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the serological response against foot and mouth disease virus elicited by repeated vaccination of dairy cattle.in israel, cattle are annually vaccinated against foot and mouth disease (fmd). if infections with fmd virus occur in dairy farms it mainly involves heifers and calves, while older dairy cows seldom become infected. we hypothesized that this difference in susceptibility between adult cows and the young heifers and calves is due to stronger and more stable immune response elicited by multiple vaccinations. in order to test this hypothesis, 99 dairy cattle, divided into six groups according to num ...201627576078
the longevity of anti nsp antibodies and the sensitivity of a 3abc elisa - a 3 years follow up of repeatedly vaccinated dairy cattle infected by foot and mouth disease virus.elisa tests for detection of anti nsp antibodies are extensively used in surveys estimating exposure of livestock to foot and mouth disease virus as a part of endemic and post epidemic surveillance programs. yet, estimation of the longevity of anti nsp antibodies in naturally infected cattle and the sensitivity of elisa tests based on them were rarely studied to date. our research aim was to estimate the long term (up to 1118 days after exposure) change in levels of anti nsp antibodies in dairy ...201525937314
bovine genome-wide association study for genetic elements to resist the infection of foot-and-mouth disease in the field.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and causes severe economic loss and devastating effect on international trade of animal or animal products. since fmd outbreaks have recently occurred in some asian countries, it is important to understand the relationship between diverse immunogenomic structures of host animals and the immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we performed genome wide association study based on high-density bovine ...201525557811
heterozygosity at the snp (rs136500299) of itgb6 receptor gene possibly influences the susceptibility among crossbred bull to foot and mouth disease infection.zebu (bos indicus) cattle are known to be resistant against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) compared to taurine (bos taurus). to understand the susceptibility of two cattle species to fmdv infection in terms of viral receptors, the present study reports the cloning, characterization and sequence analysis of zebu itgb6 gene. the complete cds of zebu itgb6 was 2367 basepair in length with 788 amino acid residues. the zebu integrin shares common structural and functional elements with taurine a ...201526436121
phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in ecuador.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of the most important disease of domestic cattle, foot-and-mouth disease. in ecuador, fmdv is maintained at an endemic state, with sporadic outbreaks. to unravel the tempo and mode of fmdv spread within the country we conducted a bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a continuous time markov chain (ctmc) to model the diffusion of fmdv between ecuadorian provinces. we implement this framework through markov chain monte carlo available i ...201322985683
identification of short hairpin rna targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.although it is known that rna interference (rnai) targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), it has not been previously investigated whether shrnas targeting fmdv in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against fmdv challenge.201222905125
serosurveillance for foot-and-mouth disease in mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) and livestock on the eastern steppe of mongolia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, viral disease that affects most ruminant and porcine species, and periodic outbreaks on mongolia's eastern steppe affect mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) and livestock. during 2005-08, we collected sera from 36 and 57 calf and adult gazelles, respectively, and from adult domestic animals sympatric with the gazelles, including 138 sheep (ovis aries), 140 goats (capra aegagrus hircus), 139 bactrian camels (camelus bactrianus), and 138 cat ...201222247371
role of arginine-56 within the structural protein vp3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o1 campos in virus virulence.fmdv o1 subtype undergoes antigenic variation under diverse growth conditions. of particular interest is the amino acid variation observed at position 56 within the structural protein vp3. selective pressures influence whether histidine (h) or arginine (r) is present at this position, ultimately influencing in vitro plaque morphology and in vivo pathogenesis in cattle. using reverse genetics techniques, we have constructed fmdv type o1 campos variants differing only at vp3 position 56, possessin ...201222036313
Normal variation in thermal radiated temperature in cattle: implications for foot-and-mouth disease detection.ABSTRACT:201122104039
recombinant non-structural polyprotein 3ab-based serodiagnostic strategy for fmd surveillance in bovines irrespective of vaccination.in india, the proportion of bovines vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is increasing since the implementation of the government supported 'fmd control programme', and non-structural protein (nsp)-based serological assays for discriminating between antibodies induced by infection or vaccination (diva) could be useful. the fmd virus nsp 3ab was expressed in a prokaryotic system and an indirect elisa (r3ab(3) i-elisa) was developed and validated as a screening assay for detecting virus ...201121864578
intranasal delivery of cationic plga nano/microparticles-loaded fmdv dna vaccine encoding il-6 elicited protective immunity against fmdv challenge.mucosal vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective means of eliciting protective immunity against aerosol infections of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and various approaches have been used to improve mucosal response to this pathogen. in this study, cationic plga (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) nano/microparticles were used as an intranasal delivery vehicle as a means administering fmdv dna vaccine encoding the fmdv capsid protein and the bovine il-6 gene as a means of enhancing muco ...201122110686
Factors associated with within-herd transmission of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle, during the 2001 outbreak in Argentina: a protective effect of vaccination.Argentina suffered an extensive foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic between July 2000 and January 2002, 3 months after obtaining the official FMD-free without vaccination status conferred by the World Organization for Animal Health. This is one of the largest FMD epidemics controlled by implementation of a systematic mass vaccination campaign in an FMD-free country. In 2000, 124 herds were reported as FMD positive, 2394 herds in 2001 and one in January 2002; the total number of cattle herds in ...201121896154
vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein g carrying a tandem dimer of foot and mouth disease virus antigenic site a can be used as dna and peptide vaccine for cattle.effective foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) peptide vaccines for cattle have two major constraints: resemblance of one or more of the multiple conformations of the major vp1 antigenic sites to induce neutralizing antibodies, and stimulation of t cells despite the variable bovine-mhc polymorphism. to overcome these limitations, a chimeric antigen was developed, using vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (vsv-g) as carrier protein of an in tandem-dimer of fmdv antigenic site a (asa), the majo ...201121889542
Development of a serotype colloidal gold strip using monoclonal antibody for rapid detection type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease.In this study, we developed a rapid, one step colloid gold strip (CGS) capable of specifically detecting type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We have produced two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to type Asia1 FMD (named 1B8 and 5E2). On the test strip, the purified 1B8 labelled with the colloidal gold was used as the detector, and the purified 5E2 and goat anti-mouse antibodies were wrapped onto nitrocellulose (NC) membranes as the test and the control line, respectively. The rapid colloi ...201121880157
increased efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease capsid subunit vaccine expressing nonstructural protein 2b is associated with a specific t cell response.we previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a24 capsid subunit vaccine, ad5-a24, expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (cmv) can protect swine and bovines against homologous challenge, but in a similar approach using swine vaccinated with an ad5-vectored fmdv o1 campos vaccine, ad5-o1c, the animals were only partially protected when challenged at 21 days post-vaccination (dpv). recently, we demonstrated that inclusion of th ...201122027486
virus survival in slurry: analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses.farm slurry can be highly contaminated with viral pathogens. the survival of these pathogens within slurry is important since this material is often distributed onto farm land either directly or after heat treatment. there is clearly some risk of spreading pathogens in the early stages of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three dif ...201122226541
development and laboratory evaluation of two lateral flow devices for the detection of vesicular stomatitis virus in clinical samples.two lateral flow devices (lfd) for the detection of vesicular stomatitis (vs) virus (vsv), types indiana (vsv-ind) and new jersey (vsv-nj) were developed using monoclonal antibodies c1 and f25vsvnj-45 to the respective vsv serotypes. the performance of the lfds was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia and cell culture passage derived supernatants of vsv. the collection of test samples included 105 positive for vsv-ind (92 vesicular epithelial suspensions and 13 cell ...201122230813
a mutant of asia 1 serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of an important antigenic epitope in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the availability of a vaccine for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is crucial for the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). because traditional inactivated vaccines may contain trace nonstructural proteins interfering with the diva, we hypothesized that mutant fmdv with deletion of immunodominant epitopes may be valuable. our previous study has generated a full-l ...201121358757
rapid and transient activation of +¦+¦ t cells to ifn-+¦ production, nk cell-like killing, and antigen processing during acute virus infection.+¦+¦ t cells are the majority peripheral blood t cells in young cattle. the role of +¦+¦ t cells in innate responses against infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus was analyzed on consecutive 5 d following infection. before infection, bovine wc1(+) +¦+¦ t cells expressed a nonactivated phenotype relative to cd62l, cd45ro, and cd25 expression and did not produce ifn-+¦ ex vivo. additionally, cd335 expression was lacking and no spontaneous target cell lysis could be detected in vitro, althoug ...201121383249
absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected indian cattle (bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. we studied the heat intolerance (hi) (panting) syndrome and the effect of fmd virus (fmdv) infection on thyroid gland function in indian cattle (bos indicus). experimental infection with fmdv asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered ani ...201121388520
genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pakistan and afghanistan, 1997-2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and afghanistan; serotypes o, a and asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with fmdv type o usually being the most common. in the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the fmdv capsid protein vp1 from virus samples were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the serotype o fmd viruses circulating in pakistan and afghanistan between 1997 and 2009 revealed the presence of at least three different lineage ...201121419880
antiviral activity of bovine type iii interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most serious threats to the livestock industry. despite the availability of a vaccine, recent outbreaks in disease-free countries have demonstrated that development of novel fmd control strategies is imperative. here we report the identification and characterization of bovine (bo) interferon lambda 3 (ifn-++3), a member of the type iii ifn family. expression of boifn-++3 using a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (ad5-boifn-++3) yielde ...201121435672
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs using antibody-detecting sandwich elisa.the presence of serum antibodies for nonstructural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can differentiate fmdv-infected animals from vaccinated animals. in this study, a sandwich elisa was developed for rapid detection of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) antibodies; it was based on an escherichia coli-expressed, highly conserved region of the 3abc nonstructural protein of the fmdv o/tw/99 strain and a monoclonal antibody derived from the expressed protein. the diagnostic sensitivi ...201121467761
introduction of tag epitopes in the inter-aug region of foot and mouth disease virus: effect on the l protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates translation from two in-frame aug codons producing two forms of the leader (l) proteinase, lab (starting at the first aug) and lb (starting at second aug). in a previous study, we have demonstrated that a cdna-derived mutant fmdv (a24-l1123) containing a 57-nucleotide transposon (tn) insertion between the two aug initiation codons (inter-aug region) was completely attenuated in cattle, suggesting that this region is involved in viral pathogenesis. to ...201120849893
gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant enhance the immune effect of protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.cytokines as molecular adjuvant play a critical role in differentiation of effector t cell subsets and in determination of the magnitude of the response after vaccination. in this study, we investigated the effects of gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant on the immune responses of vp1 recombinant protein as a model antigen for foot and mouth disease.201121214955
epidemic and economic impacts of delayed detection of foot-and-mouth disease: a case study of a simulated outbreak in california.the epidemic and economic impacts of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spread and control were examined by using epidemic simulation and economic (epinomic) optimization models. the simulated index herd was a ≥2,000 cow dairy located in california. simulated disease spread was limited to california; however, economic impact was assessed throughout the united states and included international trade effects. five index case detection delays were examined, which ranged from 7 to 22 days. the simu ...201121217024
evaluation of cross-protection between o1 manisa and o1 campos in cattle vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine incorporating different payloads of inactivated o1 manisa antigen.serology is used to predict vaccine induced protection against challenge with a heterologous strain of the same serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to evaluate the accuracy of such predictions, we compared the protection afforded to cattle vaccinated with the o(1) manisa strain of fmdv against challenge with either a homologous (o(1) manisa) or a heterologous strain (o(1) campos). serology by virus neutralization test (vnt) using o(1) manisa antiserum predicted an acceptable protect ...201121236232
study on seroprevalence, risk factors, and economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease in borena pastoral and agro-pastoral system, southern ethiopia.cross-sectional serological study and questionnaire survey were conducted in borana pastoral and agro-pastoral area to determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) infection and to assess community perceptions as to importance of the disease. a multistage random sampling was carried out to select cattle for seroprevalence and households for interviews. totally, 768 sera were collected from 111 herds. the overall individual level seroprevalence of 23.0% ( ...201121249448
capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus.chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length fmdv cdnas and characterized. the parental virus cdna was derived from the cell-culture-adapted o1kaufbeuren b64 (o1k b64) strain. chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived from the o/ukg/34/2001 or a/turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the o1k b64 cdna, and viable viruses (o1k/o-ukg and o1k/a-tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in ...201121270284
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a and o with emphasis on korean isolates: temporal and spatial dynamics.we determined complete 1d gene sequences for one serotype a and seven additional serotype o korean foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) and then analyzed them together with published sequences for 180 type a and 300 type o isolates from throughout the world using a bayesian coalescent approach. here, korean serotype a virus was linked with those from laos. korean serotype o viruses were divided into three clades and were closely related to isolates from japan, thailand, the uk, france, ireland, ...201121279395
diagnostic performance and application of two commercial cell viability assays in foot-and-mouth disease research.cell-based assays are still used widely in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) research, despite the existence of a wide variety of molecular techniques. the aim of this study was to validate an automated, quantitative spectrometric reading to replace the time-consuming and subjective microscopic (mic) evaluation of the fmd virus-induced cytopathic effect (cpe). therefore, the diagnostic performance of two commercial cell viability assays (celltiter 96(®) aqueous one solution cell proliferation assay ( ...201121295609
rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral rna samples.foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. it is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has a positive sense rna genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus replication.201121298025
bovine plasmacytoid dendritic cells are the major source of type i interferon in response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.type i interferons (alpha/beta interferons [ifn-a/ß]) are the main innate cytokines that are able to induce a cellular antiviral state, thereby limiting viral replication and disease pathology. plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdcs) play a crucial role in the control of viral infections, especially in response to viruses that have evolved mechanisms to block the type i ifn signal transduction pathway. using density gradient separation and cell sorting, we have highly enriched a population of bovine ...201121307187
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for disease control in bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in bangladesh, and to implement an effective fmd control programme, it is essential to understand the complex epidemiology of the disease. here, we report on the characterization of fmd virus (fmdv) recovered from fmd outbreaks in bangladesh in late 2009. all isolated viruses belonged to the fmdv serotype o. the phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all isolates belonged to the middle east-south asia (me-sa) topotype, but fell into two distinct sublineag ...201121320294
integrin sub-unit expression in cell cultures used for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.the ability to propagate foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays an important role in laboratory diagnosis and the production of vaccines to control the spread of the disease. many established cell lines suffer from poor sensitivity for isolating virus from field samples. one possible factor that limits sensitivity to fmdv is the lack of expression of surface integrins, the primary class of cell receptor used by fmdv to initiate infection. in this study we have sequenced cdnas encoding these m ...201121329991
biosecurity and fmd transmission. 201121493485
isolation, identification and complete genome sequence analysis of a strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 from pigs in southwest of china.abstract: backgroud: foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 generally infects cattle and sheep, while its infection of pigs is rarely reported. in 2005-2007, fmd outbreaks caused by asia1 type occurred in many regions of china, as well as some parts of east asia countries. during the outbreaks, there was not any report that pigs were found to be clinically infected. results: in this study, a strain of fmdv that isolated from pigs was identified as serotype asia1, and designated as "a ...201121496298
development and validation of a prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 2c'3ab-based immunochromatographic strip to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals.abstract:201121513550
relationship between clinical signs and transmission of an infectious disease and the implications for control.control of many infectious diseases relies on the detection of clinical cases and the isolation, removal, or treatment of cases and their contacts. the success of such "reactive" strategies is influenced by the fraction of transmission occurring before signs appear. we performed experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle and estimated this fraction at less than half the value expected from detecting virus in body fluids, the standard proxy measure of infectiousness. th ...201121551063
analysis of the acute phase responses of serum amyloid a, haptoglobin and type 1 interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.abstract: a series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". the host response to infection was investigated through measurements of the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (apps) serum amyloid a (saa) and haptoglobin (hp), as well as the bioactivity of type 1 interferon (ifn) in serum of infected anim ...201121592356
control of foot-and-mouth disease. 201121602410
[diversity of receptor recognition site of type asial foot-and-mouth disease virus].foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection by binding to integrin receptors via a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) sequence found in the g-h loop of the structural protein vp1. however, fmdv is an rna virus, which harbors the evolutionary potential to render the rgd motif dispensable upon changes in constant environment. we studied mutation of rgd motif upon short-time passages fmdv asial/js/china/2005 field strain in different host.201121604558
the importance of fmdv localisation in lymphoid tissue.foot-and-mouth disease virus, a highly contagious pathogen that can cause lameness, low weight and decreased milk production, is a scourge of agricultural livestock around the world. although the acute phase of infection is rarely fatal, infection may persist in animals that have apparently recovered, creating a viral reservoir that some fear could contribute to the spread of disease. we have used an array of molecular techniques to search for traces of virus in tissues from the mouths and throa ...201121616546
multiplex rt-pcr detection and microarray typing of vesicular disease viruses.a vesicular disease multiplex reverse transcription (rt)-pcr with an accompanying microarray assay was developed for simultaneous detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv). the multiplex rt-pcr successfully detected viral rna from a collection of 49 strains of vesicular viruses, including multiple strains from all seven serotypes of f ...201121620898
genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle.farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. a complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. however, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforw ...201121621277
virus inactivation by salt (nacl) and phosphate supplemented salt in a 3d collagen matrix model for natural sausage casings.due to possible presence and spread of contagious animal viruses via natural sausage casings the international trade in these food products is subject to veterinary and public health requirements. in order to manage these restrictions we determined the effect of casing preservation on four highly contagious viruses for livestock: foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) and african swine fever virus (asfv). we used an in vitro ...201121632134
validation of a recombinant integrin αvβ6/monoclonal antibody based antigen elisa for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.a sandwich elisa using recombinant integrin αvβ6 as a capture ligand and serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) as detecting reagents has been compared with a polyclonal antibody based elisa (using type-specific rabbit antibodies as capture and guinea pig antibodies as detectors), which is employed routinely at the fao world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), for the identification and serotyping of fmd virus (fmdv). the study used cell culture grown antigens (1351 fm ...201121635921
foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus: quantification of whole virus particles during the vaccine manufacturing process by size exclusion chromatography.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. the efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles. the recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140s quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. this method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highl ...201121651939
expression of foot and mouth disease virus nonstructural polyprotein 3abc with inactive 3c(pro) in escherichia coli.nonstructural 3abc protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was widely used to differentiate vaccinated from natural fmdv-infected animals. 3abc is a polyprotein which is auto-processed to 3a, three copies of 3b and 3c(pro) by 3c(pro) protease. the 3abc gene was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli as native or mutated 3abc (mu3abc) forms. cysteine residues 142 and 163 of the catalytic triad within the 3c(pro) of mu3abc were changed to serine and glycine, respectively, to inhibit its p ...201121810474
the codon usage model of the context flanking each cleavage site in the polyprotein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.to investigate the codon usage pattern of the contexts flanking 11 cleavage sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polyprotein, the codon usage model of the corresponding codon position and the synonymous codon usage in the target contexts of 66 strains were characterized by two simple methods based on the relative synonymous codon usage value. the synonymous codons usage pattern was also compared between this virus and two species of hosts (cattle and domestic pig). it is indicated that f ...201121801856
differential effects of viral vectors on migratory afferent lymph dendritic cells in vitro predicts enhanced immunogenicity in vivo.targeting dendritic cells (dc) is key to driving effective immune responses. lymphatic cannulation provides access to the heterogeneous populations of dc draining peripheral sites in rodents and ruminants. afferent lymph dec-205(+)cd11c(+)sirpa(+) dc were preferentially infected ex vivo with three vaccine viral vectors: replication defective human adenovirus-5 (rhuadv5); modified vaccinia virus ankara (rmva) and fowlpox virus (rfpv) all expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp). the rhuadv5 inf ...201121752909
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle: investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistence.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral infection of significant financial importance to the export and trade of agricultural products. the occurrence of persistently infected "carriers" of fmd-virus (fmdv) in ruminant species adds further complications to disease control. there have been significant discrepancies in reports regarding the pathogenesis of fmdv infection in cattle with specific emphasis on the anatomical sites involved in early and persistent virus replication. i ...201121831538
in-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-rgd receptor recognition sites.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) uses a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. previous sequence analyses of the 1d-encoding region of an fmdv field isolate (asia1/js/cha/05) and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an arg-asp-asp (rdd) or an arg-ser-asp (rsd) triplet instead of the rgd integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution ...201121711567
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the breath of infected cattle using a hand-held device to collect aerosols.exhaled air of individual cattle infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was sampled to assess the feasibility of a rapid, non-invasive general screening approach for identifying sources of fmdv infection. the air sampler used was a handheld prototype device employing electrostatic particle capture in a microchip chamber of 10-15╬╝l and was shown to effectively capture a high percentage of airborne microorganisms. the particles were eluted subsequently from the chip cham ...201121723882
[foot and mouth disease virus keeps lurking around the corner]. 201121702179
predicting antigenic sites on the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid of the south african territories (sat) types using virus neutralization data.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outer capsid proteins 1b, 1c and 1d contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. this study presents phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analyses of south african territories (sat) serotypes prevalent in sub-saharan africa. here, we show that the high levels of genetic diversity in the p1-coding region within the sat serotypes are reflected in the antigenic properties of these viruses and t ...201121697350
Validation of an r3AB1-FMDV-NSP ELISA to distinguish between cattle infected and vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus.Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock which has a drastic economic impact for affected countries. Although FMDV is distributed worldwide, many regional programs have been effective eradicating this agent. In Argentina, as in many other regions of South America, the combination of a systematic vaccination plan, together with an effective detection system capable of differentiating infection from vaccination, has been successful for eradicating this ...201121946290
fmd virus epitope dominance in the antibody response of vaccinated animals.five neutralising antigenic sites have been identified on the surface of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus. a set of mab neutralisation escape mutant viruses were used for the first time to evaluate the relative use of known binding sites by polyclonal antibodies from three target species, cattle, sheep and pigs. antibodies to all the five neutralising antigenic sites were detected in all the three species, with most antibodies directed against antigenic site 2, followed by antigenic site ...201122158876
Identification of H-2d restricted T cell epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein VP1.Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and devastating disease affecting livestock that causes significant financial losses. Therefore, safer and more effective vaccines are required against Foot-and-mouth disease virus(FMDV). The purpose of this study is to screen and identify an H-2d restricted T cell epitope from the virus structural protein VP1, which is present with FMD. We therefore provide a method and basis for studying a specific FMDV T cell epitope.201121896206
Cattle remain immunocompetent during the acute phase of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.ABSTRACT: Infection of cattle with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) results in the development of long-term protective antibody responses. In contrast, inactivated antigen vaccines fail to induce long-term protective immunity. Differences between susceptible species have also been observed during infection with FMDV, with cattle often developing persistent infections whilst pigs develop more severe symptoms and excrete higher levels of virus. This study examined the early immune response to F ...201122014145
An overview on ELISA techniques for FMD.FMD is one of the major causes of economic loss of cloven-hoofed animals in the world today. The assessment of dominant genotype/lineage and prevalent trends and confirmation the presence of infection or vaccination not only provides scientific basis and first-hand information for appropriate control measure but also for disease eradication and regaining FMD free status following an outbreak. Although different biological and serological approaches are still applied to study this disease, ELISA ...201121888667
the infectivity and pathogenicity of a foot-and-mouth disease virus persistent infection strain from oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid of a chinese cattle in 2010.abstract: background: foot-and mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, febrile, and contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. some animals may become persistent infected carriers when they contact fmd virus (fmdv), and persistent infected animals are a dangerous factor to cause fmd outbreak. findings: 300 op (oesophageal-pharyngeal) fluid samples were collected from cattle without clinic symptom after one month fmd circulated in 2010 in china. a fmdv strain was isolated when a posi ...201122166050
Modulation of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Pharyngeal Epithelial Samples obtained from Cattle Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.A novel technique of endoscopical collection of small tissue samples was used to obtain sequential tissue samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of individual cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) at different phases of the infection. Levels of mRNA encoding interferon (IFN)-a and IFN-ß as well as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a were measured in these samples by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Expression of IFN-ß mRNA was significantly down-regu ...201121868026
an elisa based on the repeated foot-and-mouth disease virus 3b epitope peptide can distinguish infected and vaccinated cattle.to develop a strategy of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a short (27aa) peptide containing three conserved linear b cell epitopes of the fmdv 3b nonstructural protein was designed. this novel bf peptide was synthesized using a gene splicing by overlap extension protocol with preferred codons for escherichia coli. the resultant eight tandem repeat multimer (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, and 32bf) were expressed as soluble fusion proteins ...201122207215
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus from outbreaks in ecuador during 2009-2010 and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.during the years 2009 and 2010 relevant epidemic waves of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o occurred in ecuador, representing a great drawback for the last stages of the ongoing eradication program in south america. this study describes the molecular and antigenic characterizations of 29 isolates collected from various regions in the country and their relationship to the vaccine strain. the phylogenetic tree derived from sequences spanning the complete vp(1) protein showed that, despite th ...201121911020
serotype identification and vp1 coding sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from outbreaks in eastern and northern uganda in 2008/9.in april 2008, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks were reported in kamuli district of the eastern region of uganda. soon after lifting the quarantines in this area, further fmd outbreaks were reported in northern uganda, which spread to more than 10 districts. the aim of this study was to identify the serotype and compare the variable protein (vp)1 coding sequences of the viruses responsible for fmd outbreaks during 2008 and 2009, to trace the transmission pathways of the disease in uganda. ...201122117844
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in various bovine tissues used for the production of natural sausage casings.bovine intestines, bladders and oesophagus are used for the production of natural casings ("beef casings") as edible sausage containers. derived from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv (initial dosage 10(4) tcid(50)/ml, strain a iran 97), these beef casings were treated with sodium chloride (nacl) or phosphate supplemented salt (p-salt). in addition, different in-vitro experiments using beef casings were done on a small scale with other fmdv strains (a turkey 06, c-oberbayern and o(1) mani ...201122137684
cpg oligodeoxynucleotide and montanide isa 206 adjuvant combination augments the immune responses of a recombinant fmdv vaccine in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. to prevent the spread of fmdv, inactivated virus vaccines are used to immunize animals in developing countries. however, there are safety concerns. in addition, it is difficult to distinguish the vaccinated animals from those naturally infected ones. in our lab, we have developed a recombinant fmdv vaccine named a7. a7 contained multiple b cell and t cell epitopes, which reside in a capsid protein (vp1) of fmdv ...201121872635
rt-pcr evaluation for identification and sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan.fmd clinically positive 250 tissue samples (mouth and hoof epithelium and vesicle swabs, tongue tissue) and 175 secretion samples (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) were evaluated by rt-pcr for the diagnosis of fmd with different pair of universal and serotype-specific primers from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan. universal primer pair p1/p2 from vp1 gene detected fmd in 182 out of 250 (72.8%) tissues and 92 out of 175 (52.6%) secretion samples, while universal primer 1f/1r from 5'utr region detecte ...201120031216
difference in the level of interferon gamma mrna transcripts on stimulation of cattle and buffalo mononuclear cells with foot and mouth disease virus-antigen: a possible role of sequence variation in promoter region.in an attempt to resolve the claim that buffaloes differ from cattle in disease progression, this study was undertaken to compare the mitogen (cona) or antigen (foot and mouth disease virus) induced expression levels of interferon gamma (ifn-γ mrna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) by real-time quantitative pcr. in general, the levels of ifn-γ mrna were lower in buffaloes than in crossbred cattle. significantly higher levels of ifn-γ mrna were also observed in crossbred cattle when i ...201120541234
foot-and-mouth disease: the question of implementing vaccinal control during an epidemic.the question of whether or not to use vaccines during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has interested veterinary administrators for many decades. this review assesses the historical uses, successes and failures of vaccinal control, and addresses the questions of where, how, and when to use vaccination against fmd. approaching the problem in this manner can aid in identifying which tools are likely to be most effective during an epidemic, and how successful a given contingency plan mig ...201120350828
outbreak investigations and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in ethiopia in 2008/2009.the study was conducted in three regional states of ethiopia: amhara, oromia, and addis ababa from august 2008 to april 2009 with the objectives of identifying the genetic diversity of serotypes and topotypes in ethiopia, and determining the attack rate and associations of potential risk factors with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) seropositivity. a total of 496 cattle were clinically and serologically examined for presence of specific lesions and nonstructural protein for fmd, respectively. of whi ...201120717724
modelling foot-and-mouth disease virus dynamics in oral epithelium to help identify the determinants of lysis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed livestock; of interest here is the difference in lytic behaviour that is observed in bovine epithelium. on the skin around the feet and tongue, the virus rapidly replicates, killing cells, and resulting in growing lesions, before eventually being cleared by the immune response. in contrast, there is usually minimal lysis in the soft palate, but virus may persist in tissue long after the animal has recov ...201120725794
meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination.the objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of fmd emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret the results. peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. clinical protection and virological protection against fmd were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of ...201120869130
enhancement of dna vaccine (p12a3c-pcdna) efficacy against foot-and-mouth disease by coadministration of interleukin-18-expressing (il18 pcdna) plasmid in guinea-pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. the presently used tissue-cultured inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration of immunity. as one of the approaches to develop alternative vaccines, p12a3c-pcdna (containing p12a and 3c coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus) and bovine il18 pcdna plasmids were constructed and the immune response of these constr ...201021039923
risk evaluation of nonvaccinated, weaned calves transported through areas under systematic foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccination.the recurrence and persistence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) could be the consequence of cyclic and massive transportation of calves. for this reason, in south america, vaccination strategies related to livestock dynamic are being promoted. in order to aid the evaluation of such strategies, a method for predicting the risk of transportation of nonvaccinated weaned calves was developed; this method combines expert opinion and empirical evidence using bayesian estimators. it was applied through ...201021071104
regulation of iga responses in cattle, humans and mice.secretory iga (siga) constitutes the largest component of the humoral immune system of the body with gram quantities of this isotype produced by mammals on a daily basis. secretory iga (siga) antibodies function by both blocking pathogen/commensal entry at mucosal surfaces and virus neutralization. several pathways of induction of iga responses have been described which depend on t cells (t cell dependent or td) pathways or are independent of t cells (t-independent or ti) and are mediated by den ...201021074276
the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in sarpang and zhemgang districts of bhutan.this study was undertaken to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in two districts of sarpang and zhemgang in bhutan. zhemgang district recorded a significantly higher cumulative incidence in all species (26.9%) as well as for cattle (29.3%) compared to sarpang (6.5% and 7.4%, respectively). the case fatality for cattle in zhemgang (14.1%) was significantly higher than in sarpang (3.3%). a total of 404 cattle and 73 pigs died of fmd in zhemgang, ...201021078083
development of a dot immunoblot method for differentiation of animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus from vaccinated animals using non-structural proteins expressed prokaryotically.five non-structural proteins (nsps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed in e. coli to develop a dot immunoblot (dot blot) assay for the differentiation of fmdv infected animals from vaccinated animals (diva). the five nsps were 3a (24 kda), 3b (15 kda), major b-cell epitope regions of 2c (23 kda), partial 3d (44 kda) and 3abc (59 kda). the criteria for the dot blot were determined and are described as follows: a test sample is considered positive if four or more nsps demonstrat ...201021087638
fmd subunit vaccine produced using a silkworm-baculovirus expression system: protective efficacy against two type asia1 isolates in cattle.cattle vaccinated with a single dose of subunit vaccine containing the capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain were protected when challenged 28 days later with a homologous virus. here, the 50% bovine protective dose (pd(50)) test was performed to assess the potency of the subunit vaccine. when challenged with two chinese isolates, the subunit vaccine could achieve 6.5 pd(50) (challenged with asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain) and 5.2 pd(50 ...201021109368
foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus within the picornaviridae family. infection of cells with positive-strand rna viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. the origin of these membranes remains unknown; however induction of the cellular process of autophagy is beneficial for the replication of poliovirus, suggesting that it might be advantageous for other picornaviruses. by using confocal microscop ...201021112602
quantitative trait loci for variation in immune response to a foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide.infectious disease of livestock continues to be a cause of substantial economic loss and has adverse welfare consequences in both the developing and developed world. new solutions to control disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. however, identifying selectable markers and the causal genes involved in disease resistance and vaccine response is not straightforward. the aims of this study we ...201021138580
sequence-based prediction for vaccine strain selection and identification of antigenic variability in foot-and-mouth disease virus.identifying when past exposure to an infectious disease will protect against newly emerging strains is central to understanding the spread and the severity of epidemics, but the prediction of viral cross-protection remains an important unsolved problem. for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) research in particular, improved methods for predicting this cross-protection are critical for predicting the severity of outbreaks within endemic settings where multiple serotypes and subtypes commonly co- ...201021151576
beyond the consensus: dissecting within-host viral population diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus by using next-generation genome sequencing.the diverse sequences of viral populations within individual hosts are the starting material for selection and subsequent evolution of rna viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using next-generation sequencing (ngs) performed on a genome analyzer platform (illumina), this study compared the viral populations within two bovine epithelial samples (foot lesions) from a single animal with the inoculum used to initiate experimental infection. genomic sequences were determined in duplic ...201021159860
a differential elisa based on recombinant immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene of shv-1 in a baculovirus-insect cell system to discriminate between pigs infected naturally with pseudorabies and vaccinated pigs.in the present study, the fragment corresponding to the immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene (gepi) from the cl15 argentinean strain of pseudorabies virus was expressed successfully in a baculovirus-insect cell system that contained the m6 gene of bluetongue virus, which encodes the ns1 nonstructural protein. this protein has the ability to polymerize into highly immunogenic tubules inside infected cells that can be purified at large quantities by ultracentrifugation. previously, the ns1 prote ...201021168443
foot-and-mouth disease virus exhibits an altered tropism in the presence of specific immunoglobulins, enabling productive infection and killing of dendritic cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an acute vesicular disease of farm animals. the development of successful control strategies is limited by an incomplete understanding of the immune response to fmdv. dendritic cells (dc) mediate the induction of immunity to pathogens, but their role in fmdv infection of cattle is uncharacterized. bovine monocyte-derived dc (modc) were exposed to integrin-binding and cell culture-adapted strains of fmdv in vitro. modc were not largely susceptible to inf ...201021177807
inhibitors of foot and mouth disease virus targeting a novel pocket of the rna-dependent rna polymerase.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus that infects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to severe losses in livestock production. in the case of an fmd outbreak, emergency vaccination requires at least 7 days to trigger an effective immune response. there are currently no approved inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of fmdv infections.201021203539
genetic characterization of the cell-adapted panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/fujian/cha/5/99 isolated from swine.according to office international des epizooties (oie) bulletin, the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was invaded into the people's republic of china in may 1999. it was confirmed that the outbreaks occurred in tibet, hainan and fujian provinces. in total, 1280 susceptible animals (68 cattle, 1212 swine) were destroyed for the epidemic control.to investigate the distinct biological properties, we performed plaque assay, estimated the pathogenicity in suckling mice and determ ...201020807416
specific detection of rinderpest virus by real-time reverse transcription-pcr in preclinical and clinical samples from experimentally infected cattle.a highly sensitive detection test for rinderpest virus (rpv), based on a real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr)system, was developed. five different rpv genomic targets were examined, and one was selected and optimized to detect viral rna in infected tissue culture fluid with a level of detection ranging from 0.59 to 87.5 50% tissue culture infectious doses (tcid(50)) per reaction depending on the viral isolate. the strain sensitivity of the test was validated on 16 rpv strains belonging ...201020844216
a mutant of infectious asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of 10-amino-acid in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 is one of the most predominant endemic serotypes in china. our previous study has generated a full-length cdna clone (pbsas) of an asia 1 serotype fmdv (as1/cha/05) isolated from bovine. to further study the properties of this virus, a mutant in the 3a region of the cdna clone (pbsas-3a10d), containing the deletion at position 93-102 of the 3a protein of as1/cha/05, was generated by pcr and cloning. after synthesis of rna in vitro and transfect ...201020844943
molecular characterization and expression analysis of porcine integrins alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 that are potentially involved in fmdv infection.in the present study, we report the sequences and characterization of the porcine integrin cdnas encoding alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits and compare them to those of other species. the coding sequences for the porcine alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits were found to be 3141, 2289, 2367 and 2304 nucleotides in length, encoding 1046, 762, 788 and 767-amino-acid-residue protein, respectively. the porcine integrin alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunit shares common structural and func ...201020438833
development of a peptide-based immunochromatographic strip for differentiation of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs.an immunochromatographic strip for discriminating foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected from vaccinated pigs was developed based on synthetic peptide. five peptides designed from the amino acid sequences of nonstructural proteins (nsp) of fmdv were synthesized, and pep5 located in nsp 3b reacted strongly with serum from fmdv-infected pigs but did not react with serum samples from healthy vaccinated pigs. an immunochromatographic strip was developed by using colloidal gold labeled with pep ...201020453216
evaluation of infectivity and transmission of different asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine.most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) display a broad host range. since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of panasia topotype fmdv serotype o has caused epidemics in the far east, africa, the united kingdom, france, the netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout europe and asia. in contrast, there are several fmdv isolates that exhibit a more restricted host range. a cathay topotype isolate of fmdv serotype o from the 1997 epizootic in taiwan (o/taw/97) demonstrated re ...201020458154
differential gene expression in bovine cells infected with wild type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. molecular studies have demonstrated that l(pro) inhibits translation of host capped mrnas and transcription of some genes involved in the innate immune response. we have used microarray technology to study the gene expression profile of bovine cells infected with wild type (wt) or leaderless fmdv. thirty nine out of approximately 22,000 bovine genes were selectively up-regulated by ...201020494391
the efficacy of fmd vaccine reduced non-structural proteins with a mab against 3b protein.a monoclonal antibody, 3bigg, against the prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein (nsp) 3b was obtained. the 3bigg-sepharose conjugant (3bmab-6bff) was prepared by adding the purified 3bigg into epoxy-activated sepharose 6bff, incubating with the inactivated fmdv, and then removing the sepharose by centrifugation. the vaccine was made from the supernatant emulsified with oil-adjuvant isa206. ten guinea pigs, 26 pigs and six cattle were vaccinated, and ...201020512625
foot and mouth disease in animals in sharkia governorate - egypt.this study was carried out to determine the current state of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in different animal species in sharkia governorate in egypt. in addition, we investigated the spreading of the virus through water and soil in the animal environment as well as by rodents. the isolation rates of fmd virus in tissue culture were 39.6%, 11.4%, 41.2% and 100% for cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat respectively. all animals did not show any clinical signs for fmd. in addition, the virus was isolat ...201020537095
qualitative assessment of the commodity risk for spread of foot-and-mouth disease associated with international trade in deboned beef.the risk of importing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) restricts trade in livestock and their products from parts of the world where the virus is present. this reduces trade opportunities and investment in the livestock sector of many developing countries and constrains global food supply. this review focuses on the risks associated with trade in deboned beef (db) from foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-infected cattle, countries or zones. a definition of db is provided along with a description of ...201020569417
status of foot-and-mouth disease in pakistan.the present study reports the distribution of different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in pakistan during the period 1952-2007. during this time, a total of 1,543 epithelial samples out of 2,484 tested were found positive for various serotypes of fmdv. serotype o was found to be the most prevalent (p < 0.001) followed by serotype asia-1 and a. serotype c was detected only in 1954, 1963 and 1995. the disease was found to be more prevalent (p < 0.0001) in cattle than buffaloes. t ...201020571838
a simulation model for the potential spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the castile and leon region of spain.a spatial stochastic model was used to simulate the spread of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in the castile-and-leon (cyl) region of spain. the model was fitted using information available on premises demographics and on assumptions for animal movements, indirect contacts, and airborne exposure. control measures dictated by spanish and european union regulations constituted a reference strategy to which six alternative control strategies were compared. for the reference strategy, the me ...201020579754
domain disruptions of individual 3b proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus do not alter growth in cell culture or virulence in cattle.picornavirus rna replication is initiated by a small viral protein primer, 3b (also known as vpg), that is covalently linked to the 5' terminus of the viral genome. in contrast to other picornaviruses that encode a single copy of 3b, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) encodes three copies of 3b. viruses containing disrupted native sequence or deletion of one of their three 3b proteins were derived from a fmdv a24 cruzeiro full-length cdna infectious clone. mutant viruses had growth characterist ...201020580394
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