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enhancement of the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice by oral administration of an extract made from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram).this study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of a water extract made from the rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (ram) on the immune responses in mice immunized with fmdv type o vaccine. thirty-five icr mice were randomly divided into five groups with seven animals in each group, and orally administered daily for 4 days at a dose equivalent to 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 g of dried ram, respectively. after that, the animals were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmd ...200919356611
understanding the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the use of molecular epidemiology is an important tool in understanding and consequently controlling fmdv. in this review i will present basic information about the disease, needed to perform molecular epidemiology. i will give a short introduction to the history and impact of foot-and-mouth disease, clinical picture, infection route, subclinical and persistent infections, general aspects of the transmission of fmdv, serotype-specific epidemiological characteristics, field epidemiology of fmdv, ...200919100342
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using glycoprotein and monoclonal antibody for detecting antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus serotype new jersey.in this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using glycoprotein and a monoclonal antibody (mab) was developed for the detection of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) serotype new jersey (nj). the glycoprotein to be used as a diagnostic antigen was extracted from partially purified vsv-nj, and a neutralizing mab specific to vsv-nj was incorporated to compete with antibodies in a blocking elisa using glycoprotein (gp elisa). the cutoff of the gp elisa was set at 40% inhi ...200919279165
evidence of recombination in a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of vp1 revealed that a new isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 identified in mongolia in 2005 was related to chinese and russian strains isolated during the same year. in this study, these strains were defined as east asian strains having a common geographical origin, and the complete genomic sequence of the mongolian strain (as1/mog/05) was determined and compared to other strains of serotype asia 1. as1/mog/05 showed 1 ...200918977402
analysis of the leader proteinase (l(pro)) region of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus with due emphasis on phylogeny and evolution of the emerging vp3(59)-deletion lineage from india.genotype inclusive grouping of indian type a isolates as observed in 1d region based phylogeny was distorted at complete l(pro) region, where the vp3(59)-deletion group lineages of genotype vii clustered away from both genotypes vii and vi, confirming its uniqueness and independent evolution of l(pro) and 1d region. akin to the 1d region, this deletion group is gradually diverging genetically even at l region forming more number of lineages and inter-lineage distance at l region is considerably ...200919167441
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus: strategies and effectiveness.although present conventional foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines can prevent clinical disease, protection is short lived ( approximately 6 months), often requiring frequent revaccination for prophylactic control, and vaccination does not induce rapid protection against challenge or prevent the development of the carrier state. furthermore, it is clear that the clinical protection depends upon the length of immunization and the duration of exposure/challenge methods. this review summarizes the ...200919249976
some guidelines for determining foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain matching by serology.the selection of matching strains for use in outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus can be assessed in vivo or by serological r-value determination. sera from animals involved in vaccine potency and cross-protection trials performed using the "protection against podal generalization" (ppg) test for two serotype a strains were collected and analyzed by the virus neutralization test (vnt) and liquid-phase elisa (lpelisa) in three laboratories. the average vnt r-values for medium and high ...200919041355
discriminating foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected and vaccinated animals by use of beta-galactosidase allosteric biosensors.recombinant beta-galactosidases accommodating one or two different peptides from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3b per enzyme monomer showed a drastic enzymatic activity reduction, which mainly affected proteins with double insertions. recombinant beta-galactosidases were enzymatically reactivated by 3b-specific murine monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies. interestingly, these recombinant beta-galactosidases, particularly those including one copy of each of ...200919553549
influence of exposure intensity on the efficiency and speed of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by direct animal-to-animal contact, indirect contact facilitated by contaminated materials or by airborne spread. the rate of spread and the incubation period, as well as the severity of disease, depends on many variables including the dose received, the route of introduction, the virus strain, the animal species and the conditions under which the animals are kept. quantitative data related to these variables are needed if model predictions are t ...200919215941
molecular characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide insertion in the 3'untranslated region.a foot-and-mouth disease virus containing a 57-nucleotide (nt) insertion in the 3'untranslated region (3'utr) was generated by transposon (tn)-mediated mutagenesis. characterization of the mutant virus (a24-3'utr8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency or virulence in cattle compared to the a24 wild-type virus. rna modeling showed that the structures predicted in the 3'utr were not affected by the tn insertion. these results revealed that the 3'utr can to ...200919288053
genome analysis and development of infectious cdna clone of a virulence-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia 1 from china.the rna genome sequence of the rabbit passage-attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia 1, zb/cha/58(att), was determined to be 8165 nt in length excluding the poly(c) tract in the 5' utr and the poly(a) tail at the 3' end. zb/cha/58(att) was most similar to the vaccine strain asia 1/ynbs/58 in genome sequence and there were no deletions or insertions within the deduced polyprotein between zb/cha/58(att) and ynbs/58, but there were a total of 25 substitutions at the amino aci ...200919410387
development and laboratory validation of a lateral flow device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in clinical samples.a lateral flow device (lfd) for the detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed using a monoclonal antibody (mab 1f10) shown to be pan-reactive to fmdv strains of each serotype by elisa. the performance of the lfd was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia (304 positive and 1003 negative samples) from suspected cases of vesicular disease collected from 86 countries between 1965 and 2008 and negative samples collected from healt ...200918848845
antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen drb3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance.due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. in argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) drb3.2 gene associated with blv-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. a potential risk in expanding or segregati ...200919109295
rapid methodology for antigenic profiling of fmdv field strains and for the control of identity, purity and viral integrity in commercial virus vaccines using monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) developed against different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strains were extensively used to study any possible antigenic variations during vaccine production in argentine facilities. additionally, a typing elisa using strain specific mabs was developed to detect potential cross contaminations among fmdv strains in master and working seeds with high specificity and sensitivity and to confirm strains identity in formulated vaccines. this assay was carried ...200918774662
kinetics of immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (type asia 1) in experimental cattle.humoral and mucosal (secretory antibody)immune response to fmdv type asia 1 in cattle was analyzed after vaccination and infection using virus neutralizing test (vnt). vaccination (1/16th the usual dose) failed to protect cattle from generalized clinical disease following experimental fmdv asia 1 infection. our results showed that infection induced higher and prolonged serum antibody titres indicating antigen mass is important for optimal immune response. experimental fmdv infection induced sign ...200918648998
infectious bursal disease subviral particles displaying the foot-and-mouth disease virus major antigenic site.an antigen delivery system based on subviral particles formed by the self-assembly of the capsid protein of infectious bursal disease virus and carrying foreign peptides at the top of the projection domain was investigated. we report here the effective insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunodominant epitope in one of the four external loops of the subviral particles. out of the two loops tested, one of them tolerated an insert of 12 amino acids without disrupting the subviral ...200918983883
foot-and-mouth disease virus can induce a specific and rapid cd4+ t-cell-independent neutralizing and isotype class-switched antibody response in naïve cattle.the role of t-lymphocyte subsets in recovery from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in calves was investigated by administering subset-specific monoclonal antibodies. the depletion of circulating cd4(+) or wc1(+) gammadelta t cells was achieved for a period extending from before challenge to after resolution of viremia and peak clinical signs, whereas cd8(+) cell depletion was only partial. the depletion of cd4(+) cells was also confirmed by analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens 5 ...200919176618
a conserved domain in the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus is required for proper subcellular localization and function.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (ifn) and by reducing the immediate-early induction of ifn-beta mrna and ifn-stimulated genes. in addition to its role in shutting off cap-dependent host mrna translation, l(pro) is associated with the degradation of the p65/rela subunit of nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab). bioinformatics analysis suggests that l(pro) contains a sa ...200919052079
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus nucleotide sequence variation within naturally infected epithelium.an important epidemiological tool in the control of epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is genetic tracing using complete virus genome sequence data. however to interpret these genetic data, it is important to quantify underlying variation present in fmdv populations from individual tissue samples. cloned complete capsid sequences from two virus populations from epithelium from a cow (n=26) and from a sheep (n=15) infected during the uk 2001 outbreaks were generated. genetic diversity of t ...200919027805
quantitative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna duration in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.quantitative analysis of the duration of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna in tissues was carried out in pigs experimentally infected with fmdv o ukg 34/2001 and o skr 1/2000. the results showed that the viral rna was still detectable in cervical lymph nodes, mandibular lymph nodes and tonsils collected from both inoculated and contact pigs at 28 days post infection. there was no detectable viral rna in the soft palate or pharynx, which are thought to be tissue sites for viral persistence ...200918294878
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cattle using infrared thermography.in this study, infrared thermography (irt) was assessed as a means of detecting foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cattle before and after the development of clinical signs. preliminary irt imaging demonstrated that foot temperatures increased in fmdv-infected animals. the maximum foot temperatures of healthy (n=53), directly inoculated (di) (n=12), contact (ct) (n=6), and vaccine trial (vt) (n=21) cattle were measured over the course of fmd infection. a cut-off value was established a ...200918308596
ginseng stem-leaf saponins (gsls) and mineral oil act synergistically to enhance the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice.saponins extracted from ginseng stems and leaves (gsls) as well as the synergistic effect between gsls and oil emulsion were investigated for their adjuvant effects on the immune responses of mice to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1. in experiment a, icr mice were subcutaneously immunized twice with fmdv antigen with or without gsls (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 microg) at 3 week intervals. highest fmdv-specific igg level was observed 2 weeks after the boosting in mi ...200918973783
microarray-based detection of viruses causing vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals.definitive diagnosis of vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals presents challenges both for veterinary clinicians and diagnostic laboratories. it is often impossible to diagnose the causative disease agent on a clinical basis alone and difficult to collect ample vesicular epithelium samples. due to restrictions of time and sample size, once laboratory tests have ruled out foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease a definitive diagnosis may remain ...200918621489
foot and mouth disease virus transmission during the incubation period of the disease in piglets, lambs, calves, and dairy cows.transmission of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus by infected animals may already occur before clinical signs are evident. quantitative data for fmd transmission rates during this so-called high-risk period are currently lacking and would provide useful information to develop surveillance systems in which the number of new outbreaks is an outcome variable. in order to address this, we used experimental data to quantify transmission in cattle, swine and sheep during the non-clinical phase of the ...200918929417
neutralizing monoclonal antibody sandwich liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o antibodies.liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (lpbe) using the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) sandwich method (m-lpbe) for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o antibodies was developed. two neutralizing mabs, 72c1 and 65h6, were raised against the fmdv o/jpn/2000 strain, and used as trapping and peroxidase-labeled detecting antibodies, respectively. sera from animals experimentally infected with fmdv showed specific positive results by m-lpbe, which were corr ...200919564498
cytokine mrna responses in bovine epithelia during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains the single most important constraint to international trade in live animals and animal products. the factors which regulate the pathogenesis and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are poorly understood. mrna levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (il)-1alpha, tumour necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha and the antiviral cytokines interferon (ifn)-alpha, beta and gamma in microdissected epithelium from cattle acutely infected with fmdv o ukg 3 ...200917920964
measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus: preliminary evaluation of two portable air sampling devices.until now measurement of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the field has not been attempted or been practical; measurements have been restricted to the laboratory and isolation units using instruments developed in the 1960s. however, with the development of air sampling devices for other biological purposes, there is now the possibility that this short-coming can be overcome and as a result earlier detection of virus may be possible in the future. two recently-introduced commercial ...200918023217
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected from sudan.the aim of this study was to characterize foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses collected between 2004 and 2008 from sudan, a country where fmd is endemic. using virus isolation and antigen elisa, three fmd virus serotypes (o, a and sat2) were detected in 24 samples that were submitted to the fao world reference laboratory for fmd. pan-serotypic real-time rt-pcr assays targeting the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) and 3d genes of fmd virus were also used to contribute to the laboratory diagnosis o ...201020626708
fmd subunit vaccine produced using a silkworm-baculovirus expression system: protective efficacy against two type asia1 isolates in cattle.cattle vaccinated with a single dose of subunit vaccine containing the capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain were protected when challenged 28 days later with a homologous virus. here, the 50% bovine protective dose (pd(50)) test was performed to assess the potency of the subunit vaccine. when challenged with two chinese isolates, the subunit vaccine could achieve 6.5 pd(50) (challenged with asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain) and 5.2 pd(50 ...201021109368
confidence in indirect assessment of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency and vaccine matching carried out by liquid phase elisa and virus neutralization tests.the necessity of avoiding the use of animals in vaccine potency testing has been widely recognized. the repeatability and reproducibility of the expected percentage of protection (epp) as a serological potency surrogate for a24 cruzeiro foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain was assessed, and compared with the results obtained with challenge in the protection against podal generalization (ppg) test. to determine the epps, the serum titers obtained by liquid phase blocking competitive elisa ( ...201020643090
evaluation of infectivity and transmission of different asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine.most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) display a broad host range. since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of panasia topotype fmdv serotype o has caused epidemics in the far east, africa, the united kingdom, france, the netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout europe and asia. in contrast, there are several fmdv isolates that exhibit a more restricted host range. a cathay topotype isolate of fmdv serotype o from the 1997 epizootic in taiwan (o/taw/97) demonstrated re ...201020458154
foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus within the picornaviridae family. infection of cells with positive-strand rna viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. the origin of these membranes remains unknown; however induction of the cellular process of autophagy is beneficial for the replication of poliovirus, suggesting that it might be advantageous for other picornaviruses. by using confocal microscop ...201021112602
sequence-based prediction for vaccine strain selection and identification of antigenic variability in foot-and-mouth disease virus.identifying when past exposure to an infectious disease will protect against newly emerging strains is central to understanding the spread and the severity of epidemics, but the prediction of viral cross-protection remains an important unsolved problem. for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) research in particular, improved methods for predicting this cross-protection are critical for predicting the severity of outbreaks within endemic settings where multiple serotypes and subtypes commonly co- ...201021151576
beyond the consensus: dissecting within-host viral population diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus by using next-generation genome sequencing.the diverse sequences of viral populations within individual hosts are the starting material for selection and subsequent evolution of rna viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using next-generation sequencing (ngs) performed on a genome analyzer platform (illumina), this study compared the viral populations within two bovine epithelial samples (foot lesions) from a single animal with the inoculum used to initiate experimental infection. genomic sequences were determined in duplic ...201021159860
foot-and-mouth disease virus exhibits an altered tropism in the presence of specific immunoglobulins, enabling productive infection and killing of dendritic cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an acute vesicular disease of farm animals. the development of successful control strategies is limited by an incomplete understanding of the immune response to fmdv. dendritic cells (dc) mediate the induction of immunity to pathogens, but their role in fmdv infection of cattle is uncharacterized. bovine monocyte-derived dc (modc) were exposed to integrin-binding and cell culture-adapted strains of fmdv in vitro. modc were not largely susceptible to inf ...201021177807
inhibitors of foot and mouth disease virus targeting a novel pocket of the rna-dependent rna polymerase.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus that infects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to severe losses in livestock production. in the case of an fmd outbreak, emergency vaccination requires at least 7 days to trigger an effective immune response. there are currently no approved inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of fmdv infections.201021203539
genetic characterization of the cell-adapted panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/fujian/cha/5/99 isolated from swine.according to office international des epizooties (oie) bulletin, the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was invaded into the people's republic of china in may 1999. it was confirmed that the outbreaks occurred in tibet, hainan and fujian provinces. in total, 1280 susceptible animals (68 cattle, 1212 swine) were destroyed for the epidemic control.to investigate the distinct biological properties, we performed plaque assay, estimated the pathogenicity in suckling mice and determ ...201020807416
development of a dot immunoblot method for differentiation of animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus from vaccinated animals using non-structural proteins expressed prokaryotically.five non-structural proteins (nsps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed in e. coli to develop a dot immunoblot (dot blot) assay for the differentiation of fmdv infected animals from vaccinated animals (diva). the five nsps were 3a (24 kda), 3b (15 kda), major b-cell epitope regions of 2c (23 kda), partial 3d (44 kda) and 3abc (59 kda). the criteria for the dot blot were determined and are described as follows: a test sample is considered positive if four or more nsps demonstrat ...201021087638
baculovirus treatment fully protects mice against a lethal challenge of fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that affects cattle, swine, goat and sheep among others. fmdv is able to overcome the initial host innate immune response by inhibiting the induction of antiviral molecules at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. it has been demonstrated that fmdv a/arg/2001 causes the death of adult c57bl/6 mice within 72h. we evaluated the capacity of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis ...201020580746
serotype specificity of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle in selected districts in uganda.uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. a serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by elisa for antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins. three hundred and forty-nine cattle sera were collected from seven districts in uganda, and 65% of these were found positive for antibodies against the non-structural p ...201020696028
[current situation and future preventive measures of foot-and-mouth disease in japan].foot-and-mouth disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a severe and acute vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. as fmdv is highly contagious and causes productivity losses among infected animals, outbreaks of the disease are a primary animal health concern worldwide. in april, 2010, the disease reoccurred in miyazaki prefecture in 10 years. compared to the outbreak in 2000 in which no infection among pigs was observed, a total of 292 ...201021488337
short-lived carriage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in human nasal cavities after exposure to infected animals.a quarantine period for potentially contaminated personnel can be used to reduce the risk of transfer of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from infected to susceptible premises. this is set at 72 hours in the uk, on the basis of results from laboratory studies and field observations. previous analysis of fmdv carriage within human nasal cavities has relied upon virus isolation by culture in susceptible cells. this study, involving 51 people, evaluated a pcr method, which detected viral genomic ...201021262692
specific detection of rinderpest virus by real-time reverse transcription-pcr in preclinical and clinical samples from experimentally infected cattle.a highly sensitive detection test for rinderpest virus (rpv), based on a real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr)system, was developed. five different rpv genomic targets were examined, and one was selected and optimized to detect viral rna in infected tissue culture fluid with a level of detection ranging from 0.59 to 87.5 50% tissue culture infectious doses (tcid(50)) per reaction depending on the viral isolate. the strain sensitivity of the test was validated on 16 rpv strains belonging ...201020844216
a mutant of infectious asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of 10-amino-acid in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 is one of the most predominant endemic serotypes in china. our previous study has generated a full-length cdna clone (pbsas) of an asia 1 serotype fmdv (as1/cha/05) isolated from bovine. to further study the properties of this virus, a mutant in the 3a region of the cdna clone (pbsas-3a10d), containing the deletion at position 93-102 of the 3a protein of as1/cha/05, was generated by pcr and cloning. after synthesis of rna in vitro and transfect ...201020844943
enhancement of dna vaccine (p12a3c-pcdna) efficacy against foot-and-mouth disease by coadministration of interleukin-18-expressing (il18 pcdna) plasmid in guinea-pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. the presently used tissue-cultured inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration of immunity. as one of the approaches to develop alternative vaccines, p12a3c-pcdna (containing p12a and 3c coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus) and bovine il18 pcdna plasmids were constructed and the immune response of these constr ...201021039923
estimating risk factors for farm-level transmission of disease: foot and mouth disease during the 2001 epidemic in great britain.controlling an epidemic would be aided by establishing whether particular individuals in infected populations are more likely to transmit infection. however, few analyses have characterised such individuals. such analyses require both data on who infected whom and on the likely determinants of transmission; data that are available at the farm level for the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic in great britain. using these data a putative number of daughter infected premises (ips) resulting from ...201021352781
molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius).bactrian camels can relatively easily be infected with fmdv, but dromedary camels remain resistant even to high doses of the virus. to understand the different susceptibility between the two camel species from the standpoint of viral receptors, this work reports the sequences of the dromedary camel integrin cdnas encoding alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 and compare them to those of other species, especially to bactrian camels. the complete coding sequences for the dromedary camel alphav, beta1 and b ...201020015555
early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after controlled aerosol exposure.the goal of this study was to identify the primary sites of replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cattle subsequent to aerogenous inoculation. a novel aerosol inoculation method was developed to simulate natural, airborne transmission and thereby allow the identification of early replication sites. virus distribution after aerosol inoculation was compared at 24h post inoculation with simple nasal instillation. aerosol inoculation of fmdv consistently resulted in virus detection b ...201018930417
differential gene expression in bovine cells infected with wild type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. molecular studies have demonstrated that l(pro) inhibits translation of host capped mrnas and transcription of some genes involved in the innate immune response. we have used microarray technology to study the gene expression profile of bovine cells infected with wild type (wt) or leaderless fmdv. thirty nine out of approximately 22,000 bovine genes were selectively up-regulated by ...201020494391
status of foot-and-mouth disease in pakistan.the present study reports the distribution of different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in pakistan during the period 1952-2007. during this time, a total of 1,543 epithelial samples out of 2,484 tested were found positive for various serotypes of fmdv. serotype o was found to be the most prevalent (p < 0.001) followed by serotype asia-1 and a. serotype c was detected only in 1954, 1963 and 1995. the disease was found to be more prevalent (p < 0.0001) in cattle than buffaloes. t ...201020571838
induction of a cross-reactive cd8(+) t cell response following foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. current inactivated fmdv vaccines generate short-term, serotype-specific protection, mainly through neutralizing antibody. an improved understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity would aid design of more effective vaccines. we have previously reported the presence of virus-specific cd8(+) t cells in fmdv-vaccinated and -infected cattle. in the current study, we aimed to identify cd8(+) t ...201020861264
the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after aerosol inoculation. identification of the nasopharynx as the primary site of infection.to characterize the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle subsequent to simulated natural exposure, 16 steers were aerosol inoculated with fmdv and euthanized at various times. samples were collected from each steer antemortem (serum, nasal swabs, and oral swabs) and postmortem (up to 40 tissues per animal) and screened for fmdv by virus isolation and for fmdv rna by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. tissues that tested positive for fmdv ...201020587691
the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in sarpang and zhemgang districts of bhutan.this study was undertaken to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in two districts of sarpang and zhemgang in bhutan. zhemgang district recorded a significantly higher cumulative incidence in all species (26.9%) as well as for cattle (29.3%) compared to sarpang (6.5% and 7.4%, respectively). the case fatality for cattle in zhemgang (14.1%) was significantly higher than in sarpang (3.3%). a total of 404 cattle and 73 pigs died of fmd in zhemgang, ...201021078083
development of an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay to quantify foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-capsid proteins in vaccine-antigen batches.in many countries, foot and mouth disease (fmd) is controlled by vaccination and surveillance against non-capsid proteins (ncp); therefore vaccines are required not to induce antibodies against ncp. vaccine purity is evaluated by repeated inoculation of naïve cattle, an expensive and time consuming protocol that raises several animal welfare concerns. we have developed an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (fal-elisa), to detect and quantify ncp in vaccine-antig ...201020685600
possible use of rna isolate from inactivated vaccine for external positive control in reverse transcription-based detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bull semen.this study has demonstrated the novel use of inactivated and purified vaccine against fmd virus for detection and analysis. rna isolate was efficiently generated from the vaccine for an external positive control for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assays. the target dna fragment sequences from the 2b region and 3d rna polymerase gene of the virus for rt-pcr and rt-lamp respectively were successful ...201020097168
quantitative trait loci for variation in immune response to a foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide.infectious disease of livestock continues to be a cause of substantial economic loss and has adverse welfare consequences in both the developing and developed world. new solutions to control disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. however, identifying selectable markers and the causal genes involved in disease resistance and vaccine response is not straightforward. the aims of this study we ...201021138580
regulation of iga responses in cattle, humans and mice.secretory iga (siga) constitutes the largest component of the humoral immune system of the body with gram quantities of this isotype produced by mammals on a daily basis. secretory iga (siga) antibodies function by both blocking pathogen/commensal entry at mucosal surfaces and virus neutralization. several pathways of induction of iga responses have been described which depend on t cells (t cell dependent or td) pathways or are independent of t cells (t-independent or ti) and are mediated by den ...201021074276
antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) population in the argentinean andean altiplano.serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and influenza a virus equine (eiv). samples were collected in cieneguillas province of jujuy, in northern argentina. feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate rv shedding. llamas (la ...201020688660
a differential elisa based on recombinant immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene of shv-1 in a baculovirus-insect cell system to discriminate between pigs infected naturally with pseudorabies and vaccinated pigs.in the present study, the fragment corresponding to the immunodominant epitopes of the ge gene (gepi) from the cl15 argentinean strain of pseudorabies virus was expressed successfully in a baculovirus-insect cell system that contained the m6 gene of bluetongue virus, which encodes the ns1 nonstructural protein. this protein has the ability to polymerize into highly immunogenic tubules inside infected cells that can be purified at large quantities by ultracentrifugation. previously, the ns1 prote ...201021168443
iga antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. control of the disease involves the use of killed-virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. after natural infection, the primary site of replication of fmdv is the pharyngeal area, suggesting that a mucosal immune response is the most effective. humoral immunity to killed-virus vaccination induces antibodies that can prevent the clinical disease but not local infection. determining whethe ...201020107003
risk evaluation of nonvaccinated, weaned calves transported through areas under systematic foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccination.the recurrence and persistence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) could be the consequence of cyclic and massive transportation of calves. for this reason, in south america, vaccination strategies related to livestock dynamic are being promoted. in order to aid the evaluation of such strategies, a method for predicting the risk of transportation of nonvaccinated weaned calves was developed; this method combines expert opinion and empirical evidence using bayesian estimators. it was applied through ...201021071104
a simulation model for the potential spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the castile and leon region of spain.a spatial stochastic model was used to simulate the spread of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in the castile-and-leon (cyl) region of spain. the model was fitted using information available on premises demographics and on assumptions for animal movements, indirect contacts, and airborne exposure. control measures dictated by spanish and european union regulations constituted a reference strategy to which six alternative control strategies were compared. for the reference strategy, the me ...201020579754
domain disruptions of individual 3b proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus do not alter growth in cell culture or virulence in cattle.picornavirus rna replication is initiated by a small viral protein primer, 3b (also known as vpg), that is covalently linked to the 5' terminus of the viral genome. in contrast to other picornaviruses that encode a single copy of 3b, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) encodes three copies of 3b. viruses containing disrupted native sequence or deletion of one of their three 3b proteins were derived from a fmdv a24 cruzeiro full-length cdna infectious clone. mutant viruses had growth characterist ...201020580394
limiting the impacts of foot and mouth disease in large ruminants in northern lao people's democratic republic by vaccination: a case study.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is the most important global transboundary livestock disease and is endemic in lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr) with outbreaks occurring regularly. lao pdr shares borders with five countries and as a major thoroughfare for transboundary livestock movement, is vulnerable to the social and economic impacts of fmd. the fmd outbreak occurred in january 2009 in the pek district, located in the north-eastern lao pdr province of xieng khuang and involved all 111 v ...201020180923
effect of fmd vaccine antigen payload on protection, sub-clinical infection and persistence following needle challenge in sheep.the relationship of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus antigen payload and single and double vaccinations in conferring protection against virus challenge in sheep was studied. sheep vaccinated with half the cattle dose (1 ml) containing 15 and 3.75 μg of fmdv antigen with or without booster resisted virulent challenge on 21 days post vaccination or 7 days post booster. fmdv rna could be detected in nasal secretions in 26% of vaccinated sheep (10(3.12) to 10(3.82) viral rna copies) on day 35 pos ...201019896714
an indirect elisa for serodiagnosis of cattle footrot caused by fusobacterium necrophorum.a serodiagnostic elisa (rl-elisa) using recombinant truncated leukotoxin protein pl2 (aa 311-644) of fusobacterium necrophorum as antigen was developed for detection of antibodies against f. necrophorum from cattle footrot. in rl-elisa, the recombinant diagnostic antigen showed no cross-reaction with antisera against bovine foot and mouth disease virus, bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine rotavirus type a, bovine escherichia coli, and bovine salmonella. the rl-elisa ...201020304080
qualitative assessment of the commodity risk for spread of foot-and-mouth disease associated with international trade in deboned beef.the risk of importing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) restricts trade in livestock and their products from parts of the world where the virus is present. this reduces trade opportunities and investment in the livestock sector of many developing countries and constrains global food supply. this review focuses on the risks associated with trade in deboned beef (db) from foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-infected cattle, countries or zones. a definition of db is provided along with a description of ...201020569417
effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor protein and 3c protease expression on bovine herpesvirus 1 replication.several reports have previously shown that expression of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor protein encoding region p1-2a together with the 3c protease (p1-2a/3c) results in correct processing of the capsid precursor into vp0, vp1 and vp3 and formation of fmdv capsid structures that are able to induce a protective immune response against fmdv challenge after immunization using naked dna constructs or recombinant viruses. to elucidate whether bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) mig ...201020333533
development of a peptide-based immunochromatographic strip for differentiation of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs.an immunochromatographic strip for discriminating foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infected from vaccinated pigs was developed based on synthetic peptide. five peptides designed from the amino acid sequences of nonstructural proteins (nsp) of fmdv were synthesized, and pep5 located in nsp 3b reacted strongly with serum from fmdv-infected pigs but did not react with serum samples from healthy vaccinated pigs. an immunochromatographic strip was developed by using colloidal gold labeled with pep ...201020453216
[prokaryotic expression, protein purification and reactivity analysis of the vp1 and its c terminus of a south african isolate of fmdv serotype sat2].to induce the expression of structure protein vp1 and its c terminus of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype sat2 in e.coli and analyze their reactivities with fmdv positive antiserum.201020619084
effect of the extract made from cochinchina momordica seeds on the humoral immune responses of mice to a commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (serotypes o and asia 1).the extract from ecms was investigated for its effect on the humoral immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. fifty-six mice were randomly divided into seven groups with eight animals in each. mice in groups 5 to 7 were subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with 0.5 mg dex daily for 4 days to induce immunosuppression. the animals were then orally given ecms (200 microg in 250 microl saline) in groups 3 and 6 or 250 microl saline in group 2, or s.c. injected with ecms (50 microg in 100 mi ...201020055940
phylogenetic analysis of indian serotype asia1 foot-and-mouth-disease virus isolates revealed emergence and reemergence of different genetic lineages.foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 causes significant number of disease outbreaks in india. indian asia1 virus isolates were shown to be genetically heterogeneous and of the two lineages (lineage b and lineage c) described in india, lineage c caused majority of the outbreaks. emergence of a novel divergent lineage (lineage d) within lineage c has been described in 2001. in the present report, the complete vp1 genomic region of 41 fmdv asia1 field isolates collected between 2003 a ...201020080365
hsp70 enhances presentation of fmdv antigen to bovine cd4+ t cells in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious acute vesicular disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep and pigs. the current vaccine induces a rapid humoral response, but the duration of the protective antibody response is variable, possibly associated with a variable specific cd4+ t cell response. we investigated the use of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a molecular chaperone to target viral antigen to the major histocompatibility co ...201020167197
quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking elisa for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.a single serum-dilution liquid phase elisa (slpelisa) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease. the absorbance value at a dilution 1:64 of each serum sample was interpolated in a standard curve by plotting the antibody titers of six control sera determined by end point dilution liquid phase elisa (lpelisa), against the absorbance values for the same control sera at 1:64 dilutions. a straight line was obtained by linear regression anal ...201020170683
the relationship between cellular immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus asia 1 and viral persistence in indian cattle (bosindicus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), the most contagious animal disease, is associated with persistent viral infection in ruminants, despite the induction of systemic immune response. the present study was performed to decipher the relation between the persistent fmd virus (fmdv) infection and cellular immune response in indian cattle (bosindicus) following experimental inoculation of fmdv asia 1. persistent viral infection (carriers) was detected by antigen capture rt-pcr on the oesophageal-pharyngeal ...201020189208
marker vaccine potential of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial vp1 g-h loop deletion.previous work in cattle and pigs demonstrated that protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) could be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines, in which the vp1 g-h loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. this indicated that the vp1 g-h loop may not be essential for the protection of natural hosts against fmdv. if this could be substantiated there would be potential to develop fmd marker vaccines, characterised by the abse ...201020199761
the efficacy of fmd vaccine reduced non-structural proteins with a mab against 3b protein.a monoclonal antibody, 3bigg, against the prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein (nsp) 3b was obtained. the 3bigg-sepharose conjugant (3bmab-6bff) was prepared by adding the purified 3bigg into epoxy-activated sepharose 6bff, incubating with the inactivated fmdv, and then removing the sepharose by centrifugation. the vaccine was made from the supernatant emulsified with oil-adjuvant isa206. ten guinea pigs, 26 pigs and six cattle were vaccinated, and ...201020512625
foot and mouth disease in animals in sharkia governorate - egypt.this study was carried out to determine the current state of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in different animal species in sharkia governorate in egypt. in addition, we investigated the spreading of the virus through water and soil in the animal environment as well as by rodents. the isolation rates of fmd virus in tissue culture were 39.6%, 11.4%, 41.2% and 100% for cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat respectively. all animals did not show any clinical signs for fmd. in addition, the virus was isolat ...201020537095
differences in the virulence of two strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a with the same spatiotemporal distribution.during the 2000-2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in argentina, two fmdv serotype a viruses were identified among others. since different pathogenic properties between these virus strains were noticed in cattle, we evaluated several biological properties and features of fmdv a/arg/00 and fmdv a/arg/01 in order to compare these viruses in terms of virulence and pathogenicity. our results indicate that fmdv a/arg/00 grows less efficiently than fmdv a/arg/01, exemplified by small ...201019883705
a recombinant truncated fmdv 3ab protein used to better distinguish between infected and vaccinated cattle.to distinguish the antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection from those induced by vaccination, a recombinant n-terminal truncated fmdv non-structural protein (nsp) of 3ab, designated as r3ab, was constructed by deleting 80 amino acids displayed about 30% homology to transposase is4 family protein of escherichia coli, expressed in e. coli bl21 (de3) and then purified. the r3ab was majorly expressed in soluble fraction and presented as homogeneous monomers after purifica ...201020197135
use of a baculovirus-expressed structural protein for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type a by a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with a baculovirus-expressed structural protein was developed for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type a. it exhibited 99% specificity with a cutoff of 53% inhibition. its sensitivity was comparable to the sensitivities of the virus neutralization test and the liquid-phase blocking elisa, indicating its potential as an alternative assay.201019889938
genetic characterization of indian type o fmd virus 3a region in context with host cell preference.the 3a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been implicated in host range and virulence. for example, amino acid deletions in the porcinophilic strain (o/taw/97) at 93-102aa of the 153 codons long 3a protein have been recognized as the determinant of species specificity. in the present study, 18 type o fmdv isolates from india were adapted in different cell culture systems and the 3a sequence was analyzed. these isolates had complete 3a coding sequence (153aa) and did not exhibit growth re ...201020302973
the region between the two polyprotein initiation codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus is critical for virulence in cattle.to explore the role in viral pathogenesis of the region located between the two functional aug (inter-aug) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), we derived viruses containing transposon (tn) inserts from a mutagenized cdna infectious clone of fmdv (pa24-wt). mutant viruses containing an in-frame 57-nt transposon insertion grew at a slower rate and had a smaller plaque size phenotype than the parental virus (a24-wt). a mutant virus containing a 51-nt deletion in inter-aug had a similar phenotyp ...201019896688
molecular characterization of sat 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in uganda.in uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. in this study, the presence of fmd virus rna was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after fmd quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir i ...201020003615
a single amino acid substitution in the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus can increase acid lability and confer resistance to acid-dependent uncoating inhibition.the acid-dependent disassembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is required for viral rna release from endosomes to initiate replication. although the fmdv capsid disassembles at acid ph, mutants escaping inhibition by nh(4)cl of endosomal acidification were found to constitute about 10% of the viruses recovered from bhk-21 cells infected with fmdv c-s8c1. for three of these mutants, the degree of nh(4)cl resistance correlated with the sensitivity of the virion to acid-induced inactivation ...201020053737
molecular characterization and expression analysis of porcine integrins alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 that are potentially involved in fmdv infection.in the present study, we report the sequences and characterization of the porcine integrin cdnas encoding alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits and compare them to those of other species. the coding sequences for the porcine alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunits were found to be 3141, 2289, 2367 and 2304 nucleotides in length, encoding 1046, 762, 788 and 767-amino-acid-residue protein, respectively. the porcine integrin alphav, beta3, beta6 and beta8 subunit shares common structural and func ...201020438833
the development of oral fluid-based diagnostics and applications in veterinary medicine.the purpose of this review was to discuss the history of the development and implementation of oral fluid diagnostics for infectious diseases of humans and domestic animals. the use of oral fluid for the assessment of health and diagnosis of disease in humans and animals has a surprisingly long history. as early as 1909, pollaci and ceraulo reported sensitive and specific agglutination of 'micrococcus melitensis' (brucella melitensis) by oral fluid from patients diagnosed with malta fever. a 198 ...201020202287
different infection parameters between dairy cows and calves after an infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.clinical observations of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus infection in dairy cows and calves were different. this raised the question whether they would also differ with respect to virus excretion and transmission. data were available from transmission experiments carried out with groups of dairy cows and calves. half of each group was inoculated with fmdv o/ned/2001; the other half contact-exposed to inoculated animals. virus excretion, clinical signs and antibody response were measured and ...201019716326
rt-pcr evaluation for identification and sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan.fmd clinically positive 250 tissue samples (mouth and hoof epithelium and vesicle swabs, tongue tissue) and 175 secretion samples (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) were evaluated by rt-pcr for the diagnosis of fmd with different pair of universal and serotype-specific primers from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan. universal primer pair p1/p2 from vp1 gene detected fmd in 182 out of 250 (72.8%) tissues and 92 out of 175 (52.6%) secretion samples, while universal primer 1f/1r from 5'utr region detecte ...201120031216
difference in the level of interferon gamma mrna transcripts on stimulation of cattle and buffalo mononuclear cells with foot and mouth disease virus-antigen: a possible role of sequence variation in promoter region.in an attempt to resolve the claim that buffaloes differ from cattle in disease progression, this study was undertaken to compare the mitogen (cona) or antigen (foot and mouth disease virus) induced expression levels of interferon gamma (ifn-γ mrna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) by real-time quantitative pcr. in general, the levels of ifn-γ mrna were lower in buffaloes than in crossbred cattle. significantly higher levels of ifn-γ mrna were also observed in crossbred cattle when i ...201120541234
meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination.the objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of fmd emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret the results. peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. clinical protection and virological protection against fmd were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of ...201120869130
foot-and-mouth disease: the question of implementing vaccinal control during an epidemic.the question of whether or not to use vaccines during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has interested veterinary administrators for many decades. this review assesses the historical uses, successes and failures of vaccinal control, and addresses the questions of where, how, and when to use vaccination against fmd. approaching the problem in this manner can aid in identifying which tools are likely to be most effective during an epidemic, and how successful a given contingency plan mig ...201120350828
bovine plasmacytoid dendritic cells are the major source of type i interferon in response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.type i interferons (alpha/beta interferons [ifn-a/ß]) are the main innate cytokines that are able to induce a cellular antiviral state, thereby limiting viral replication and disease pathology. plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdcs) play a crucial role in the control of viral infections, especially in response to viruses that have evolved mechanisms to block the type i ifn signal transduction pathway. using density gradient separation and cell sorting, we have highly enriched a population of bovine ...201121307187
outbreak investigations and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in ethiopia in 2008/2009.the study was conducted in three regional states of ethiopia: amhara, oromia, and addis ababa from august 2008 to april 2009 with the objectives of identifying the genetic diversity of serotypes and topotypes in ethiopia, and determining the attack rate and associations of potential risk factors with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) seropositivity. a total of 496 cattle were clinically and serologically examined for presence of specific lesions and nonstructural protein for fmd, respectively. of whi ...201120717724
modelling foot-and-mouth disease virus dynamics in oral epithelium to help identify the determinants of lysis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed livestock; of interest here is the difference in lytic behaviour that is observed in bovine epithelium. on the skin around the feet and tongue, the virus rapidly replicates, killing cells, and resulting in growing lesions, before eventually being cleared by the immune response. in contrast, there is usually minimal lysis in the soft palate, but virus may persist in tissue long after the animal has recov ...201120725794
a mutant of asia 1 serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of an important antigenic epitope in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the availability of a vaccine for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is crucial for the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). because traditional inactivated vaccines may contain trace nonstructural proteins interfering with the diva, we hypothesized that mutant fmdv with deletion of immunodominant epitopes may be valuable. our previous study has generated a full-l ...201121358757
in-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-rgd receptor recognition sites.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) uses a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. previous sequence analyses of the 1d-encoding region of an fmdv field isolate (asia1/js/cha/05) and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an arg-asp-asp (rdd) or an arg-ser-asp (rsd) triplet instead of the rgd integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution ...201121711567
[foot and mouth disease virus keeps lurking around the corner]. 201121702179
predicting antigenic sites on the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid of the south african territories (sat) types using virus neutralization data.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outer capsid proteins 1b, 1c and 1d contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. this study presents phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analyses of south african territories (sat) serotypes prevalent in sub-saharan africa. here, we show that the high levels of genetic diversity in the p1-coding region within the sat serotypes are reflected in the antigenic properties of these viruses and t ...201121697350
Validation of an r3AB1-FMDV-NSP ELISA to distinguish between cattle infected and vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus.Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock which has a drastic economic impact for affected countries. Although FMDV is distributed worldwide, many regional programs have been effective eradicating this agent. In Argentina, as in many other regions of South America, the combination of a systematic vaccination plan, together with an effective detection system capable of differentiating infection from vaccination, has been successful for eradicating this ...201121946290
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