developed for the specific detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in epithelial suspensions and cell culture virus preparations. the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) specifically detected fmd virus in sample submissions from the uk 2001 fmd outbreak with greater sensitivity than our con ...200212176143
foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) affects cloven-footed animals. it is caused by seven species ("types") of foot and mouth virus (fmdv) in the genus aphthovirus, family picornaviridae (). fmdv is a single-stranded rna virus, with a protein coat consisting of four capsid proteins enumerated as vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4 (garland and donaldson 1990).200212443674
foot-and-mouth disease virus receptors: comparison of bovine alpha(v) integrin utilization by type a and o viruses.three members of the alpha(v) integrin family of cellular receptors, alpha(v)beta(1), alpha(v)beta(3), and alpha(v)beta(6), have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro. the virus interacts with these receptors via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) amino acid sequence motif located within the betag-betah (g-h) loop of vp1. other alpha(v) integrins, as well as several other integrins, recognize and bind to rgd motifs on their natural lig ...200312551988
development of a foot-and-mouth disease nsp elisa and its comparison with differential diagnostic methods.the gene encoding the nonstructural protein (nsp) of o/skr/2000 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was constructed to express under the polyhedron promoter of baculovirus. the expression of nsp was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and western blotting. the expressed nsp was applied as a diagnostic antigen for indirect-trapping elisa (i-elisa). an i-elisa using monoclonal antibody (mab) against 3a as trapping antibody was developed to differentiate infected from vaccinated ca ...200312615437
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most economically important veterinary pathogen due to its highly infectious nature, ability to cause persistent infections and long term effects on the condition and productivity of the many animal species it affects. countries which have the disease have many trade restrictions placed upon them. in the last 15 years there have been significant advances in the understanding of fmd epidemiology. these have largely been due to the application of the molecular b ...200312527438
identification and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from primary suspect cases in korea in 2000.the republic of korea had been free from foot and mouth disease (fmd) since 1934, until a recent outbreak in 2000. from march to april 2000, a total of 15 fmd outbreaks due to the serotype o virus were recorded. coincidental outbreaks of fmd in cattle or pigs by the serotype o virus were reported in the region, including taiwan, china, japan, russia and mongolia. in this report, the results of emergency investigations of fmd cases on a dairy farm located approximately 5-km from the demilitarized ...200312576697
molecular epidemiological investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in korea in 2000.the genetic relatedness of 7 korean type o field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in clinical specimens collected from 5 different geographic locations in 2000 was investigated. the sequence of 162 nucleotides (nt 478-639) at the 3' end of the 1d (vp1) genes was determined from amplified cdna fragments, and subjected to the analysis for the sequence identity/divergence and phylogenetic relationship. the overall nucleotide sequence divergence among the 7 field strains was 0 to 3.8%, ...200312576698
use of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the rapid diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in south america.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a limiting factor for the economic progress of the animal industry in south america. the presence of the disease results in the imposition of national and international sanitary barriers to animals and animal products, and, most especially, a reduction in the availability of protein from animal origin and in income. rapid and accurate identification of infected animals, those with either clinical or subclinical disease as well as with persistent infection, is esse ...200312625404
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: determination and statistical validation of a model using a serological approach.european foot-and-mouth disease vaccine manufacturers are required to quantify the efficacy of their product in accordance with the european pharmacopoeia (ep). the method used most often to establish the potency of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines requires viral challenge of vaccinated cattle. alternative approaches, such as challenge-free serological assessments have many advantages over existing methods and could be used if robust statistical models could be developed that related antibody tit ...200312804854
description of an epidemic simulation model for use in evaluating strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.to develop a spatial epidemic model to simulate intraherd and interherd transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus.200312602589
antigenic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 field isolates using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 field isolates (n = 100) were compared using a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies (mab) in sandwich elisa. the majority (over 89%) of the isolates showed either homologous (76% and above reactivity) or reduced affinity (20-75% reactivity) for the mabs 2a, 13, 40, 34 and 81, suggesting that these mab binding epitopes are conserved, whereas a more variable reactivity was observed for the mabs b3, 1a, 24, 72, 82 and 89. polyclonal relationship ('r' ...200312591202
identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus-specific linear b-cell epitopes to differentiate between infected and vaccinated cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. for several years, vaccination of animals, which had proven to be successful for the eradication of the disease, has been forbidden in the united states and the european community because of the difficulty of differentiating between vaccinated and infected animals. in this study, detailed investigations of the bovine humoral immune response against fmd virus (fmdv) were performed with the aim of identifyi ...200312885881
a synthetic peptide containing the consensus sequence of the g-h loop region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type-o vp1 and a promiscuous t-helper epitope induces peptide-specific antibodies but fails to protect cattle against viral challenge.a pilot study was carried out in cattle to determine the immunogenicity of a synthetic consensus peptide comprising the g-h loop region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type-o vp1 and a non-vp1 t-helper (th) epitope. cattle vaccinated intramuscularly either once (n = 5) or twice (n = 4) with 50 microg of the peptide preparation at a 21-day interval developed antibodies to the peptide as determined by elisa with the exception of one steer that received a single dose. however, neutralizing a ...200312922108
results of epidemic simulation modeling to evaluate strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.to assess estimated effectiveness of control and eradication procedures for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in a region of california.200312602590
benefit-cost analysis of vaccination and preemptive slaughter as a means of eradicating foot-and-mouth disease.to assess relative costs and benefits of vaccination and preemptive herd slaughter to control transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv).200312856762
[characteristics of local anti-aphthous immunity as demonstrated by the titer of foot-and mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle]. 195813547474
rapid serological profiling by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its use as an epidemiological indicator of foot-and-mouth disease viral activity.frequency distribution of reactivity levels of foot-and-mouth disease infection-specific antibodies in livestock populations was analysed. specific antibody responses against non-capsid polyprotein 3abc were assessed through a highly sensitive indirect enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (i-elisa 3abc). a graphic display of data was designed based on three negative and three positive categories to illustrate reactivity patterns. the resulting patterns were correlated to the epidemiological status. ...200312721797
[foot and mouth disease virus in tissue culture in vitro. vi. preparation and titration of anti-foot and mouth disease serum obtained from cattle]. 195813624145
prevalence of seroreagents to fmdv in the cattle population in poland: results of 9-year monitoring studies.the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in sera of cattle in poland. the examinations were performed using the virus neutralization (vn) test and elisa methods: liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) and 3abc-elisa. during 1993-2001, about 681,000 samples of sera collected from animals held on the territory of poland were tested. of about 600,000 sera taken from animals exported to the european union, 963 samples (0.16%) were found to ...200312675463
retrospective genetic analysis of sat-1 type foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in west africa (1975-1981).the complete 1d genome region encoding the immunogenic and phylogenetically informative vp1 gene was genetically characterized for 23 south african territories (sat)-1 viruses causing foot-and-mouth (fmd) disease outbreaks in the west african region between 1975 and 1981. the results indicate that two independent outbreaks occurred, the first involved two west african countries, namely niger and nigeria, whilst the second affected nigeria alone. in the former epizootic, virus circulation spanned ...200312713891
detection of carrier cattle and sheep persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus by a rapid real-time rt-pcr assay.the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in persistently infected carriers among exposed ruminants is of great importance in disease control. for this purpose, a real time, fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-pcr) assay was evaluated for the identification of fmdv carrier animals. the results indicate that this real time rt-pcr assay may be suitable for detection of fmdv carrier animals.200312880924
molecular weapons against agricultural vulnerability and the war on terror.the multiple reports in this issue of the journal from the agenda for action conference, coupled with the analysis by the national academy of sciences, the national research council, and the auditor general (uk) on bioterror preparedness and homeland security, highlight the immediate need for rapid disease detection and advanced diagnostic capabilities to protect the public health, animal agriculture, and the numerous associated economies in the united states. in response to the potentially deva ...200312970863
secretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus and antibody in the saliva of infected and immunized cattle. 196514317611
adaptation of the type c cattle virus of foot-and mouth disease to the brain of the white mouse. 195813594720
adenovirus-mediated type i interferon expression delays and reduces disease signs in cattle challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of livestock. eliminating fmd outbreaks in previously disease-free countries often relies on restriction of animal movement and massive slaughter of infected and in-contact susceptible animals. to develop a more effective and humane fmd control strategy, we explored the possibility of using type i interferon (ifn-alpha/beta) as a novel anti-fmd agent. we have demonstrated previously that swine inoculated with replication-defective ...200314511462
long-term observations on the antibody responses of cattle vaccinated with modified strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. primary responses. 196514330933
development of a novel quantitative real-time rt-pcr assay for the simultaneous detection of all serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spreads extremely fast and the need for rapid and robust diagnostic virus detection systems was obvious during the recent european epidemic. using a novel real-time rt-pcr system based on primer-probe energy transfer (priproet) we present here an assay targeting the 3d gene of fmdv. the assay was validated for the efficacy to detect all known fmdv serotypes. the test method was linear over a range of at least 7 orders of magnitude and the detection limit was b ...200314551821
biological effect of varying peptide binding affinity to the bola-drb3*2703 allele.mhc class i and ii molecules are immunoregulatory cell surface glycoproteins, which selectively bind to and present antigenic peptides to t-lymphocytes. murine and human studies show that variable peptide binding affinity to mhc ii molecules influences th1/th2 responses by inducing distinctive cytokine expression. to examine the biological effects of peptide binding affinity to bovine mhc (bola), various self peptides (bola-dq and fibrinogen fragments) and non-self peptides from ovalbumin (ova), ...200312927080
construction of an infectious chimeric classical swine fever virus containing the 5'utr of bovine viral diarrhea virus, and its application as a universal internal positive control in real-time rt-pcr.rt-pcr is used widely as a diagnostic method to detect and differentiate pestiviruses. the construction of two chimeric classical swine fever virus (csfv) recombinants based on a marker virus constructed previously [j. virol. 72 (1998) 5318-5322] is described. these viruses, termed va187cat_5utrbvd and va187cat_iresbvd, contain the entire 5' untranslated region (5'utr) or the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), respectively. both chimeric viruses proved to ...200314599682
observations on the duration of immunity in cattle after experimental infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus. 196414234053
studies of quantitative parameters of virus excretion and transmission in pigs and cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by a variety of mechanisms and the rate of spread, the incubation period and the severity of disease depend on a multitude of parameters, including the strain of virus, the dose received, the route of introduction, the animal species and the husbandry conditions. more knowledge with regard to these parameters is urgently needed to improve resource-efficient disease control. this report describes detailed studies of fmdv load, excretion and transm ...200314554125
further studies of the early antibody in the sea of cattle and guinea pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus. 196414218596
role of nonstructural proteins 3a and 3b in host range and pathogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) differs from that of other picornaviruses in that it encodes a larger 3a protein (>50% longer than poliovirus 3a), as well as three copies of protein 3b (also known as vpg). previous studies have shown that a deletion of amino acids 93 to 102 of the 153-codon 3a protein is associated with an inability of a taiwanese strain of fmdv (o/taw/97) to cause disease in bovines. recently, an asian virus with a second 3a deletion (amino acids 133 to 143) h ...200314645558
chemical and electrophoretic studies of the serums of cattle infected naturally with asia-1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus. 196113734388
validation of a lightcycler-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the detection of the polymerase gene (3d) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed and validated with an analytical sensitivity of equal to, to 1,000 times higher than that of a single passage virus isolation. the performance of the rt-pcr was determined in 180 runs. after implementation, 5.3% of the tests had to be rejected due to invalid controls (e.g. cross-contamination of negative controls). the diagnostic s ...200314500125
a stochastic-modeling evaluation of the foot-and-mouth-disease survey conducted after the outbreak in miyazaki, japan in 2000.when foot-and-mouth-disease (fmd) was identified in miyazaki prefecture in march 2000, japan conducted an intensive serological and clinical survey in the areas surrounding the index herd. as a result of the survey during the 21 days of the movement-restriction period, two infected herds were detected and destroyed; there were no other cases in the months that followed. to evaluate the survey used for screening the disease-control area and surveillance area, we estimated the herd-level sensitivi ...200314516716
developments in diagnostic techniques for differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically significant disease of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and wild ruminant species. the fmd virus genome encodes a unique polyprotein from which the different viral polypeptides are cleaved by viral proteases, including eight different non-structural proteins (nsps). both structural and non-structural antigens induce the production of antibodies in infected animals. in contrast, vaccinated animals which have not been exposed to replic ...200414623146
induction of an antigen-specific immune response and partial protection of cattle against challenge infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) after lipopeptide vaccination with fmdv-specific b-cell epitopes.to evaluate the potential of chemically synthesized lipopeptides for vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), seven lipopeptides containing the immunostimulating principle of bacterial lipoproteins and linear b-cell epitopes of fmdv strain o(1)kaufbeuren (o(1)k) were used to immunize cattle (n=7). animals were vaccinated once and 21 days after immunization animals were infected with the homologous virus. four animals were protected. after vaccination, as well as after challenge infectio ...200314645912
emergence of a novel subgroup within the widely circulating lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1 in india.the complete vp1 encoding (1d) gene of 54 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype asia1 field isolates, most of which were isolated during 2000 and 2001, was sequenced. the phylogenetic analysis identified a novel subgroup (>10% nucleotide divergence) within the widely circulating lineage of this serotype. the newly emerged viruses were responsible for disease outbreaks in both cattle and buffaloes and were present in six different states in the country. amino acid sequence comparison of the ...200414672859
the risks posed by the importation of animals vaccinated against foot and mouth disease and products derived from vaccinated animals: a review.the terrestrial animal health code of the oie (world organisation for animal health) (the terrestrial code) makes recommendations for international movements of live animals and animal products because of a possible generic risk of foot and mouth disease (fmd) for these different commodities. for instance, international movement of vaccinated live animals or products of such animals is restricted due to the possible masking of clinical disease as a result of vaccination and to the perceived risk ...200315005540
comparable sensitivity and specificity in three commercially available elisas to differentiate between cattle infected with or vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease virus.three commercially available elisas for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were evaluated, using sera from uninfected, vaccinated, infected, inoculated, first vaccinated and subsequently infected, and first vaccinated and subsequently inoculated cattle. we compared antibody kinetics to non-structural proteins, sensitivity, and specificity. one of the elisas had a higher sensitivity and much lower specificity than the other two, there ...200415019100
the ultrastructure of the developing replication site in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bhk-38 cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus of the picornaviridae: infection by picornaviruses results in a major rearrangement of the host cell membranes to create vesicular structures where virus genome replication takes place. in this report, using fluorescence and electron microscopy, membrane rearrangements in the cytoplasm of fmdv-infected bhk-38 cells are documented. at 1.5-2.0 h post-infection, free ribosomes, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, g ...200415039536
extent of reduction of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna load in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid after peak levels may be a critical determinant of virus persistence in infected cattle.to investigate whether foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna loads in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid (op-fluid) in the early course of infection is related to the outcome of virus persistence, viral rna in op-fluid samples from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv type o was quantitatively analysed by using a quantitative real-time rt-pcr. viral rna was detected within 24 h post-infection (p.i.) in all infected animals. rapid virus replication led to peak levels of viral rna load by 30-53 h ...200414769899
validation of a foot-and-mouth disease antibody screening solid-phase competition elisa (spce).this paper describes the validation of a solid-phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (spce) for the serological detection of antibody to serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in sheep, cattle and pigs. the specificity of the spce was calculated from the results of testing known negative sera from sheep, cattle and pigs (n=3030, 1418 and 1495, respectively). the mean percentage inhibition (pi) for known negative sheep, cattle and pig sera were 19.3, 24.1 and 20.8%, respectively. t ...200414667530
a simulation model of intraherd transmission of foot and mouth disease with reference to disease spread before and after clinical diagnosis.intraherd transmission of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was examined using a simulation model for a hypothetical 1,000-cow dairy, assuming clinical diagnosis was made when at least 1% (10 cows) or 5% (50 cows) had clinical signs of fmd, i index case cow, and transition state distributions for the latent, subclinically infectious, and clinically infectious periods of fmd calculated from published data. estimates assumed for the number of animal-to-animal contacts (k) adequate for transmissi ...200414974841
molecular phylogeny of leader proteinase gene of type a of foot-and-mouth disease virus from india.we previously demonstrated the presence of three genotypes (iv, vi and vii) of type a (subtype a22) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in india based on 1d gene sequence analysis. in the present study, the leader proteinase (l(pro)) gene sequences of 35 type a fmdv field isolates sampled over a period of 24 years (1977-2000) have been analyzed. maximum-likelihood (ml) phylogenetic analysis revealed four distinct genetic lineages (a-d), indicating high divergence in l gene of type a fmdv. lin ...200414991441
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in the adamawa province of cameroon.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is one of the most important economic diseases of livestock. most studies of fmdv are done in countries where control measures are being implemented. in contrast, in areas such as sub-saharan africa, where fmdv is endemic and new strains are likely to emerge, there are only sporadic submissions to the world reference laboratory, pirbright, united kingdom. this paper describes the molecular epi ...200415131187
disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia.samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia, were collected during june-august 1999. all 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory ...200415137493
the hand, foot and mouth disease virus capsid: sequence analysis and prediction of antigenic sites from homology modelling.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is the most common aetiological agent detected in cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) resulting in incidences of neurological complications and fatality in recent years. a comparison of the capsid proteins implicated in the pathogenicity of the fatal and non-fatal strains of ev71, reveals a high degree of homology (93%-100% identity). to facilitate diagnostic immunoassays and vaccine development, a consensus structural model for the ev71 coat protein has been devel ...200215130856
no foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission between individually housed calves.the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the netherlands in 2001 most likely started on a mixed veal-calf/dairy-goat farm. the outbreak among the 74 calves on this farm appeared to be limited to four animals, and no clinical signs of fmd were reported. also on a second veal-calf farm minor clinical signs and limited virus transmission were observed. since fmd is known to be a very contagious disease, and can cause severe lesions, these observations were disputed. therefore, we carried out two expe ...200414738779
re-emergence of foot-and-mouth disease in botswana.the re-emergence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in botswana is reported. the disease outbreak occurred in the matsiloje extension area of francistown veterinary district situated in the northeastern part of the country in an office international des épízooties (oie) recognized fmd free zone without vaccination. the disease affected cattle only and did not spillover into sheep and goats resident in the same extension area, as demonstrated by lack of seroconversion to fmd when tested. the virus i ...200415158214
a practitioner's primer on foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by an rna virus of the genus aphthovirus; 7 immunologically distinct serotypes of the virus have been identified. susceptible species are mainly domestic and wild even-toed ungulates, such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, bison, and deer. all body fluids of infected animals can contain the virus and are considered infective. the primary mode of transmission is animal-to-animal transmission through inhalation or ingestion of aerosols containing the virus. the ...200415112774
comparison and analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from animals in korea and other panasia strains.during the last 3 years, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o, named panasia, caused two outbreaks in the republic of korea. to determine if there was an obvious genetic relationship between the virus isolated in 2002 (o/skr/2002) and the o/skr/2000, and to further analyze the epidemiological relationships between the panasia viruses and the viruses identified in korea, the complete nucleotide sequence of the o/skr/2002 and the o/skr/2000 were determined by automatic cycling sequencing and pr ...200415215684
differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth-disease: evaluation of an elisa based on recombinant 3abc.recent devastating outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in europe have reopened the discussion about the adequacy of the non-vaccination strategy implemented by the eu in 1991. here we describe the evaluation of a new commercially available test kit for the discrimination between vaccination and infection. the test is based on the detection of antibodies against the recombinant non-structural (ns) protein 3abc. in contrast to immunization with vaccines free of 3abc, these antibodies are eli ...200415223123
the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in raw and pasteurized milk and milk products.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is not a public health threat, but it is highly contagious to cloven-footed animals. the virus is shed into milk up to 33 h before there are apparent signs of the disease in dairy cows, and, in extreme cases, signs of disease may not appear for up to 14 d. during this time, raw milk can serve as a vector for spread of the disease both at the farm and during transport to the processing plant by milk tanker. raw milk and milk products fed to animals have the ...200415259248
isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus specific bovine antibody fragments from phage display libraries.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an important veterinary pathogen which can cause widespread epidemics. due to the high antigenic variability of fmdv, it is important to undertake mutation analysis under immunological pressure. to study the bovine antibody response at a molecular level, phage display technology was used to produce bovine anti-fmdv fabs. ch1-vh chains with fmdv specific binding could be isolated after selection from a library made from vaccinated cattle. though their involv ...200415087230
risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, african swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the animal by-products regulations. this paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. th ...200415311800
interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with soluble bovine alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta6 integrins.at least four members of the integrin family of receptors, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro. our investigators have recently shown that the efficiency of receptor usage appears to be related to the viral serotype and may be influenced by structural differences on the viral surface (h. duque and b. baxt, j. virol. 77:2500-2511, 2003). to further examine these differences, we generated soluble ...200415331710
comparison of two 3abc enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of multiple-serotype foot-and-mouth disease in a cattle population in an area of endemicity.the development of a serological test for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) which is quick and easy to use, which can identify all seven serotypes, and which can differentiate vaccinated from convalescing or potential virus carriers would be a major advance in the epidemiological toolkit for fmdv. the nonstructural polyprotein 3abc has recently been proposed as such an antigen, and a number of diagnostic tests are being developed. this paper evaluates the performance of two fmdv tests for anti ...200415131177
development and use of a biotinylated 3abc recombinant protein in a solid-phase competitive elisa for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.a biotinylated 3abc recombinant protein was developed and used in a competitive elisa (celisa) to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antibodies in cattle, sheep and pigs. in this report, we describe the cloning and expression of 3abc protein in escherichia coli cells as fusion protein with 6xhis and biotin. this celisa uses streptavidin to capture bacterially expressed and in vivo biotinylated 3abc antigen. the antigen capture strategy provides a simple and reliable method, which does no ...200415288965
quantitative estimates of the risk of new outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease as a result of burning pyres.the risk of dispersing foot-and-mouth disease virus into the atmosphere, and spreading it to susceptible holdings as a result of burning large numbers of carcases together on open pyres, has been estimated for six selected pyres burned during the 2001 outbreak in the uk. the probability of an animal or holding becoming infected was dependent on the estimated level of exposure to the virus predicted from the concentrations of virus calculated by the met office, bracknell. in general, the probabil ...200414979669
recombinant bivalent vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o/a infection in guinea pig.in this study, two dna fragments encoding amino acid (141-160)-(21-140)-(141-160) of the vp1 of fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) serotype o and (138-160)-(21-40)-(138-160) of the serotype a fmdv were chemically synthesized. these two tandem-repeat fragments were ligated and transfected into prokaryotic expression vector ptrchis a to construct pth-o-a. the other vector called pth-o-scigg-a was constructed similarly only that the two tandem-repeat dna fragments were linked by the bovine-igg hea ...200415346195
foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in south american camelids, in dromedaries and bactrians is reviewed. recent well-executed experimental studies in new world camels indicate that, although the llama and alpaca can be infected with fmd virus (fmdv) by direct contact, they are not very susceptible and do not pose a risk in transmitting fmd to susceptible animal species. they do not become fmdv carriers. reports on fmd in dromedaries are, however, conflicting. serological investigations in africa and t ...200415301761
sequencing and analysis for the full-length genome rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus china/99.the complete nucleotide sequence of genomic rna of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain china/99 from infected bovine tongue epithelium is presented. the nucleotide sequence extending from the 5' end of the genomic rna to the 5' end of poly (a) tail contains 8173 nucleotides (nt). its open reading frame, which encodes a single polypeptide of 2332 amino acids, encompasses 6999 nt starting from the initiation codon aug and terminating at the uaa codon 93 bases upstream from the 5' end of pol ...200415382679
sequence variability in the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 field isolates.a total of 30 field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 belonging to two different lineages and five isolates belonging to a divergent group as delineated earlier in 1d (encodingvp1 protein) gene-based phylogeny were sequenced in the structural protein (p1) coding region. phylogenetic comparison of these isolates along with some of the published exotic sequences revealed the presence of five different lineages around the world. similar grouping pattern was observed for ...200415196905
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: specificity at the p2 and p3 positions and comparison with other papain-like enzymes.the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (l(pro)) frees itself from the growing viral polyprotein by self-processing between its own c-terminus and the n-terminus of the subsequent protein vp4. the arglysleulys*glyalaglygln sequence is recognized. the proteinase subsequently cleaves the two isoforms of host cell protein eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4g at the alaasnleugly*argthrthrleu (eif4gi) and leuasnvalgly*serargargser (eif4gii) sequences. the enzyme does not, however, recogni ...200415350134
preserved antigenicity of hiv-1 p24 produced and purified in high yields from plants inoculated with a tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-derived vector.production of structural proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and bovine herpes virus (bhv-1) in nicotiana benthamiana through the use of a tobacco mosaic virus-based vector (tmv-30b) has been reported previously. the development of the tmv-30b-hisc vector, a new version that adds a c-terminal histidine (his) sequence to the foreign protein expressed is described. coding sequences from the fmdv vpl protein and the core protein, p24, from a clade c hiv-1 isolate from zambia were clon ...200415381357
molecular epidemiology of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from cattle in ethiopia between 1979-2001.partial 1d gene characterization was used to study phylogenetic relationships between 17 serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses in ethiopia as well as with other o-type isolates from eritrea, kenya, south and west africa, the middle east, asia and south america. a homologous region of 495 bp corresponding to the c-terminus end of the 1d gene was used for phylogenetic analysis. this study described three lineages, viz. african/middle east-asia, cathay and south american. within lineage i ...200415373335
quantitative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna loads in bovine tissues: implications for the site of viral persistence.to understand better the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the levels of viral rna in various bovine tissues during the acute and persistent stages of fmd virus (fmdv) infection were investigated by using quantitative rt-pcr. the viral rna levels in the tissues examined had peaked by day 1 post-infection (p.i.) and were markedly different among the tissues examined. the epithelium collected from sites of lesion development, i.e. the interdigital area and coronary band on the feet, an ...200415302950
participatory diagnosis of a heat-intolerance syndrome in cattle in tanzania and association with foot-and-mouth disease.a heat-intolerance (hi) syndrome in cattle in tanzania was suspected to be associated with previous, clinical foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). a participatory appraisal (pa) method called "matrix scoring" was used to explore livestock-keeper perceptions of association between hi and cattle diseases. a pa method called 'proportional piling' was used to estimate herd incidence of fmd and other diseases, herd incidence of hi, and association between hi and other cattle diseases. use of matrix scoring ...200415454324
[expression of fmdv vp1 protein in pichia pastoris and its immunological activity in mice].to express and identify bovine o type foot and mouth disease virus protein 1 (fmdv vp1) in yeast pichia pastoris.200415367336
reintroduction of foot-and-mouth disease in argentina: characterisation of the isolates and development of tools for the control and eradication of the disease.this paper describes the antigenic and molecular characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains isolated during the 2000-2002 epidemic in argentina, and the strategy implemented for disease control. two different fmdv serotypes, o and a, were involved. of the various field isolates studied, two distinct o1 lineages (strains corrientes/00 and misiones/00) and two serotype a lineages (a/argentina/00 and a/argentina/01 prototypes) were identified. the genome sequences of these stra ...200415474705
detection of carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus among vaccinated cattle.to investigate and optimise detection of carriers, we vaccinated 15 calves with an inactivated vaccine based on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a turkey strain and challenged them and two further non-vaccinated calves with the homologous virus four weeks later. to determine transmission to a sensitive animal, we put a sentinel calf among the infected cattle from 60 days post-infection until the end of the experiment at 609 days post-infection. samples were tested for the presence of fmdv, vi ...200415504586
new approaches to rapidly control foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.economically, foot-and-mouth disease is the most important viral-induced livestock disease worldwide. the disease is highly contagious and foot-and-mouth disease virus replicates and spreads extremely rapidly. recent outbreaks in previously foot-and-mouth disease-free countries and the potential use of foot-and-mouth disease virus by terrorist groups have demonstrated the vulnerability of countries and the need to develop control strategies that can rapidly inhibit or limit spread of the disease ...200315482155
detection of foot-and-mouth virus antibodies using a purified protein from the high-level expression of codon-optimized, foot-and-mouth disease virus complex epitopes in escherichia coli.a codon optimized dna sequence coding for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein complex epitopes of vp1 amino acid residues 21-40, 135-160, and 200-213 was genetically fused to the c-terminal end of a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) gene in pgex-6p-1 vector with the synonymous codons preferred by escherichia coli . the gene was synthesized using pcr and subsequently expressed in e. coli producing an intracellular, soluble fusion protein that retained antigenicity associated with fmd ...200415483387
foot-and-mouth disease in the americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.foot-and-mouth disease(fmd) was first recorded in south america (sa) circa 1870, in buenos aires, argentina, in uruguay, and in southern brazil as a result of the introduction of cattle from europe during the early days of colonization. livestock production to trade with neighboring countries was established in the la plata region, and the trade of livestock and products with chile, northeastern and central western states of brazil, to peru, bolivia, and paraguay spread fmd, which reached venezu ...200415604472
foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an acute disease that can be lethal for adult laboratory mice.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus that causes an acute vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. this virus continues to be threat to livestock worldwide with outbreaks causing severe economic losses. however, very little is known about fmdv pathogenesis, partially due to the inconveniences of working with cattle and swine, the main natural hosts of the virus. here we demonstrate that c57bl/6 and balb/c adult mice are highly susceptible to fmdv infection when the virus is a ...200515661169
the effect of bovine ifn-alpha on the immune response in guinea pigs vaccinated with dna vaccine of foot-and-mouth disease virus.in this study, we constructed recombinant plasmid pcdna3.1/p12x3c3d including p1, 2a, 3c, 3d and part of 2b gene of fmdv and pcdna3.1/ifn containing the gene encoding bovine ifn-alpha. we inoculated the dna vaccine pcdna3.1/p12x3c3d with or without pcdna3.1/ifn to evaluate the efficiency of this dna vaccine and the immunogenicity of dna vaccine enhanced by the co-delivery with pcdna3.1/ifn. after two times of vaccination with dna vaccine, all of guinea pigs were challenged with 103 id50 fmdv typ ...200415483751
high-level expression of recombinant 3ab1 non-structural protein from fmdv in insect larvae.for its potential usefulness in diagnosis, the non-structural protein 3ab1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus was expressed as a soluble protein by using autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a vector. the 3ab1 coding sequence was introduced into acnpv genome via pbacpak3ab1 transfer vector to originate ac3ab1 recombinant baculovirus of phenotype occ-. rachiplusia nu larvae were injected with supernatants of sf9 cells infected with ac3ab1 and 5 days post-infection total protein ext ...200415664073
the nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/fra/1/2001 and comparison with its british parental strain o/ukg/35/2001.the complete nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/fra/1/2001 (bovine isolate) was determined from five cdna clones covering most of the genome and compared with the british porcine isolate (o/ukg/35/2001) it originated from. seven substitutions, out of which three resulted in amino acid changes (in the leader protease, 3a protein and 3d rna-dependent rna polymerase sequences) were identified and confirmed by direct sequencing of rt-pcr products obtained from in vitro infe ...200515681075
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus type c of indian origin.comparison of nucleotide sequences of the partial 1d region of foot-and-mouth disease type c viruses of indian origin with those of european, south american, and southeast asian viruses revealed that the indian viruses form a distinct genotype. the vaccine strain c ind/51/79 belongs to this genotype and may be a prototype strain of this genotype.200515695720
introduction and history of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been recognized as a significant epidemic disease threatening the cattle industry since the sixteenth century, and in the late nineteenth century it was shown by loeffler and frosch to be caused by a submicroscopic, filterable transmissible agent, smaller than any known bacteria. the agent causing fmd was thus the first virus of vertebrates to be discovered, soon after the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus of plants. it was not until 1920 that a convenient animal ...200515648172
the use of vaccines in south american foot-and-mouth disease eradication programmes.since the beginning of organized campaigns in the 1960s, vaccination has been a major component of national fmd control and eradication programmes in south america. aqueous vaccines were used in the 1960s and 1970s, and the introduction of oil vaccines in the mid 1980s helped to decrease endemism. bi- and trivalent fmd vaccine production increased from 266 thousand doses in 1967 to 580 million doses in 2002. currently, over 200 million cattle are vaccinated twice yearly throughout the continent. ...200415742616
very fast (and safe) inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus and enteroviruses by a combination of binary ethyleneimine and formaldehyde.for fmd vaccine production, inactivation of the fmd virus is the most critical step. formerly, from 1940 onwards, the virus was inactivated with formaldehyde. this inactivation was relatively slow, about 0.2 - 0.3 log 10 per hour. because formaldehyde not only reacts with the virus produced but with many other components in the medium, such as proteins and amino acids, its concentration can become rate-limiting and inactivation plots may show tailing-off, resulting in residual infectivity. many ...200415742659
phylogeny, genome evolution, and antigenic variability among endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus type a isolates from india.the capsid-coding (p1) and 3a regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a field isolates including two vaccine strains collected during 1977-2000 were analyzed. in the phylogenies, the isolates were distributed into two previously identified genotypes vi and vii, with multiple sub-genotypes that are temporally clustered. comparison of the antigenic relationships of field isolates with the two vaccine strains (ind 17/77 and ind 490/97) and the reference strains of the genotypes vi (ind ...200515662482
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected animals from vaccinated animals using a blocking elisa based on baculovirus expressed fmdv 3abc antigen and a 3abc monoclonal antibody.a blocking elisa that differentiated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected animals from vaccinated animals was developed which uses baculovirus expressed fmdv 3abc non-structural protein as antigen and monoclonal antibody against fmdv 3abc non-structural protein as capture and detector antibody. sera from naive, vaccinated and infected cattle, sheep and pigs were examined. the specificity of the test was high. non-specific reactions observed in particular in sera of cattle and sheep could ...200515645377
past and present vaccine development strategies for the control of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) was the first animal virus to be identified. since then, it has become a model system in animal virology and more information has been obtained about fmdv. the disease causes heavy economic crises in enzootic countries both due to loss of animal health and productivity. the only way of its control in an enzootic area is strict vaccination and restricted animal movement. the first experimental vaccine against fmd was made in 1925 using formaldehyde inacti ...200415745043
serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia and the united arab emirates.a total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) distributed in saudi arabia (sa) and the united arab emirates (uae) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine adenovirus 3 (bav-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disea ...200515827212
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