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predicting antigenic sites on the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid of the south african territories (sat) types using virus neutralization data.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outer capsid proteins 1b, 1c and 1d contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. this study presents phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analyses of south african territories (sat) serotypes prevalent in sub-saharan africa. here, we show that the high levels of genetic diversity in the p1-coding region within the sat serotypes are reflected in the antigenic properties of these viruses and t ...201121697350
multiplex rt-pcr detection and microarray typing of vesicular disease viruses.a vesicular disease multiplex reverse transcription (rt)-pcr with an accompanying microarray assay was developed for simultaneous detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv). the multiplex rt-pcr successfully detected viral rna from a collection of 49 strains of vesicular viruses, including multiple strains from all seven serotypes of f ...201121620898
genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle.farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. a complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. however, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforw ...201121621277
difference in the level of interferon gamma mrna transcripts on stimulation of cattle and buffalo mononuclear cells with foot and mouth disease virus-antigen: a possible role of sequence variation in promoter region.in an attempt to resolve the claim that buffaloes differ from cattle in disease progression, this study was undertaken to compare the mitogen (cona) or antigen (foot and mouth disease virus) induced expression levels of interferon gamma (ifn-γ mrna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) by real-time quantitative pcr. in general, the levels of ifn-γ mrna were lower in buffaloes than in crossbred cattle. significantly higher levels of ifn-γ mrna were also observed in crossbred cattle when i ...201120541234
validation of a recombinant integrin αvβ6/monoclonal antibody based antigen elisa for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.a sandwich elisa using recombinant integrin αvβ6 as a capture ligand and serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) as detecting reagents has been compared with a polyclonal antibody based elisa (using type-specific rabbit antibodies as capture and guinea pig antibodies as detectors), which is employed routinely at the fao world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), for the identification and serotyping of fmd virus (fmdv). the study used cell culture grown antigens (1351 fm ...201121635921
foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus: quantification of whole virus particles during the vaccine manufacturing process by size exclusion chromatography.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. the efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles. the recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140s quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. this method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highl ...201121651939
expression of foot and mouth disease virus nonstructural polyprotein 3abc with inactive 3c(pro) in escherichia coli.nonstructural 3abc protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was widely used to differentiate vaccinated from natural fmdv-infected animals. 3abc is a polyprotein which is auto-processed to 3a, three copies of 3b and 3c(pro) by 3c(pro) protease. the 3abc gene was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli as native or mutated 3abc (mu3abc) forms. cysteine residues 142 and 163 of the catalytic triad within the 3c(pro) of mu3abc were changed to serine and glycine, respectively, to inhibit its p ...201121810474
the codon usage model of the context flanking each cleavage site in the polyprotein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.to investigate the codon usage pattern of the contexts flanking 11 cleavage sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polyprotein, the codon usage model of the corresponding codon position and the synonymous codon usage in the target contexts of 66 strains were characterized by two simple methods based on the relative synonymous codon usage value. the synonymous codons usage pattern was also compared between this virus and two species of hosts (cattle and domestic pig). it is indicated that f ...201121801856
differential effects of viral vectors on migratory afferent lymph dendritic cells in vitro predicts enhanced immunogenicity in vivo.targeting dendritic cells (dc) is key to driving effective immune responses. lymphatic cannulation provides access to the heterogeneous populations of dc draining peripheral sites in rodents and ruminants. afferent lymph dec-205(+)cd11c(+)sirpa(+) dc were preferentially infected ex vivo with three vaccine viral vectors: replication defective human adenovirus-5 (rhuadv5); modified vaccinia virus ankara (rmva) and fowlpox virus (rfpv) all expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp). the rhuadv5 inf ...201121752909
fmd virus epitope dominance in the antibody response of vaccinated animals.five neutralising antigenic sites have been identified on the surface of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus. a set of mab neutralisation escape mutant viruses were used for the first time to evaluate the relative use of known binding sites by polyclonal antibodies from three target species, cattle, sheep and pigs. antibodies to all the five neutralising antigenic sites were detected in all the three species, with most antibodies directed against antigenic site 2, followed by antigenic site ...201122158876
Identification of H-2d restricted T cell epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein VP1.Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and devastating disease affecting livestock that causes significant financial losses. Therefore, safer and more effective vaccines are required against Foot-and-mouth disease virus(FMDV). The purpose of this study is to screen and identify an H-2d restricted T cell epitope from the virus structural protein VP1, which is present with FMD. We therefore provide a method and basis for studying a specific FMDV T cell epitope.201121896206
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a and o with emphasis on korean isolates: temporal and spatial dynamics.we determined complete 1d gene sequences for one serotype a and seven additional serotype o korean foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) and then analyzed them together with published sequences for 180 type a and 300 type o isolates from throughout the world using a bayesian coalescent approach. here, korean serotype a virus was linked with those from laos. korean serotype o viruses were divided into three clades and were closely related to isolates from japan, thailand, the uk, france, ireland, ...201121279395
An overview on ELISA techniques for FMD.FMD is one of the major causes of economic loss of cloven-hoofed animals in the world today. The assessment of dominant genotype/lineage and prevalent trends and confirmation the presence of infection or vaccination not only provides scientific basis and first-hand information for appropriate control measure but also for disease eradication and regaining FMD free status following an outbreak. Although different biological and serological approaches are still applied to study this disease, ELISA ...201121888667
diagnostic performance and application of two commercial cell viability assays in foot-and-mouth disease research.cell-based assays are still used widely in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) research, despite the existence of a wide variety of molecular techniques. the aim of this study was to validate an automated, quantitative spectrometric reading to replace the time-consuming and subjective microscopic (mic) evaluation of the fmd virus-induced cytopathic effect (cpe). therefore, the diagnostic performance of two commercial cell viability assays (celltiter 96(®) aqueous one solution cell proliferation assay ( ...201121295609
Modulation of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Pharyngeal Epithelial Samples obtained from Cattle Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.A novel technique of endoscopical collection of small tissue samples was used to obtain sequential tissue samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of individual cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) at different phases of the infection. Levels of mRNA encoding interferon (IFN)-a and IFN-ß as well as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a were measured in these samples by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Expression of IFN-ß mRNA was significantly down-regu ...201121868026
an elisa based on the repeated foot-and-mouth disease virus 3b epitope peptide can distinguish infected and vaccinated cattle.to develop a strategy of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a short (27aa) peptide containing three conserved linear b cell epitopes of the fmdv 3b nonstructural protein was designed. this novel bf peptide was synthesized using a gene splicing by overlap extension protocol with preferred codons for escherichia coli. the resultant eight tandem repeat multimer (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, and 32bf) were expressed as soluble fusion proteins ...201122207215
study on seroprevalence, risk factors, and economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease in borena pastoral and agro-pastoral system, southern ethiopia.cross-sectional serological study and questionnaire survey were conducted in borana pastoral and agro-pastoral area to determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) infection and to assess community perceptions as to importance of the disease. a multistage random sampling was carried out to select cattle for seroprevalence and households for interviews. totally, 768 sera were collected from 111 herds. the overall individual level seroprevalence of 23.0% ( ...201121249448
a mutant of asia 1 serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of an important antigenic epitope in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the availability of a vaccine for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is crucial for the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). because traditional inactivated vaccines may contain trace nonstructural proteins interfering with the diva, we hypothesized that mutant fmdv with deletion of immunodominant epitopes may be valuable. our previous study has generated a full-l ...201121358757
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in various bovine tissues used for the production of natural sausage casings.bovine intestines, bladders and oesophagus are used for the production of natural casings ("beef casings") as edible sausage containers. derived from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv (initial dosage 10(4) tcid(50)/ml, strain a iran 97), these beef casings were treated with sodium chloride (nacl) or phosphate supplemented salt (p-salt). in addition, different in-vitro experiments using beef casings were done on a small scale with other fmdv strains (a turkey 06, c-oberbayern and o(1) mani ...201122137684
cpg oligodeoxynucleotide and montanide isa 206 adjuvant combination augments the immune responses of a recombinant fmdv vaccine in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. to prevent the spread of fmdv, inactivated virus vaccines are used to immunize animals in developing countries. however, there are safety concerns. in addition, it is difficult to distinguish the vaccinated animals from those naturally infected ones. in our lab, we have developed a recombinant fmdv vaccine named a7. a7 contained multiple b cell and t cell epitopes, which reside in a capsid protein (vp1) of fmdv ...201121872635
foot-and-mouth disease: the question of implementing vaccinal control during an epidemic.the question of whether or not to use vaccines during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has interested veterinary administrators for many decades. this review assesses the historical uses, successes and failures of vaccinal control, and addresses the questions of where, how, and when to use vaccination against fmd. approaching the problem in this manner can aid in identifying which tools are likely to be most effective during an epidemic, and how successful a given contingency plan mig ...201120350828
Cattle remain immunocompetent during the acute phase of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.ABSTRACT: Infection of cattle with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) results in the development of long-term protective antibody responses. In contrast, inactivated antigen vaccines fail to induce long-term protective immunity. Differences between susceptible species have also been observed during infection with FMDV, with cattle often developing persistent infections whilst pigs develop more severe symptoms and excrete higher levels of virus. This study examined the early immune response to F ...201122014145
epidemic and economic impacts of delayed detection of foot-and-mouth disease: a case study of a simulated outbreak in california.the epidemic and economic impacts of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spread and control were examined by using epidemic simulation and economic (epinomic) optimization models. the simulated index herd was a ≥2,000 cow dairy located in california. simulated disease spread was limited to california; however, economic impact was assessed throughout the united states and included international trade effects. five index case detection delays were examined, which ranged from 7 to 22 days. the simu ...201121217024
evaluation of cross-protection between o1 manisa and o1 campos in cattle vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine incorporating different payloads of inactivated o1 manisa antigen.serology is used to predict vaccine induced protection against challenge with a heterologous strain of the same serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). to evaluate the accuracy of such predictions, we compared the protection afforded to cattle vaccinated with the o(1) manisa strain of fmdv against challenge with either a homologous (o(1) manisa) or a heterologous strain (o(1) campos). serology by virus neutralization test (vnt) using o(1) manisa antiserum predicted an acceptable protect ...201121236232
the infectivity and pathogenicity of a foot-and-mouth disease virus persistent infection strain from oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid of a chinese cattle in 2010.abstract: background: foot-and mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, febrile, and contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. some animals may become persistent infected carriers when they contact fmd virus (fmdv), and persistent infected animals are a dangerous factor to cause fmd outbreak. findings: 300 op (oesophageal-pharyngeal) fluid samples were collected from cattle without clinic symptom after one month fmd circulated in 2010 in china. a fmdv strain was isolated when a posi ...201122166050
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus from outbreaks in ecuador during 2009-2010 and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.during the years 2009 and 2010 relevant epidemic waves of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o occurred in ecuador, representing a great drawback for the last stages of the ongoing eradication program in south america. this study describes the molecular and antigenic characterizations of 29 isolates collected from various regions in the country and their relationship to the vaccine strain. the phylogenetic tree derived from sequences spanning the complete vp(1) protein showed that, despite th ...201121911020
bovine plasmacytoid dendritic cells are the major source of type i interferon in response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.type i interferons (alpha/beta interferons [ifn-a/ß]) are the main innate cytokines that are able to induce a cellular antiviral state, thereby limiting viral replication and disease pathology. plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdcs) play a crucial role in the control of viral infections, especially in response to viruses that have evolved mechanisms to block the type i ifn signal transduction pathway. using density gradient separation and cell sorting, we have highly enriched a population of bovine ...201121307187
serotype identification and vp1 coding sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from outbreaks in eastern and northern uganda in 2008/9.in april 2008, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks were reported in kamuli district of the eastern region of uganda. soon after lifting the quarantines in this area, further fmd outbreaks were reported in northern uganda, which spread to more than 10 districts. the aim of this study was to identify the serotype and compare the variable protein (vp)1 coding sequences of the viruses responsible for fmd outbreaks during 2008 and 2009, to trace the transmission pathways of the disease in uganda. ...201122117844
Normal variation in thermal radiated temperature in cattle: implications for foot-and-mouth disease detection.ABSTRACT:201122104039
the importance of fmdv localisation in lymphoid tissue.foot-and-mouth disease virus, a highly contagious pathogen that can cause lameness, low weight and decreased milk production, is a scourge of agricultural livestock around the world. although the acute phase of infection is rarely fatal, infection may persist in animals that have apparently recovered, creating a viral reservoir that some fear could contribute to the spread of disease. we have used an array of molecular techniques to search for traces of virus in tissues from the mouths and throa ...201121616546
Validation of an r3AB1-FMDV-NSP ELISA to distinguish between cattle infected and vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus.Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock which has a drastic economic impact for affected countries. Although FMDV is distributed worldwide, many regional programs have been effective eradicating this agent. In Argentina, as in many other regions of South America, the combination of a systematic vaccination plan, together with an effective detection system capable of differentiating infection from vaccination, has been successful for eradicating this ...201121946290
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for disease control in bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in bangladesh, and to implement an effective fmd control programme, it is essential to understand the complex epidemiology of the disease. here, we report on the characterization of fmd virus (fmdv) recovered from fmd outbreaks in bangladesh in late 2009. all isolated viruses belonged to the fmdv serotype o. the phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all isolates belonged to the middle east-south asia (me-sa) topotype, but fell into two distinct sublineag ...201121320294
recombinant non-structural polyprotein 3ab-based serodiagnostic strategy for fmd surveillance in bovines irrespective of vaccination.in india, the proportion of bovines vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is increasing since the implementation of the government supported 'fmd control programme', and non-structural protein (nsp)-based serological assays for discriminating between antibodies induced by infection or vaccination (diva) could be useful. the fmd virus nsp 3ab was expressed in a prokaryotic system and an indirect elisa (r3ab(3) i-elisa) was developed and validated as a screening assay for detecting virus ...201121864578
Development of a serotype colloidal gold strip using monoclonal antibody for rapid detection type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease.In this study, we developed a rapid, one step colloid gold strip (CGS) capable of specifically detecting type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We have produced two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to type Asia1 FMD (named 1B8 and 5E2). On the test strip, the purified 1B8 labelled with the colloidal gold was used as the detector, and the purified 5E2 and goat anti-mouse antibodies were wrapped onto nitrocellulose (NC) membranes as the test and the control line, respectively. The rapid colloi ...201121880157
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle: investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistence.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral infection of significant financial importance to the export and trade of agricultural products. the occurrence of persistently infected "carriers" of fmd-virus (fmdv) in ruminant species adds further complications to disease control. there have been significant discrepancies in reports regarding the pathogenesis of fmdv infection in cattle with specific emphasis on the anatomical sites involved in early and persistent virus replication. i ...201121831538
outbreak investigations and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in ethiopia in 2008/2009.the study was conducted in three regional states of ethiopia: amhara, oromia, and addis ababa from august 2008 to april 2009 with the objectives of identifying the genetic diversity of serotypes and topotypes in ethiopia, and determining the attack rate and associations of potential risk factors with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) seropositivity. a total of 496 cattle were clinically and serologically examined for presence of specific lesions and nonstructural protein for fmd, respectively. of whi ...201120717724
introduction of tag epitopes in the inter-aug region of foot and mouth disease virus: effect on the l protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates translation from two in-frame aug codons producing two forms of the leader (l) proteinase, lab (starting at the first aug) and lb (starting at second aug). in a previous study, we have demonstrated that a cdna-derived mutant fmdv (a24-l1123) containing a 57-nucleotide transposon (tn) insertion between the two aug initiation codons (inter-aug region) was completely attenuated in cattle, suggesting that this region is involved in viral pathogenesis. to ...201120849893
capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus.chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length fmdv cdnas and characterized. the parental virus cdna was derived from the cell-culture-adapted o1kaufbeuren b64 (o1k b64) strain. chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived from the o/ukg/34/2001 or a/turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the o1k b64 cdna, and viable viruses (o1k/o-ukg and o1k/a-tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in ...201121270284
rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral rna samples.foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. it is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has a positive sense rna genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus replication.201121298025
meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination.the objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of fmd emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret the results. peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. clinical protection and virological protection against fmd were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of ...201120869130
gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant enhance the immune effect of protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.cytokines as molecular adjuvant play a critical role in differentiation of effector t cell subsets and in determination of the magnitude of the response after vaccination. in this study, we investigated the effects of gm-csf and il-2 as adjuvant on the immune responses of vp1 recombinant protein as a model antigen for foot and mouth disease.201121214955
rt-pcr evaluation for identification and sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan.fmd clinically positive 250 tissue samples (mouth and hoof epithelium and vesicle swabs, tongue tissue) and 175 secretion samples (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) were evaluated by rt-pcr for the diagnosis of fmd with different pair of universal and serotype-specific primers from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan. universal primer pair p1/p2 from vp1 gene detected fmd in 182 out of 250 (72.8%) tissues and 92 out of 175 (52.6%) secretion samples, while universal primer 1f/1r from 5'utr region detecte ...201120031216
integrin sub-unit expression in cell cultures used for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.the ability to propagate foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays an important role in laboratory diagnosis and the production of vaccines to control the spread of the disease. many established cell lines suffer from poor sensitivity for isolating virus from field samples. one possible factor that limits sensitivity to fmdv is the lack of expression of surface integrins, the primary class of cell receptor used by fmdv to initiate infection. in this study we have sequenced cdnas encoding these m ...201121329991
rapid and transient activation of +¦+¦ t cells to ifn-+¦ production, nk cell-like killing, and antigen processing during acute virus infection.+¦+¦ t cells are the majority peripheral blood t cells in young cattle. the role of +¦+¦ t cells in innate responses against infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus was analyzed on consecutive 5 d following infection. before infection, bovine wc1(+) +¦+¦ t cells expressed a nonactivated phenotype relative to cd62l, cd45ro, and cd25 expression and did not produce ifn-+¦ ex vivo. additionally, cd335 expression was lacking and no spontaneous target cell lysis could be detected in vitro, althoug ...201121383249
absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected indian cattle (bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. we studied the heat intolerance (hi) (panting) syndrome and the effect of fmd virus (fmdv) infection on thyroid gland function in indian cattle (bos indicus). experimental infection with fmdv asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered ani ...201121388520
genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pakistan and afghanistan, 1997-2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and afghanistan; serotypes o, a and asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with fmdv type o usually being the most common. in the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the fmdv capsid protein vp1 from virus samples were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the serotype o fmd viruses circulating in pakistan and afghanistan between 1997 and 2009 revealed the presence of at least three different lineage ...201121419880
antiviral activity of bovine type iii interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most serious threats to the livestock industry. despite the availability of a vaccine, recent outbreaks in disease-free countries have demonstrated that development of novel fmd control strategies is imperative. here we report the identification and characterization of bovine (bo) interferon lambda 3 (ifn-++3), a member of the type iii ifn family. expression of boifn-++3 using a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (ad5-boifn-++3) yielde ...201121435672
biosecurity and fmd transmission. 201121493485
isolation, identification and complete genome sequence analysis of a strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 from pigs in southwest of china.abstract: backgroud: foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 generally infects cattle and sheep, while its infection of pigs is rarely reported. in 2005-2007, fmd outbreaks caused by asia1 type occurred in many regions of china, as well as some parts of east asia countries. during the outbreaks, there was not any report that pigs were found to be clinically infected. results: in this study, a strain of fmdv that isolated from pigs was identified as serotype asia1, and designated as "a ...201121496298
development and validation of a prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 2c'3ab-based immunochromatographic strip to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals.abstract:201121513550
relationship between clinical signs and transmission of an infectious disease and the implications for control.control of many infectious diseases relies on the detection of clinical cases and the isolation, removal, or treatment of cases and their contacts. the success of such "reactive" strategies is influenced by the fraction of transmission occurring before signs appear. we performed experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle and estimated this fraction at less than half the value expected from detecting virus in body fluids, the standard proxy measure of infectiousness. th ...201121551063
analysis of the acute phase responses of serum amyloid a, haptoglobin and type 1 interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.abstract: a series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". the host response to infection was investigated through measurements of the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (apps) serum amyloid a (saa) and haptoglobin (hp), as well as the bioactivity of type 1 interferon (ifn) in serum of infected anim ...201121592356
control of foot-and-mouth disease. 201121602410
[diversity of receptor recognition site of type asial foot-and-mouth disease virus].foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection by binding to integrin receptors via a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) sequence found in the g-h loop of the structural protein vp1. however, fmdv is an rna virus, which harbors the evolutionary potential to render the rgd motif dispensable upon changes in constant environment. we studied mutation of rgd motif upon short-time passages fmdv asial/js/china/2005 field strain in different host.201121604558
serosurveillance for foot-and-mouth disease in mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) and livestock on the eastern steppe of mongolia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, viral disease that affects most ruminant and porcine species, and periodic outbreaks on mongolia's eastern steppe affect mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) and livestock. during 2005-08, we collected sera from 36 and 57 calf and adult gazelles, respectively, and from adult domestic animals sympatric with the gazelles, including 138 sheep (ovis aries), 140 goats (capra aegagrus hircus), 139 bactrian camels (camelus bactrianus), and 138 cat ...201222247371
identification of short hairpin rna targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.although it is known that rna interference (rnai) targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), it has not been previously investigated whether shrnas targeting fmdv in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against fmdv challenge.201222905125
role of arginine-56 within the structural protein vp3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o1 campos in virus virulence.fmdv o1 subtype undergoes antigenic variation under diverse growth conditions. of particular interest is the amino acid variation observed at position 56 within the structural protein vp3. selective pressures influence whether histidine (h) or arginine (r) is present at this position, ultimately influencing in vitro plaque morphology and in vivo pathogenesis in cattle. using reverse genetics techniques, we have constructed fmdv type o1 campos variants differing only at vp3 position 56, possessin ...201222036313
phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in ecuador.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of the most important disease of domestic cattle, foot-and-mouth disease. in ecuador, fmdv is maintained at an endemic state, with sporadic outbreaks. to unravel the tempo and mode of fmdv spread within the country we conducted a bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a continuous time markov chain (ctmc) to model the diffusion of fmdv between ecuadorian provinces. we implement this framework through markov chain monte carlo available i ...201322985683
the longevity of anti nsp antibodies and the sensitivity of a 3abc elisa - a 3 years follow up of repeatedly vaccinated dairy cattle infected by foot and mouth disease virus.elisa tests for detection of anti nsp antibodies are extensively used in surveys estimating exposure of livestock to foot and mouth disease virus as a part of endemic and post epidemic surveillance programs. yet, estimation of the longevity of anti nsp antibodies in naturally infected cattle and the sensitivity of elisa tests based on them were rarely studied to date. our research aim was to estimate the long term (up to 1118 days after exposure) change in levels of anti nsp antibodies in dairy ...201525937314
bovine genome-wide association study for genetic elements to resist the infection of foot-and-mouth disease in the field.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and causes severe economic loss and devastating effect on international trade of animal or animal products. since fmd outbreaks have recently occurred in some asian countries, it is important to understand the relationship between diverse immunogenomic structures of host animals and the immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we performed genome wide association study based on high-density bovine ...201525557811
heterozygosity at the snp (rs136500299) of itgb6 receptor gene possibly influences the susceptibility among crossbred bull to foot and mouth disease infection.zebu (bos indicus) cattle are known to be resistant against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) compared to taurine (bos taurus). to understand the susceptibility of two cattle species to fmdv infection in terms of viral receptors, the present study reports the cloning, characterization and sequence analysis of zebu itgb6 gene. the complete cds of zebu itgb6 was 2367 basepair in length with 788 amino acid residues. the zebu integrin shares common structural and functional elements with taurine a ...201526436121
the serological response against foot and mouth disease virus elicited by repeated vaccination of dairy cattle.in israel, cattle are annually vaccinated against foot and mouth disease (fmd). if infections with fmd virus occur in dairy farms it mainly involves heifers and calves, while older dairy cows seldom become infected. we hypothesized that this difference in susceptibility between adult cows and the young heifers and calves is due to stronger and more stable immune response elicited by multiple vaccinations. in order to test this hypothesis, 99 dairy cattle, divided into six groups according to num ...201627576078
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