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protective antigens against enterotoxigenic escherichia coli o101:k99,f41 in the infant mouse diarrhea model.protective antigens present in whole cells of bovine enterotoxigenic escherichia coli strains were tested in an infant mouse diarrhea model. reduction of mortality rates of infant mice suckling vaccinated mothers was measured 1, 2, and 5 days after oral challenge with strain b41 (o101:k99,f41:h-). vaccines consisted of strains of serogroup o101, o9, o8, or o20 and of variants bearing or not bearing antigens k99 and f41. k99 and f41 expressions were checked by slide agglutination with k99 and f41 ...19882895746
cs31a, a new k88-related fimbrial antigen on bovine enterotoxigenic and septicemic escherichia coli strains.the nature of the common surface antigen of six hemagglutinating and adhesive piliated escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic or septicemic calves was studied. by electron microscopy studies, the e. coli surface antigen designated cs31a was found on bacterial cells and in purified form to consist of thin (2-nm) "fibrillar" fimbriae. e. coli 31a, which was cured of a 105-megadalton plasmid, failed to express cs31a fimbriae, but retained the ability to hemagglutinate and to adhere in vit ...19882899553
the beta-subunit of the bovine mitochondrial f1 atpase specifically binds the amino terminal domain of parathyroid hormone.a protein which specifically binds the amino terminal domain of parathyroid hormone (pth) on nitrocellulose blots of polyacrylamide gels was fragmented with cyanogen bromide (cnbr), and two fragments were sequenced through 20 residues. the sequence obtained was 100% homologous with the beta-subunit of bovine f1 mitochondrial atpase. purified f1 atpase from bovine heart and escherichia coli were obtained and the binding of pth examined on the blots. the beta-subunit of the bovine enzyme bound pth ...19882904385
fimbria-like adhesive factor (eaf 44) from verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli of bovine origin.an adhesin with fimbria-like properties was present in four strains of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli isolated from diarrhoeic calves in brazil.19882905510
flotation of mastitis pathogens with cream from subclinically infected quarters. prospects for developing a cream-rising test for detecting mastitis caused by major mastitis pathogens.bacterial isolates, originating from 36 subclinically infected quarter milk samples, were labelled with 75se and checked for cream-rising at various temperatures in a system analogous to the abr test ("abortus bang ringprobe"; the cream-rising test based on stained brucella organisms for detection of brucellosis). diagnostic specificity and sensitivity were analyzed in experiments where labelled bacterial isolates were mixed with a number of quarter milk samples with known bacteriological status ...19892929195
nucleotide sequence of the gdh gene coding for the nadp-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of saccharomyces cerevisiae.the isolation of the saccharomyces cerevisiae gene for nadp-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (nadp-gdh) by cross hybridization to the neurospora crassa am gene, known to encode for nadp-gdh is described. two dna fragments selected from a yeast genomic library in phage lambda gt11 were shown by restriction analysis to share 2.5 kb of common sequence. a yeast shuttle vector (cv13) carrying either to the cloned fragments complements the gdh- strain of s. cerevisiae and directs substantial overprod ...19852932370
in vitro biological activities of escherichia coli-derived bovine interferons-alpha, -beta, and -gamma.the infectious yields of several bovine viruses were inhibited in bovine cells treated with purified preparations of e. coli-derived bovine interferons (boifns)-alpha, -beta, and -gamma. boifn-beta 2, encoded by one member of the boifn-multigene family, had more potent antiviral and antiproliferative activities than the product of one member of the class-i ifn-alpha gene family (boifn-alpha i1). boifn-beta 2 also completed more effectively than boifn-alpha i1 with huifn-alpha i2 for cell-surface ...19862939154
dual-origin plasmids containing an amplifiable cole1 ori; temperature-controlled expression of cloned genes.dual-origin plasmids comprising an inducible cole1-derived origin of replication controlled by the lambda pr promoter, the ci857 temperature-sensitive repressor gene and the psc101 origin of replication and its associated par sequence, were constructed. such plasmids carrying cloned genes were stably maintained at four copies per chromosome, and were readily amplifiable by thermal induction. cloned gene expression increased with copy number, and accumulation values of greater than 20% total cell ...19862952556
lipocortin-like anti-phospholipase a2 activity of endonexin.endonexin (protein ii, 32.5 kda) has been purified to homogeneity from bovine liver in the following steps: selective extraction by egta from membranes precipitated with triton x-100/calcium; chromatography on deaf-tsk 545 at ph 7.0, endonexin being eluted at 0.1 m nacl; affinity chromatography on polyacrylamide-immobilized phosphatidylserine; gel filtration on tsk 3000. the amino acid composition was essentially similar to that previously reported. using [3h]oleic acid-labelled escherichia coli ...19872953628
differences in excretion and efficiency of the aerobactin and enterochelin siderophores in a bovine pathogenic strain of escherichia coli.secretion of aerobactin is thought to play an important part in the virulence of invasive escherichia coli also capable of synthesizing enterochelin. why, despite its markedly lower affinity for iron than that of enterochelin, aerobactin proves to be the predominant active siderophore for bacterial growth in transferrin was investigated. we studied the action of two iron chelators, 2,2'-dipyridyl and transferrin, in expression of the aerobactin and enterochelin genes. specifically, we describe t ...19882962945
cloning and expression of cdna for human endonexin ii, a ca2+ and phospholipid binding protein.endonexin ii is a member of the family of ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding proteins known as annexins. we cloned human endonexin ii cdna and expressed it in escherichia coli. the apparent size and ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding properties of purified recombinant endonexin ii were indistinguishable from those of the placental protein. a single mrna of approximately 1.6 kilobase pairs was found to be expressed in human cell lines and placenta and was in close agreement with the length of t ...19882967291
isolation and characterization of the bos taurus beta-casein gene.the expression of casein genes in the mammary cells is regulated by peptide and steroid hormones. to investigate the controlling mechanisms we have isolated and characterized the bovine beta-casein gene. the gene has the size of 8.6 kb, which is 7.8 times longer than the corresponding mrna composed of nine exons. the genomic clones include additional 8.5-kb and 4.5-kb sequences of the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. we have determined the sequences of the 5' and 3' ends of the gene and compared the ...19882970989
virulence factors and markers in escherichia coli from calves with bacteremia.relative pathogenicity of 151 escherichia coli isolates from 36 calves with bacteremia after necropsy was studied by measurement of the ld50 after mice were inoculated ip with e coli isolates. study of virulence factors and markers revealed that the pathogenicity of e coli was associated with the production of hydroxamate siderophores and with resistance to serum bactericidal effects. production of colicins, including colicin v, and of surface antigen 31a was correlated with virulence. the close ...19882973271
a field trial to evaluate the efficacy of a combined rotavirus-coronavirus/escherichia coli vaccine in dairy cattle.a field trial was designed to determine the efficacy of a combination rotavirus-coronavirus/escherichia coli vaccine on dairy farms in southwestern ontario. in part a of the trial, 321 cows on 15 farms were randomly assigned to either vaccination or placebo groups. on eight farms, 50% of the dams were vaccinated, while on the other seven farms, 80% of the dams were vaccinated. in part b of the trial, 26 farms were randomly assigned to either a total vaccination program or to no vaccination progr ...19852985213
the dna restriction endonuclease of escherichia coli b. i. studies of the dna translocation and the atpase activities.electron microscopic examination of dna intermediates formed by the restriction endonuclease of escherichia coli b revealed supercoiled loops that are presumably formed during an atp-dependent dna translocation process in which the enzyme remains bound to the recognition site while tracking along the dna helix to a cleavage site. the rate of dna translocation during this process is at least 5000 base pairs/min at 37 degrees c. even after all cleavages have been completed, complexes are seen that ...19852985609
the dna restriction endonuclease of escherichia coli b. ii. further studies of the structure of dna intermediates and products.the dna intermediates and final products formed by the type i restriction endonuclease, ecob, were further characterized. dna cleaved on only one strand (hemi-restricted dna) contains gaps of approximately 70-100 nucleotides, while the fully restricted products contain 3'-single-stranded tails averaging approximately 70-100 nucleotides for each strand cleaved. the gaps and tails are formed with the release of an equal number of nucleotides as small oligonucleotides that are soluble in acid. afte ...19852985610
dna polymerase alpha and models for proofreading.using a modified system to measure fidelity at an amber site in phi x174, we have employed dna polymerase alpha to test different mechanisms for proofreading. dna polymerase alpha does not exhibit the characteristics of "kinetic proofreading" seen with procaryotic polymerases. polymerase alpha shows no evidence for a "next nucleotide" effect, and added deoxynucleoside monophosphates do not alter fidelity. pyrophosphate, which increases error rates with a procaryotic polymerase, appears to weakly ...19852987791
characterization of the dna of the hamster papovavirus: ii. a comparison of binding sites for escherichia coli- and calf thymus rna polymerase ii on the hamster papovavirus genome.calf thymus (ct) rna polymerase ii bound to hamster papovavirus (hapv) dna was visualized by electron microscopy and compared to binding sites obtained after binding of escherichia coli rna polymerase to the hapv genome. thirteen binding sites were observed with ct polymerase ii at map positions 0.04-0.07; 0.11; 0.18; 0.30; 0.37; 0.47; 0.57; 0.65; 0.78; 0.83; 0.90 and 0.94 using the unique bamhi cleavage site as zero point on the hapv physical map. these binding sites correlate well with a + t r ...19852988523
nucleotide sequence of yeast gdh1 encoding nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase.the yeast gdh1 gene encodes nadp-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. this gene was isolated by complementation of an escherichia coli glutamate auxotroph. nadp-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was overproduced 6-10-fold in saccharomyces cerevisiae bearing gdh1 on a multicopy plasmid. the nucleotide sequence of the 1362-base pair coding region and 5' and 3' flanking sequences were determined. transcription start sites were located by s1 nuclease mapping. regulation of gdh1 was not maintained when ...19852989290
high spontaneous mutation frequency of bpv shuttle vector.a recombinant shuttle vector containing the entire bovine papillomavirus (bpv) genome, sequences from pbr322, and the escherichia coli gpt gene was used to transform mouse c127 cells. plasmid extracted from the transformed mouse cells was used to transform a gpt- derivative of e. coli hb101, and the relative frequency of plasmids carrying a mutation in the gpt gene was determined. approximate mutant frequencies of 3-16 x 10(-3) were observed for plasmid molecules which had been passaged through ...19852994240
the cytochrome c oxidase test for the rapid detection of psychrotrophic bacteria in milk.a new, rapid, simple and cheap method for the detection of the predominant psychrotrophic bacteria in raw and pasteurized milks is described, using tetramethyl-p-phenylene-diamine dihydrochloride to detect cytochrome c oxidase which in general is not present in the non-psychrotrophic bacterial milk flora. the test is sensitive to samples containing over 10(4) organisms/ml. correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.84 between dye oxidation and viable counts for pasteurized and raw milk samples, resp ...19852995302
possible mechanism of the allosteric activation of camp receptor protein.secondary structure of camp receptor protein of e. coli was predicted and compared to its crystal structure in the complex with camp solved by mckay and steitz. the two conformations coincide in the dna binding domain but strikingly differ in the other domain which binds camp and causes protein dimerization. the comparison indicates that camp destabilizes a very long helix instead of which sheets are formed creating a hydrophobic pocket where camp binds. consequently, the helix-sheets isomerizat ...19852996527
catalytic properties of the hhaii restriction endonuclease.the catalytic properties of the hhaii restriction endonuclease were studied using plasmid psk11 dna containing a single 5'-g-a-n-t-c hhaii cleavage site as substrate. reactions were followed by two methods: 1) gel electrophoretic analysis of nicked circular and linear dna products, or 2) release of 32p-labeled inorganic phosphate from specifically labeled hhaii sites in a reaction coupled with bacterial alkaline phosphatase. the enzyme is optimally active at 37 degrees c in 10 mm tris-hcl (ph 9. ...19852999112
biological activities and receptor binding of two human recombinant interferons and their hybrids.two human recombinant lymphoblastoid interferon-alpha subtypes, lyifn-b (alpha 8) and lyifn-d (alpha 1), and 10 hybrids generated therefrom were produced in escherichia coli and purified. the antiviral and antiproliferative activities and the induction of (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetase were compared to their receptor binding affinities. the ifn subtypes and their hybrids had similar specific antiviral activities on bovine cells. on human cells both the specific antiviral and antiproliferative ...19863016158
evaluation of a combined rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli vaccine in cattle.a vaccine of rotavirus and k99 antigen from enterotoxigenic escherichia coli was emulsified in oil adjuvant and administered intramuscularly to pregnant cows. calves born to and reared on vaccinated dams were protected against experimental rotavirus infection at five days old when compared with calves from unvaccinated control cows. field trials of the vaccine were carried out in 40 commercial herds, in which half the cows in each herd were selected at random for vaccination and half were left u ...19863018989
probable occurrence of brain basic protein factor i, an activator of phosphoprotein phosphatases.basic protein factor i (bpfi was purified to homogeneity from bovine brain by boiling and trichloroacetic acid-precipitation of tissue homogenate, followed by deae-cellulose, sephadex g-150, affi-gel-phenothiazine, and bio-gel p-6dg chromatographic procedures. the preparation appeared as a single protein band in the sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a minimal mr of 13,200. the factor was a basic protein as indicated by an estimated isoelectric point of ph 8.3 and a high content of amin ...19863019610
a mutated bovine prochymosin zymogen can be activated without proteolytic processing at low ph.as a first step towards understanding how the zymogen structure of prochymosin contributes to the process by which active enzyme is produced, we altered the nucleotide sequence which encodes the amino-terminal (or propeptide) region of the protein. of the two sites for autoproteolysis of prochymosin, one where pseudochymosin is formed at a ph of 2 and the other where chymosin is formed at ph 4-5, we changed the former by removing one codon and changing two other codons. this genetically modified ...19863023316
[a new polyvalent vaccine against enteral infections in newborn calves].the most frequent microbial causative agents of massive diarrheas in new-born calves kept on large cattle farms in the cssr are rotaviruses, coronaviruses and enterotoxigenic strains of e. coli, manifesting themselves as complicated virus-bacterial infections. an inactivated polyvalent adjuvant vaccine has been developed for the prevention and specific prophylaxis of these enteral infections; the vaccine contains bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus and three enterotoxigenic serotypes of e. coli ...19873029935
shedding of enteric coronavirus in adult cattle.electron microscopic examination of fecal specimens from adult dairy cows indicated seasonal coronavirus shedding. fifty-two cows from a 300 cow herd were monitored for shedding of coronavirus. approximately 50% to 60% of the cows monitored shed coronavirus during the winter months (november to march) of the first year of the study. during 2 subsequent years of monitoring the same cows, 20% to 30% of the cows shed coronavirus during the winter months. virus shedding was not detected during the s ...19873032023
effect of vaccination of the dam on rotavirus infection in young calves.vaccination of cows with a combined, inactivated, adjuvanted rotavirus and escherichia coli vaccine resulted in increased neutralising antibody titres to rotavirus in serum and colostral whey. evidence was obtained that vaccination resulted in a decreased incidence of rotavirus shedding and of abnormal faeces or diarrhoea in young calves fed colostrum and milk from the vaccinated dams. the e coli component of the vaccine was not evaluated because no natural challenge was evident.19873033870
[epidemiology of diarrhea caused by escherichia coli and rotavirus in calves and lambs in morocco].an epidemiological survey on e coli and rotavirus associated diarrheas in one to twenty five days old calves and lambs was made in three regions: rabat-kenitra, marrakech and agadir. isolated e coli k99 stains have been studied of a biochemical, serotypical (o antigen) and antibiotypical point of view. the identification of rotavirus was made by elisa test. persistence of k99 antigen and heat stable toxin a was examined after a conservation of 5 weeks at - 18 degrees c. the frequency of e coli k ...19883041900
a glycolipid precursor of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lipid x) lacks activity against endothelial cells in vitro and is not toxic in vivo.lipid x (2,3-diacylglucosamine-1-phosphate) accumulates in mutants of escherichia coli incapable of assembling the disaccharide backbone of lipid a, the principle endotoxic moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps). we compared the effects of lipid x on cultured bovine aortic endothelial cell (bec) viability and prostacyclin (pgi2) release with those of lipid a and lps. at 10(-5) m, both lps and lipid a produced significant bec cytotoxicity (percentage cytotoxicity 69 +/- 4 for lps and 51 +/- ...19883043110
effect of ph changes on the killing of staphylococcus aureus and other mastitis pathogens by bovine neutrophil granule extracts.a partly purified extract of granules from bovine neutrophils was used to investigate killing of mastitis pathogens by the non-oxidative killing system of the neutrophil. eight strains of staphylococcus aureus, two of escherichia coli and two of streptococcus uberis were used. different strains of bacteria had different sensitivities to killing by the extract, three strains of staphylococci being particularly resistant. whereas e coli were killed most effectively at ph 6.0, little or no killing ...19883043603
inhibition of parathyroid hormone bioactivity by human parathyroid hormone (pth)-(3-84) and pth-(8-84) synthesized in escherichia coli.human pth (hpth)-(3-84) and hpth-(8-84) were synthesized in escherichia (e.) coli when the cells were transformed with a multicopy plasmid in which the transcription of human prepropth cdna is directed by the e. coli lac promoter. pth fragments were extracted from cells and purified by reverse phase hplc. pth bioactivity and pth antagonist activity were estimated in a renal cytochemical bioassay. hpth-(3-84) and hpth-(8-84) exhibited less than 1% and less than 0.1%, respectively, of the biologic ...19883046927
cdna cloning and sequence analysis of a chicken gene expressed during the gonadal development and homologous to mammalian cytochrome p-450c17.a cdna clone, ploa0511, was isolated from the cdna library prepared from the left ovaries of one- to three-day-old chickens. the transcript corresponding to this cdna clone is approx. 1.9 kb in length and is present in steroidogenic tissues (ovary, testis and adrenal gland) but is undetectable in non-steroidogenic tissues. relative abundance of the transcript in the ovary and testis is high and developmentally regulated but is much lower in the adrenal gland. relative levels of this transcript i ...19883047010
triacylglycerol output by the isolated perfused liver of endotoxin-treated rats.liver perfusion experiments were performed to further investigate the origin of hypertriacylglycerolemia associated with endotoxemia in rats. for this purpose male rats were treated with e. coli endotoxin in a dose of 0.5 mg/100 g b.w. intravenously, deprived of food (with free access to water), and used 18 h later for liver perfusion experiments. livers were isolated and perfused for 4 h with a medium consisting of krebs-ringer bicarbonate buffer containing bovine serum albumin (4%, w/v), gluco ...19883048767
non-radioactive oligonucleotide probe for detection of clinical enterotoxigenic escherichia coli isolates of bovine origin.oligonucleotides (32 or 34 mer) corresponding to enterotoxigenic escherichia coli stia (st-p) toxin gene were tailed with bio-11-dutp using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. plasmids from clinical e. coli isolates were prepared by modified rapid alkaline lysis procedure and dot-spotted. biotinylated oligonucleotide probes were hybridized to detect the stia toxin gene. the results were in agreement with that obtained by radioactive oligonucleotide probes. of 135 clinical isolates (sampled fr ...19883052531
evidence for interaction of an aminoacyl transfer rna synthetase with a region important for the identity of its cognate transfer rna.recent experiments showed that a single base pair (g3:u70) in the amino acid acceptor helix is a major determinant for the identity of escherichia coli alanine transfer rna. experiments reported here show that bound alanine trna synthetase protects (from ribonuclease attack) seven consecutive phosphodiester linkages on the 3'-side of the acceptor-t psi c helix (phosphates 65-71) and a few additional sites that are in scattered locations. there is no evidence for interaction of the enzyme with th ...19883053691
pharmacokinetics of single doses of cefoxitin given by the intravenous and intramuscular routes to unweaned calves.cefoxitin pharmacokinetics and bioavailability were studied in unweaned calves. the antibiotic was administered to nine calves intravenously (i.v.), to seven calves intramuscularly (i.m.) at 20 mg/kg and to eight calves i.m. at 20 mg/kg together with probenecid at 40 mg/kg. serum concentration versus time data were analysed using statistical moment theory (smt). the i.v. data were also fitted by a linear, open two-compartment model. the elimination half-life (t1/2) was 66.9 +/- 6.9 min (mean +/- ...19883054149
[clinical and bacteriologic studies of the frequency of mastitis during and after parturition in heifers lactating for the first time].the udders of 100 heifers were examined for clinical changes during parturition. of each quarter colostral samples were taken and analyzed bacteriologically. 35 heifers (13.5% of the quarters) showed clinical changes of the quarters and/or of colostral samples. 14 of these animals (4.75% of the quarters) suffered from cellulitis-like mastitis. 13 (5.25% of the quarters) had acute catarrhalic mastitis and eight heifers (3.5% of the quarters) showed acute galactophoritis. in all milk samples of an ...19883055422
characters of escherichia coli 078 isolated from septicaemic animals.twenty-one escherichia coli isolates of serogroup 078 from animal septicaemia were obtained from laboratories in france, england and canada. the bacteria were compared for outer membrane protein (omp) patterns, lipopolysaccharide patterns, surface proteins of fimbrial types, biotypes, antibiotypes, colicin production, hydroxamate production and virulence in mice. sixteen isolates from bovine, ovine, porcine and avian species in france and england had a similar omp pattern. this characteristic as ...19883055657
colitis in calves: natural and experimental infection with a verotoxin-producing strain of escherichia coli o111:nm.verotoxin-producing escherichia coli o111:nm were isolated from two five week old holstein calves with dysentery. on necropsy both calves had pseudomembranous ileitis, mucohemorrhagic colitis and proctitis. large numbers of e. coli o111:nm were isolated from the colon and lesions typical of attaching-and-effacing e. coli were evident. the isolates from both calves had identical biochemical reactions and antimicrobial resistance patterns. oral inoculation of a four day old colostrum deprived calf ...19883058279
proteolytic cleavage of ada protein that carries methyltransferase and transcriptional regulator activities.the 39-kda ada protein that carries two distinct methyltransferase activities and an activity to promote transcription of the ada and alka genes is cleaved to smaller polypeptides in the case of incubation with a crude extract of escherichia coli. a protease that specifically cleaves the ada protein was partially purified and characterized. the enzyme showed maximal activity at ph 7.8-8.0 and did not require specific ions or atp for the reaction. the activity was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenz ...19883058696
thermal inactivation of campylobacter species, yersinia enterocolitica, and hemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 in fluid milk.heat treatment of raw milk in an htst pasteurizer operated at 60.0 to 72.0 degrees c for a minimum holding time of 16.2 s rapidly inactivated mixtures of hemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7, yersinia enterocolitica and campylobacter spp. (c. fetus, c. coli, and c. jejuni). each of the three genera in the mixture was inoculated at a level of approximately 1.0 x 10(5) cfu/ml. at 60.0 degrees c, hemorrhagic e. coli showed a maximum 2 log10 reduction in counts and no viability at greater than or eq ...19883069886
relationship between serologic recognition of escherichia coli 0111:b4 (j5) and clinical coliform mastitis in cattle.serum igg1 elisa titers recognizing gram-negative core antigens (escherichia coli [j5]) were studied at a large dairy in central california. population mean log10 titer was 2.7357 (equivalent to 1:544) with a se of 0.03843. titers increased with increased lactation number (unstandardized regression coefficient = 0.06733). changes in lactation number accounted for only 6.77% of titer variation. titers less than 1:240 were associated with 5.33 times the risk of clinical coliform mastitis. also, ol ...19883073679
cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interferon-gamma.bovine interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) sequences have been isolated by screening a cdna library with a human ifn-gamma cdna probe. the cdna library was constructed from rna isolated from concanavalin a-stimulated bovine lymph node cells. the open reading frame predicts that the bovine ifn-gamma precursor is composed of 166 amino acids with a predicted m.w. of 19,393. alignment of the amino acid sequence with human ifn-gamma indicates that mature bovine ifn-gamma is composed of 143 amino acids with ...19863086437
cloning and sequence of a cdna coding for the human beta-migrating endothelial-cell-type plasminogen activator inhibitor.a lambda gt11 expression library containing cdna inserts prepared from human placental mrna was screened immunologically using an antibody probe developed against the beta-migrating plasminogen activator inhibitor (beta-pai) purified from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. thirty-four positive clones were isolated after screening 7 x 10(5) phages. three clones (lambda 1.2, lambda 3, and lambda 9.2) were randomly picked and further characterized. these contained inserts 1.9, 3.0, and 1.9 k ...19863092219
identification of brucella abortus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of cows, goats, and mice with an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunoenzymatic staining technique.an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunoenzymatic staining technique was evaluated for light microscopic detection of brucella organisms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. tissues from cows, goats, and mice inoculated with b abortus strain 2308 were examined, using rabbit antiserum to brucella cell surface protein as primary antibody. stained organisms were identified histologically in tissue sections containing b abortus, as detected by bacteriologic examination of duplicate nonpro ...19863096172
selective alteration of substrate specificity by replacement of aspartic acid-189 with lysine in the binding pocket of trypsin.to test the role of asp-189 which is located at the base of the substrate binding pocket in determining the specificity of trypsin toward basic substrates, this residue was replaced with a lysine residue by site-directed mutagenesis. both rat trypsinogen and lys-189 trypsinogen were expressed and secreted into the periplasmic space of escherichia coli. the proteins were purified to homogeneity and activated by porcine enterokinase, and their catalytic activities were determined on natural and sy ...19873111531
inhibition of mammalian dna polymerases by recombinant alpha-interferon and gamma-interferon.interferons (ifns) have been shown to suppress the growth of both normal and malignant cells. we examined the effect of gene-cloned ifn-alpha and ifn-gamma on the in vitro activities of human, calf, or rat dna polymerases. ifn-alpha strongly inhibited the reactions of dna polymerase alpha and beta at apparent ki values of 1.25 and 0.35 x 10(5) antiviral units/ml, respectively, but inhibited dna polymerase gamma only slightly. ifn-gamma inhibited the reaction of dna polymerase alpha more strongly ...19873117359
antibody levels in milk of vaccinated and unvaccinated cows against organisms of neonatal diarrhoea. 19873124412
binding and action of cecropin and cecropin analogues: antibacterial peptides from insects.the mechanism of action of cecropin was studied by using liposomes as a model system. the bilayer was efficiently destroyed if the liposome net charge was zero or negative. cecropin analogues with an impaired n-terminal helix had reduced membrane disrupting abilities that correlate with their lower antibacterial activity. the reduced bactericidal activity of the analogues was rationalized in terms of reduced binding to bacteria. the stoichiometry of cecropin killing of bacteria suggests that amo ...19883128324
allosteric activation by purine nucleosides and nucleotides of the inactive by phosphatase ornithine decarboxylase of tetrahymena pyriformis.ornithine decarboxylase (odc) of tetrahymena pyriformis is inactivated by e. coli or calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase. inactivated odc by e. coli alkaline phosphatase, form b, can be allosterically reactivated to form a by purine-nucleosides or -nucleotides at 10(-4) m concentration. inactivated odc by calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase bound to agarose can be converted to form a by purine-analogues with 10(-7) m concentration only if inorganic phosphate is included in the incubation mixtu ...19883130058
chemical and immunological characterization of the 21-kda adp-ribosylation factor of adenylate cyclase.the adp-ribosylation factor (arf) is a 21-kda gtp-binding protein cofactor in the cholera toxin-catalyzed adp-ribosylation of the stimulatory regulatory subunit of adenylate cyclase. purified bovine brain arf was digested with cyanogen bromide, and peptides were purified and sequenced. approximately 25-30% of the protein was sequenced in this manner. peptides contained consensus sequences for gtp-binding proteins but were distinct from any of the previously published gtp-binding proteins. antibo ...19883131341
sites of termination of in vitro dna synthesis on cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii) treated single-stranded dna: a comparison between e. coli dna polymerase i and eucaryotic dna polymerases alpha.we have compared the capacity of the large fragment of e. coli dna polymerase i and highly purified dna polymerases alpha from either drosophila melanogaster embryos or calf thymus to replicate single-stranded m13 mp10 dna treated with the antitumoral drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii) (cis-ddp). we report that: a) although prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes have different structural complexity and dissimilar in vivo functions, their synthesis was blocked in vitro at similar sites on cis-ddp ...19883132699
expression of the bovine hypothalamic hormone oxytocin precursor in escherichia coli.the bovine oxytocin precursor was expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein by cloning the hormone encoding cdna in frame behind the replicase gene of the rna phage ms2. by step-wise extraction with different urea concentrations, the fusion protein was enriched in the 7 m urea fraction and further purified by sephacryl s-300 chromatography. the oxytocin precursor was cleaved off the fusion protein by cyanogen bromide treatment, chromatographed on fplc columns and identified by western bl ...19883135840
effect of antiserum against aflatoxin b1-bovine serum albumin complex on aflatoxin b1-induced lysogenesis.escherichia coli k12 bacteria lysogenic for the lambda phage were used to study the effect of antiserum against aflatoxin b1-induced lysogenesis. the antiserum was obtained from rabbits immunized with water in oil emulsion of aflatoxin b1-bovine serum albumin complex (afb1-bsa). a marked reduction in the degree of lysogenesis was observed when the antiserum was added to the reaction medium prior to microsomal enzyme activation of aflatoxin b1. there was no detectable effect when the antiserum wa ...19883140005
effects of stroma-free hemoglobin solutions on isolated perfused rabbit hearts and isolated perfused rat kidneys."stroma-free" hemoglobin solutions (sfh) cause hemodynamic alterations indicative of vasoconstriction. we studied vasoconstrictor activity in isolated rabbit hearts and rat kidneys of unmodified sfh and of sfh modified by pyridoxylation or glyoxylation, with or without glutaraldehyde cross-linking. the purity and chemical composition of the solutions, all prepared by other laboratories, were not characterized by us. in isolated hearts sfh prepared by conventional methods had potent vasoconstrict ...19883140918
the g protein-gated atrial k+ channel is stimulated by three distinct gi alpha-subunits.the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, gi, which inhibits adenylyl cyclase, has recently been shown to have three subtypes of the alpha-subunit, termed gi alpha-1, gi alpha-2 and gi alpha-3. they share 87-94% amino-acid sequence homology and so are difficult to separate from one another. among other functions, purified preparations activate k+ channels but there is confusion over which of the subtypes activates the muscarinic k+ channels of the atrial muscle of the heart: gi alpha-3, also terme ...19883143915
nucleotide sequence of chicken myb proto-oncogene promoter region: detection of an evolutionarily conserved element.the nucleotide sequence of the chicken myb proto-oncogene putative promoter region was determined and compared with the corresponding sequence of the mouse c-myb gene (1). 118 bp upstream from the initiation codon suggested by gerondakis and bishop (2) for the chicken c-myb protein, a 124-bp-long conserved element was found (92% identity in chicken and mouse sequences). sequences homologous to this element were detected on southern blots of restricted genomic dnas from mouse, man, lizard, frog, ...19883145493
enzymatic amidation of recombinant (leu27) growth hormone releasing hormone-gly45.by chemoenzymatic synthesis the gene for a (leu27) analogue of human growth hormone releasing hormone-gly45 [(leu27)ghrh-gly45] was constructed, cloned and expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein with beta-galactosidase under the control of the lac promoter and operator. upon induction with isopropyl-d-thio-beta-galactopyranoside the fusion protein accumulated to a yield of 15-20% of the total cellular protein. after cyanogen bromide cleavage of the fusion protein the precursor peptide ...19873148933
multiple interactions of lysine-128 of escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase revealed by site-directed mutagenesis studies.a highly conserved lysine at position 128 of escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) has been altered by site-directed mutagenesis of the gdha gene. chemical modification studies have previously shown the importance of this residue for catalytic activity. we report the properties of mutants in which lysine-128 has been changed to histidine (k128h) or arginine (k128r). both mutants have substantially reduced catalytic centre activities and raised ph optima for activity. k128h also has incr ...19883149742
reduction studies on bacterial recombinant somatomedin c/insulin-like growth factor-1.n-met-somatomedin c/insulin-like growth factor-1 (rsmc) had been produced in recombinant escherichia coli in monomeric form. the intact rsmc peptide is initially synthesized in e. coli cells in denatured form as inclusion bodies. the rsmc peptide in these inclusion bodies was found in reduced form. isolation of this rsmc peptide was accomplished by separation and dissolution of the inclusion bodies, with dissociation of non-covalently aggregated species. the reduced rsmc was converted to a metas ...19883170686
effects of source and washing of erythrocytes on growth of bacterial pathogens from the bovine mammary gland.effects of source and washing of rbc on quantitative growth and hemolytic zone sizes of common bacterial pathogens of the bovine mammary gland were evaluated. blood samples used to prepare the blood agar media were obtained from 10 adult dairy cows, 10 dairy calves, and 10 sheep. hemolytic zone sizes produced by staphylococcus aureus were significantly (p less than 0.01) larger on blood agar prepared with washed rbc than on blood agar prepared with nonwashed rbc, regardless of rbc source. with t ...19883279872
rabbit pasteurellosis: induced disease and vaccination.pasteurellosis was induced in rabbits by conjunctival inoculation with 2 strains of pasteurella multocida. the ld50 of strain p1062 (a bovine isolate) was 10(5.1) colony-forming units and that of strain p1059 (a turkey isolate) was 10(5.5) colony-forming units. pasteurella-free rabbits were vaccinated iv or mucosally with boiled cells of p multocida or a cross-reactive uridine diphosphogalactose epimerase-deficient mutant of escherichia coli j5. in rabbits challenge exposed with p multocida stra ...19883282457
molecular cloning and expression of bovine kappa-casein in escherichia coli.a cdna library was constructed using poly(a) +rna from bovine mammary gland. this cdna library of 6000 clones was screened employing colony hybridization using 32p-labelled oligonucleotide probes and restriction endonuclease mapping. the cdna from the selected plasmid, pkr76, was sequenced using the dideoxy-chain termination method. the cdna insert of pkr76 carries the full-length sequence, which codes for mature kappa-casein protein. the amino acid sequence deduced from the cdna sequence fits t ...19883286696
relationship of milk proteins in blood with somatic cell counts in milk of dairy cows.intramammary leucocytosis was induced by injection of escherichia coli endotoxin via the teat canal in three lactating holstein cows. concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin and casein in blood serum were measured, and somatic cell concentration and yield and composition of milk were determined. endotoxin injection elicited mean increases of 100-fold in somatic cell concentration and 50% in protein concentration, whereas milk yield declined 5-fold and lactose concentration was halved. concentrations ...19883286699
contribution of various host factors to resistance to experimentally induced bacterial endotoxemia in calves.the reactions of 15 calves to iv administered bacterial lipopolysaccharide was investigated and was correlated with the capacity of 2 host defense mechanisms. the calves had a wide range of changes in clinical response, total wbc count, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (ld) activity, reaction to intradermally inoculated lipid a, and rectal temperature response. the early rectal temperature response of an individual calf was correlated with plasma ld activity, indicating a relationship between cell d ...19883288022
changes in blastogenic activity of bovine blood mononuclear cells throughout the nonlactating period.mononuclear cells were isolated from bovine blood by density gradient centrifugation to determine variation in mitogen-induced mononuclear cell activity throughout the nonlactating period. in a preliminary study, optimum concentrations of concanavalin a, phytohemagglutinin, salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide, and three escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides were determined using six cows as blood donors. concanavalin a, phytohemagglutinin, and e. coli 0111:b4 lipopolysaccharide were selecte ...19883292610
enteric infections caused by non-enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in animals: occurrence and pathogenicity mechanisms. a review.not all e. coli that cause diarrhoea in farm animals act by elaborating the classical heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins. these newly recognised animal enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) attach to and efface the microvilli of the gut epithelium and resemble the well known human epec. in rabbits, only this type of e. coli enteritis is known to be important and a similar disease has been shown to occur in cattle also. there is no doubt that adherence factors are important in the pathogenesis of ...19873307126
effect of intramammary devices on the outcome of induced escherichia coli infection of bovine mammary quarters.eighteen holstein cows, free of intramammary infection, were fitted with smooth (n = 9) or abraded (n = 9) intramammary devices (imd) in 2 diagonally opposed quarters within 4 weeks after calving. the 2 other quarters of each cow were used as controls. three to 6 weeks after imd insertion, depending on when milk somatic cell counts returned to a base-line value of less than 4 x 10(5)/ml, all cows were subjected to bacterial challenge exposure in the front or rear quarters by intracisternal injec ...19873307564
cloning and sequencing of a carp beta s-crystallin cdna.the mrnas were extracted from common carp (cyprinus carpio) lenses, purified, reverse transcribed, dc tailed and cloned into escherichia coli with pbr322 as vector. the cloning efficiency was around 1 x 10(7) colonies per micrograms of mrna. a clone (pc20) was found by hybrid-arrested to contain the cdna related to carp crystallins. however, comparison of the derived amino-acid sequence with bovine gamma-ii and beta s-crystallins indicates that this carp crystallin sequence resembles closely the ...19873307924
incidence of the aerobactin iron uptake system among escherichia coli isolates from infections of farm animals.to assess the importance of aerobactin-mediated iron uptake as a bacterial virulence determinant in animal infections, a total of 576 strains of escherichia coli isolated from cattle, chickens, sheep and pigs were screened by colony hybridization to determine the presence of the aerobactin genetic determinants, and by a bioassay to detect aerobactin secretion in iron-limited conditions. results obtained by the two complementary methods correlated well. the incidence of the aerobactin system was ...19873309175
clinical pharmacokinetics of five oral cephalosporins in calves.the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) of cephalexin, cephradine, cefaclor, cefatrizine and cefadroxil for salmonella species, escherichia coli and pasteurella multocida isolated previously from young calves were determined. the mic90 values for cephalexin, cephradine and cefadroxil ranged between 3.12 micrograms ml-1 and 12.5 micrograms ml-1, whereas those of cefatrizine and cefaclor were 3.12 micrograms ml-1 and 0.78 microgram ml-1, respectively. each drug was administered intravenously a ...19873317582
alternative procedure for the purification of the heat-stable enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli pathogenic for calves.a method for purification of the heat-stable enterotoxin (st) of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) strains (c1444 and b41) pathogenic for calves and some physiochemical properties of the st are described. the method involved ultrafiltration on pm-10 and um-2 diaflo membranes, acetone fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography on ag 1-x2, chromatofocusing and a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography on octyl-sepharose cl-4b and gel-permeation on bio-gel p-2. polyacrylamide ge ...19873320075
some aspects of dna polymerase functioning.the group of dna polymerases was studied using some new nucleoside 5'-triphosphate analogs with termination substrate properties. among dna polymerases tested the least specific appeared reverse transcriptases of retroviruses and the most specific were dna polymerases alpha type from high eucaryotes including mammalians.19873320974
production of recombinant human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor by escherichia coli.a synthetic gene for human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (psti) was fused to the coding sequence for the amino-terminal 135 amino acid residues of human interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) by interposing a methionine codon sequence, and the resulting hybrid gene was efficiently expressed in escherichia coli cells. recombinant human psti (rhu-psti) was separated from the ifn-gamma/psti fused protein by cleavage at the methionine residue with cyanogen bromide. finally, rhu-psti was purified by a ...19873323193
growth inhibition of escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae during involution of the bovine mammary gland: relation to secretion composition.mammary secretions from 12 holstein dairy cows were collected to evaluate growth inhibition of escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae during involution and during physiologic transitions of the mammary gland. mammary secretions obtained during late lactation poorly inhibited growth of e coli and k pneumoniae. however, as involution progressed, mammary secretions increasingly inhibited growth of both coliform mastitis pathogens. greatest inhibition of e coli and k pneumoniae growth was observ ...19873324839
rapid fluorogenic enumeration of escherichia coli in selected, naturally contaminated high moisture foods.an assay for the enzyme glucuronidase was used to determine the presence of escherichia coli in selected, naturally contaminated high moisture foods. raw pork sausage, ground turkey, and ground beef were inoculated into tubes containing the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-d-glucuronide (mug) in lauryl tryptose (lt) medium. after incubation at 35 degrees c for 24 h, the inoculated lt-mug tubes were examined under longwave ultraviolet light for the presence of a fluorogenic glucuronidase end p ...19873325491
cloning of cdna for darpp-32, a dopamine- and cyclic amp-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein.a cdna clone for the mrna of bovine darpp-32 (dopamine- and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, mr = 32,000) was isolated from a modified okayama-berg plasmid library. transformed escherichia coli colonies were screened by in situ colony hybridization with 2 different oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a region unusually rich in glutamate within the protein. three positive clones were isolated and shown to encode darpp-32 by an in situ immunoblot assay of their fusion pr ...19883339428
amino acid sequence of the nad (h)--binding region of the mitochondrial nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase modified by n,n'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide.purified mitochondrial energy-linked nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (th) is inhibited by n,n'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (dccd), and nad(h) protects the enzyme against this inhibition [phelps, d.c., and hatefi, y. (1984) biochemistry 23, 4475-4480]. the tryptic digest of th treated with [14c]dccd showed a single radioactive peak upon fplc chromatography. this radioactive peak was absent from tryptic digests of th treated with [14c]dccd in the presence of nadh. sequence analysis of the ra ...19873426633
gastrointestinal plasma leakage in endotoxic shock. inhibition by prostaglandin e2 and by a platelet-activating factor antagonist.the effects of pretreatment with prostaglandin e2 or the platelet-activating factor antagonist, cv-3988, on endotoxin-induced gastric damage, gastrointestinal plasma protein leakage, and systemic hypotension were examined in the rat. endotoxic shock was induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide from escherichia coli and was characterized by prolonged hypotension, gastrointestinal hyperemia and hemorrhage, and marked leakage of radiolabelled albumin into the interstitium and lum ...19873478114
growth inhibition of environmental mastitis pathogens during physiologic transitions of the bovine mammary gland.ten dairy cows were infused intramammarily near drying off with concanavalin a (cona) or phytohemagglutinin (pha). mammary secretions were collected during physiologic transitions of the udder and were used in an in vitro microbiological assay to determine growth inhibition of mastitis pathogens. as mammary involution progressed, in vitro growth inhibition of klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, and streptococcus uberis increased. mammary secretions from cona- and pha-treated glands had sign ...19863513675
decreased complement and bacteriostatic activities in the sera of cattle given single or multiple doses of aflatoxin.five steers given 1 dose of partially purified aflatoxin at concentrations sufficient to provide 0.2 mg to 0.8 mg of aflatoxin b1 equivalents/kg of body weight were compared with 4 steers given 14 daily doses of 0.25 mg of aflatoxin b1 equivalents/kg of body weight for complement activity and bacteriostasis. complement activity was measured by hemolysis in gel, and bacteriostatic activity, by growth inhibition of escherichia coli in liquid medium. in the single-dose group, complement activity an ...19863516032
aminoglycoside binding sites in escherichia coli as revealed by neomycin-gold labeling.a cytochemical technique for demonstration of neomycin binding sites by electron microscopy was developed and applied to escherichia coli. neomycin was conjugated chemically with bovine serum albumin (bsa). colloidal gold was coated with the conjugated neomycin-bsa. the neomycin-bsa-gold was applied to thin sections of epon-embedded e. coli and examined. gold particles were observed on the outer membrane and the cytoplasmic membrane of e. coli. it was probably the ribosomes that were being label ...19863519754
a review of teat factors in bovine e coli mastitis.escherichia coli mastitis was first reproduced in 1903 by sticking the organism to teat orifices. e coli is very common in the environment of housed dairy cows and mastitis can easily be reproduced experimentally by the introduction of as few as 20 organisms into the teat cistern via the teat duct. it is generally accepted that this is the route of natural infection but the processes by which the organisms traverse the teat duct remain unclear. the literature is reviewed and the facts and hypoth ...19863521057
emergence of aminoglycoside 3-n-acetyltransferase iv in escherichia coli and salmonella typhimurium isolated from animals in france.we studied two outbreaks of calf salmonellosis caused by apramycin and gentamicin-resistant salmonella typhimurium strains. in both cases, the responsible strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim; one strain was also resistant to nalidixic acid in one outbreak. a systematic survey of the intestinal escherichia coli strains of calves from the two affected flocks showed that 11 of 24 animals sampled were also colonized by apramy ...19863521474
clinical pharmacokinetics of flumequine in calves.the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) of flumequine for 249 salmonella, 126 escherichia coli, and 22 pasteurella multocida isolates recovered from clinical cases of neonatal calf diarrhoea, pneumonia and sudden death was less than or equal to 0.78 microgram/ml. the pharmacokinetics of flumequine in calves was investigated after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral administration. the two-compartment open model was used for the analysis of serum drug concentrations measured afte ...19863522937
observations on the incidence of clinical bovine mastitis in non-lactating cows in england and wales.epidemiological features of clinical mastitis in dry cows from a three year prospective study are described. two hundred and seventy-three herds in england and wales participated in the first year (1980) and 209 and 159 of them continued in the study in the subsequent two years. clinical mastitis was recorded in 1.5 per cent of cows during the dry period in each of the three years. these cases represented between 3.6 and 4.2 per cent of samples from all clinical cases examined. the incidence of ...19863523959
bacteriostatic activity of bovine milk lactoferrin against mastitic bacteria.the bacteriostatic activity of bovine lactoferrin (lf) against mastitic bacteria was assessed with an in vitro microassay. the most susceptible species was escherichia coli; all of the 35 isolates tested were susceptible to bacteriostasis by apo-lf (0.1 mg ml-1), although a few strains showed a lower degree of inhibition. heterogeneity among strains was more pronounced among 10 isolates of staphylococcus aureus, four of which were apparently unaffected by apo-lf (1 mg ml-1). under the same condi ...19863523963
characterization of heat-stable enterotoxin from a hypertoxigenic escherichia coli strain that is pathogenic for cattle.an enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) strain isolated from a calf with clinical scours was found to produce over 17- to 60-fold more heat-stable enterotoxin (sta) than four laboratory-adapted bovine etec strains. the purified sta of this strain was identical to those produced by other etec strains. a severe form of scours was induced in 5- to 15-day-old colostrum-fed calves and in 1- to 2-week-old piglets by oral administration of the purified sta. this study demonstrates that sta is a medi ...19863525417
3-hydroxyacyl-coa epimerases of rat liver peroxisomes and escherichia coli function as auxiliary enzymes in the beta-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.the beta-oxidation of 2-trans,4-cis-decadienoyl-coa, an assumed metabolite of linoleic acid, by purified enzymes from mitochondria, peroxisomes, and escherichia coli was studied. 2-trans,4-cis-decadienoyl-coa is an extremely poor substrate of the beta-oxidation system reconstituted from mitochondrial enzymes. the results of a kinetic evaluation lead to the conclusion that in mitochondria 2-trans,4-cis-decadienoyl-coa is not directly beta-oxidized, but instead is reduced by nadph-dependent 2,4-di ...19863528151
growth of environmental mastitis pathogens in various bedding materials.the objective of the study was to determine whether, under controlled conditions, bedding materials vary in their ability to support growth of different environmental pathogens independent of the presence of feces, urine, or other contamination. five sterilized bedding materials (fine hardwood chips, recycled dried manure, chopped newspaper, softwood sawdust, and chopped straw) and three bacterial species (escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and streptococcus uberis) were used for a total o ...19863528251
escherichia coli o157:h7 diarrhea in a nursing home: clinical, epidemiological, and pathological findings.in september 1984, an outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 infection occurred in a nursing home. it was the first recognized outbreak of this organism in the united states since 1982, when two outbreaks led to its recognition as a pathogen. thirty-four of 101 residents developed a diarrheal illness; 14 were hospitalized with a severe illness characterized by crampy abdominal pain, marked abdominal distention, and grossly bloody diarrhea, and four died. the spectrum of illness associated with the ...19863528316
aerobic blood culturing in cows with coliform mastitis.aerobic culturing was performed on blood samples from 20 cows with coliform mastitis and signs of systemic illness, and on blood samples from 21 cows with mastitis caused by other agents. no bacteria other than the skin contaminant bacillus sp were isolated from the blood.19863531122
hemolytic and bactericidal activities of bovine complement in mammary secretions of cows during the early nonlactating (dry) period.hemolytic and bactericidal complement-dependent activities were measured in quarter mammary secretions obtained during the first 21 days of the nonlactating (dry) period from 8 holstein-friesian cows. we demonstrated an inhibition of hemolytic activity and bactericidal activity against a serum-sensitive escherichia coli strain. both hemolytic and inhibitory titers increased markedly during active involution. the bactericidal activity of dry secretions required a minimal threshold of complement a ...19863532874
evaluation of selective media for primary isolation of treponema hyodysenteriae and treponema innocens.a total of 2450 samples of feces, intestinal contents and colon mucosal scrapings were bacteriologically examined. a total of 53 strains of treponema sp. were isolated, and 45 strains of bacteroides sp., 30 strains of e. coli, 30 strains of micrococcus sp. and 10 strains of streptococcus d isolates were randomly selected. growth promoting studies showed statistically significant stimulation of treponema sp. growth by yeast extract, chicken egg yolk and rumen fluid. different growth inhibitors we ...19863533408
cow milk yield and composition before development of escherichia coli mastitis.high milk yield, low milk fat and low milk protein were considered as possible predisposing factors to bovine escherichia coli mastitis. morning and afternoon milk yields were recorded in 46 friesian cows later developing e coli mastitis and compared with 92 uninfected controls. animals developing e coli mastitis gave a significantly higher milk yield than controls. the overall morning: afternoon ratio was (mean +/- se) 1.66 +/- 0.41, with no difference in ratio for the two groups. further studi ...19863535230
two-site column enzyme immunoassay for neuron-specific enolase (nse) in human serum using monoclonal antibodies.a new method for the rapid determination of neuron-specific gamma-enolase (nse), gamma-subunit of alpha gamma- and gamma gamma-enolase in human serum was developed by employing monoclonal antibodies for the separation method. the assay system consists of 0.1 ml sepharose 4b column with immobilized rabbit anti-mouse igg antibodies for the separation of bound label, fab' fragments of rabbit anti-bovine gamma gamma-enolase igg labeled with beta-d-galactosidase from escherichia coli, and f(ab')2 fra ...19863537135
apramycin and gentamicin resistance in escherichia coli and salmonellas isolated from farm animals.since the aminoglycoside antibiotic apramycin was licensed for veterinary use in 1980, all isolates of escherichia coli and salmonellas received at the central veterinary laboratory have been monitored for resistance to apramycin and the related antibiotic gentamicin. during the period 1982-4, the incidence of resistance in e. coli to apramycin increased from 0.6% in 1982 to 2.6% in 1984. in salmonellas the incidence of resistance to apramycin increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 1.4% in 1984. resista ...19863540112
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