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short communication: the effects of experimentally induced escherichia coli clinical mastitis on lying behavior of dairy cows.clinical mastitis is a commonly occurring and economically important problem in the dairy industry. researchers have suggested that changes in lying behavior could be useful as early indicators of cow discomfort and poor welfare. the objective of this study was to determine the associations between the onset of illness resulting from experimentally induced clinical mastitis and measures of lying behavior. clinical mastitis was induced in 21 lactating dairy cows (parity=2.0±1.0, range=1 to 4; day ...201222541485
local and systemic response to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge during long-term manipulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in dairy cows.the metabolic load during periods of high milk production in dairy cows causes a variety of changes of metabolite blood concentrations including dramatically decreased glucose levels. these changes supposedly impair the immune system. the goal of this study was, therefore, to evaluate adaptations of the cow's immune system in response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (lps) stimulation during a 3-d modification of plasma glucose and insulin induced by different clamp infusions. seventeen mid ...201222541481
in vitro effects of escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on the function and gene expression of neutrophils isolated from the blood of dairy cows.the objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (lps) on the function of bovine neutrophils (pmnl) collected from mid lactation cows and determine the differential effects of lps on gene expression of pmnl purified from early and mid lactation cows. the pmnl from mid lactation cows (187±13 d postpartum) were incubated with 0, 1, 25, and 50 μg/ml of lps for 120 min, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ros), pmnl extracellular traps (ne ...201222541470
effects of induced energy deficiency on lactoferrin concentration in milk and the lactoferrin reaction of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro.a dietary energy restriction to 49% of total energy requirements was conducted with red holstein cows for three weeks in mid-lactation. at the last day of the restriction phase, primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbmec) of eight restriction (rf) and seven control-fed (cf) cows were extracted out of one litre of milk and cultured. in their third passage, an immune challenge with the most prevalent, heat-inactivated mastitis pathogens escherichia coli (e. coli) and staphylococcus aureus (s. ...201322540894
the effect of multiplex-pcr-assessed major pathogens causing subclinical mastitis on somatic cell profiles.the major pathogens causing mastitis were evaluated by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (m-pcr) with self-designed primers in four quarters of the first, third, and fifth parities in industrial, semi-industrial, and traditional dairy cattle farms in iran. with the incidence of infection in the quarters by staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae, the mean log somatic cell count (log scc) increased from 5.06 to 5.77. the smallest changes occurred with escherichia coli. contagious pat ...201222535149
methodologies for screening of bacteria-carbohydrate interactions: anti-adhesive milk oligosaccharides as a case study.many studies have demonstrated the capacity of glycan-based compounds to disrupt microbial binding to mucosal epithelia. therefore, oligosaccharides have potential application in the prevention of certain bacterial diseases. however, current screening methods for the identification of anti-adhesive oligosaccharides have limitations: they are time-consuming and require large amounts of oligosaccharides. there is a need to develop analytical techniques which can quickly screen for, and structurall ...201222507447
transcriptional profiling of the bovine hepatic response to experimentally induced e. coli mastitis.the mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. in this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally escherichia coli-induced mastitis. at time = 0, each of 16 periparturient dairy cows received 20-40 colony-forming units of live e. coli in one front quarter of the udder. a time series of liver biopsies was collected a ...201222496490
evaluation of the effectiveness of intrauterine treatment with formosulphathiazole of clinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows.in cattle, elimination of bacterial contamination from the uterine lumen after parturition is often delayed or compromised, and pathogenic bacteria can persist, causing uterine disease and infertility. the aim of this study was to compare the clinical and bacteriologic recovery following a single intrauterine administration of formosulphatiazole, cephapirin or placebo in cows with clinical endometritis. cows (n = 80), no less than 28 days postpartum, with clinical endometritis were enrolled in t ...201222464185
occurrence and characteristics of virulence genes of escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy dairy cows in inner mongolia, china.virulence genes of escherichia coli (e. coli) isolates from healthy dairy cows were identified and characterized by a multiplex pcr assay and serogrouping test. the results showed that among the target genes, eaea was most frequently detected, accounting for 22.11% (67/303) in all strains from 101 cows. for categorization of e. coli, aepec was the category with widest distribution detected in 55 (18.15%) strains from 22 cattle. all of 84 pcr-positive strains belonged to 14 o serogroups, and o149 ...201224031860
effect of intrauterine dextrose or antibiotic therapy on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis.the objectives of this study were to assess the responses to treatments (clinical cure and cow survival 14 d posttherapy) of cows with clinical endometritis (ce) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (dex) or subcutaneous ceftiofur crystalline free acid (ccfa) and subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (p/ai) in cows with ce compared with cows without ce. cows (n=760) from 2 dairy herds were screened for ce using vaginoscopy and measurement of cer ...201222459836
proteolytic and proteomic changes in milk at quarter level following infusion with escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.mastitis is a major disease in dairy cattle, which causes significant economic losses due to decreased milk production, veterinary costs, and discarded milk. escherichia coli is one of the most prevalent species of gram-negative bacteria that induce clinical mastitis. the objective of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic and proteomic changes in milk in response to infusion with lipopolysaccharide (lps) at quarter level in a model mastitis system. one quarter of each of 2 cows w ...201222459814
the association between teat end hyperkeratosis and teat canal microbial load in lactating dairy cattle.most pathogens that cause bovine mastitis invade the udder lumen through the teat canal. amino acids and intercellular lipids may support microbial colonisation of the teat canal epithelium by pathogenic microorganisms. the aim of this study was to investigate the association between teat end hyperkeratosis, which is induced by machine milking, and teat canal microbial load. contralateral teats, which differed in teat end hyperkeratosis scores, were identified in a split-udder experiment. the te ...201222445537
protective effect of recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin a entrapped in polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres against staphylococcus aureus infection.staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections in humans and animals, as well as the cause of mastitis in dairy cattle. vaccines aimed at preventing s. aureus infection in bovine mastitis have been studied for many years, but have so far been unsuccessful due to the complexity of the bacteria, and the lack of suitable vaccine delivery vehicles. the current study developed an escherichia coli protein expression system that produced a recombinant staphy ...201222429499
influence of environmental temperature on the physiological, endocrine, and immune responses in livestock exposed to a provocative immune challenge.although livestock experience many stressors throughout their life, one of the most commonly experienced, and most difficult to control, is stress caused by fluctuations in environmental temperatures that extend beyond the thermoneutral (tn) zone for an animal. in swine, cold stress has long been recognized as a main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. a possible explanation for this increased morbidity and mortality may be related to their inability to generate a febrile response. previo ...201222425434
a protease-insensitive feruloyl esterase from china holstein cow rumen metagenomic library: expression, characterization, and utilization in ferulic acid release from wheat straw.a metagenomic library of china holstein cow rumen microbes was constructed and screened for novel gene cluster. a novel feruloyl esterase (fae) gene was identified with a length of 789 bp and encoded a protein displaying 56% identity to known esterase sequences. the gene was functionally expressed in escherichia coli bl21 (de3), and the total molecular weight of the recombined protein was 32.4 kda. the purified enzyme showed a broad specificity against the four methyl esters of hydroxycinnamic a ...201222352374
repertoire of escherichia coli agonists sensed by innate immunity receptors of the bovine udder and mammary epithelial cells.escherichia coli is a frequent cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. it has been shown that a prompt response of the mammary gland after e. coli entry into the lumen of the gland is required to control the infection, which means that the early detection of bacteria is of prime importance. yet, apart from lipopolysaccharide (lps), little is known of the bacterial components which are detected by the mammary innate immune system. we investigated the repertoire of potential bacterial agonists s ...201222330199
effect of dietary copper source on response to coliform mastitis in dairy cows.the effect of organic or inorganic dietary cu on escherichia coli mastitis was investigated in first-lactation heifers. twenty-eight primigravid holstein heifers were assigned to 3 treatments in a completely randomized block design with 10 blocks of 3 animals grouped by expected calving date. treatments were as follows: basal diet [7.1 mg cu/kg of dry matter (dm); con] and diets supplemented with cu (10 mg/kg of dm) as cu sulfate (cus) or as cu proteinate (cup). treatments were fed individually ...201222281330
sickness behavior in dairy cows during escherichia coli mastitis.the consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2 d before (d -2 and -1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with escherichia coli. effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous da ...201222281328
a two reservoir model to predict escherichia coli losses to water from pastures grazed by dairy cows.animal agriculture has been identified as an important source of diffuse faecal microbial pollution of water. our current understanding of the losses of faecal microbes from grazed pasture systems is however poor. to help synthesise our current knowledge, a simple two reservoir model was constructed to represent the faecal and environmental sources of escherichia coli found in a grazed pastoral system. the size of the faecal reservoir was modelled on a daily basis with inputs from grazing animal ...201222280922
evaluation of cytokine expression by blood monocytes of lactating holstein cows with or without postpartum uterine disease.whereas neutrophils are the main phagocytic leukocytes, monocytes and macrophages are actively involved in immunomodulation after infection. recent studies have demonstrated that neutrophil function is impaired by the state of negative energy balance around parturition, and that cows that develop uterine disease have a greater degree of negative energy balance than healthy cows. the objectives of this study were to compare monocyte gene expression and protein secretion of selected cytokines from ...201221924475
genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in danish holstein cattle.the objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. the traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae, escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (cns), staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus uberis. also groups of pathogens were investigated, gram-negative v. gram-positive and contagious ...200922444442
effect of escherichia coli infection of the bovine uterus from the whole animal to the cell.following parturition, contamination of the uterine lumen by bacteria is ubiquitous, and uterine health is impaired in cattle because infection persists in 10% to 15% of animals as endometritis. endometritis causes infertility for the duration of infection, and subfertility persists even after apparent successful resolution of the disease. escherichia coli is the pathogenic bacterium most frequently isolated from the post partum uterus, and is associated with increased concentrations of peripher ...200822443727
incidence and treatments of postpartum reproductive problems in a dairy herd.incidence of assisted births, retained fetal membranes (rfm), and metritis were recorded in one hundred dairy cows from parturition through 14 days post-calving. manual removal of rfm was not attempted. all rfm were excised inside the vulva and observations of natural rfm expulsion were recorded. fifteen of 100 cows (15%) had assisted births, 27 (27%) had rfm, 8 (8%) had primary metritis not associated with other postpartum reproductive problems, and 26 (26%) had secondary metritis. uterine swab ...198216725716
potential immunosuppressive effects of escherichia coli o157:h7 experimental infection on the bovine host.enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec), like e. coli o157:h7 are frequently detected in bovine faecal samples at slaughter. cattle do not show clinical symptoms upon infection, but for humans the consequences after consuming contaminated beef can be severe. the immune response against ehec in cattle cannot always clear the infection as persistent colonization and shedding in infected animals over a period of months often occurs. in previous infection trials, we observed a primary immune resp ...201628003017
serotypes, virulence markers and cell invasion ability of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy dairy cattle.the occurrence of virulence markers, serotypes and invasive ability were investigated in shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) isolated from faecal samples of healthy dairy cattle at rio de janeiro state, brazil.201627426967
effects of lactoferrin treatment on escherichia coliescherichia coli o157:h7 rectal colonization in cattle.the terminal rectal mucosa has been identified as the predominant colonization site of escherichia coli o157:h7 in cattle, thus a possible intervention approach should directly target this colonization site. to determine the effect of lactoferrin on e. coli o157:h7 mucosal colonization at the rectum, five 6-month-old holstein-friesian calves were experimentally infected with e. coli o157:h7 and received daily rectal treatment with bovine lactoferrin. three calves that did not receive the lactofe ...201526791110
clearance of escherichia coli o157:h7 infection in calves by rectal administration of bovine lactoferrin.enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) strains, of which e. coli o157:h7 is the best-studied serotype, are an important group of foodborne pathogens causing severe illness in humans worldwide. the main reservoirs for ehec are ruminants, mostly cattle, which harbor the bacteria in their intestinal tracts without showing clinical symptoms. in this study, we used bovine lactoferrin, a natural occurring bactericidal and immunomodulating protein, as an antibacterial agent against ehec infection in ...201525527551
quantification of e. coli o157 and stec in feces of farm animals using direct multiplex real time pcr (qpcr) and a modified most probable number assay comprised of immunomagnetic bead separation and qpcr detection.to better understand escherichia coli o157:h7 on-farm transmission dynamics requires sensitive methods for quantification of a broad range of concentrations of target organisms. for this purpose, a multiplex real time pcr (qpcr) assay was developed for quantification of o157 e. coli from 1g fecal samples of cattle and other animal species, targeting the shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) and the o157 somatic antigen gene, per. the multiplex qpcr assay provided specific detection across a broad ra ...201424530484
spatial epidemiology of escherichia coli o157:h7 in dairy cattle in relation to night roosts of sturnus vulgaris (european starling) in ohio, usa (2007-2009).the goal of our study was to use spatial scan statics to determine whether the night roosts of european starlings (sturnus vulgaris) act as point sources for the dissemination of escherichia coli o157:h7 among dairy farms. from 2007 to 2009, we collected bovine faecal samples (n = 9000) and starling gastrointestinal contents (n = 430) from 150 dairy farms in northeastern ohio, usa. isolates of e. coli o157:h7 recovered from these samples were subtyped using multilocus variable-number tandem repe ...201424279810
new application of indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) technique using latex particles coupled with verotoxin 2 from escherichia coli o157:h7 in order to determine colostral antibody titers in immunized dairy cows.a simple and novel assay method for determining colostral and serum against soluble verotxin 2 (vt2) titers by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) assay using latex sensitized with vt2 was devised. the latex particles did not auto-fluoresce, and non specific reactions disappeared after washing with phosphate buffered saline containing 3 m nacl. the highest titer measured by neutralizing test was observed at 1 day after delivery. the highest titer for each immunoglobulin class measured by enzyme- ...201424215286
environmental sampling for evaluating verotoxigenic escherichia coli o157: h7 status in dairy cattle herds.verotoxigenic escherichia coli o157:h7 is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen capable of causing severe disease in human beings. cattle are considered to be the main reservoir of the bacterium. the objective of the current study was to compare environmental sampling (consisting of dust, overshoe, and pooled pat samples) with pooled, individual fecal sampling for determining the cattle herd status under field conditions in naturally infected dairy herds. thirty-one dairy cattle farms in sweden, where v ...201323404479
association of wild bird density and farm management factors with the prevalence of e. coli o157 in dairy herds in ohio (2007-2009).our objective was to determine the role that european starlings (sturnus vulgaris) play in the epidemiology of escherichia coli o157:h7 in dairy cattle. we visited 150 dairy farms in ohio twice during summer and fall months from 2007 to 2009. fresh faecal pats from 30 lactating cows were collected during each visit. information on farm management and environmental variables was gathered through a questionnaire administered to the farm owner. the number of starlings observed on the farm was also ...201222333436
influence of vitamin d on fecal shedding of escherichia coli o157:h7 in naturally colonized cattle.three experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of vitamin d on fecal shedding of escherichia coli o157:h7 in cattle. in the first experiment, two groups of cattle (beef and dairy) were assigned to a control treatment or to receive 0.5 × 10(6) iu vitamin d per day via oral bolus for 10 days. fecal samples were collected before and throughout the dosing period for culture of e. coli o157:h7. no differences were observed for fecal shedding of e. coli o157:h7 among treatments for either ...201222289592
prevalence of verotoxin-producing escherichia coli (vtec) in a survey of dairy cattle in najaf, iraq.dairy cattle have been implicated as principal reservoir of verotoxin-producing escherichia coli (vtec), with undercooked ground beef and raw milk being the major vehicles of food borne outbreaks. vtec has been implicated as an etiological agent of individual cases and outbreaks in developed countries. this study was designed to determine the prevalence of vetec in diarrheic dairy calves up to 20 days of age in najaf, iraq.201022347561
metritis vaccination in holstein dairy heifers using a herd-specific multivalent vaccine - effects on uterine health and fertility in first lactation.in cattle, acute puerperal metritis (apm) compromises animal welfare and has an economic impact to the farmer because of the detrimental effects on reproductive performance, milk production, and survivability. the aim of this randomized clinical study was to investigate the effects of a prepartum immunization using a herd-specific multivalent vaccine on incidence of apm, prevalence of clinical endometritis (ce), and selected measures of reproductive performance in primiparous holstein cows. preg ...201728760665
quantitative risk assessment of antimicrobial-resistant foodborne infections in humans due to recombinant bovine somatotropin usage in dairy cows.recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbst) is a production-enhancing technology that allows the dairy industry to produce milk more efficiently. concern has been raised that cows supplemented with rbst are at an increased risk of developing clinical mastitis, which would potentially increase the use of antimicrobial agents and increase human illnesses associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens delivered through the dairy beef supply. the purpose of this study was to conduct a quanti ...201728574304
phylogenetic analysis of vp1 and rdrp genes of brazilian aichivirus b strains involved in a diarrhea outbreak in dairy calves.aichivirus b has been reported worldwide in calves and adult cattle with and without diarrhea. the aim of this study was to describe the molecular characteristics of the rdrp and vp1 genes of aichivirus b strains identified as the most frequent etiologic agent in a neonatal diarrhea outbreak in a high-production brazilian dairy cattle herd. preliminary laboratory analysis ruled out important enteropathogens (cryptosporidium spp; eimeria spp., e. coli f5, and bovine coronavirus). fecal samples fr ...201728849283
bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in finnish dairy herds.the finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. the laboratory of the largest dairy company in finland, valio ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time pcr. this study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characte ...201728545485
in vitro synergistic activities of cefazolin and nisin a against mastitis pathogens.first-generation cephalosporins such as cefazolin (cez) have been widely used for mastitis treatment in dairy cattle. however, the use of antibiotics results in the presence of antibiotic residues in milk, which is used for human consumption. nisin a, a bacteriocin produced by lactococcus lactis, has been used as a broad-spectrum food preservative for over 50 years. therefore, a combination of cez and nisin a might provide an extended activity spectrum against mastitis pathogens and reduce the a ...201728757508
short communication: extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant escherichia coli in colostrum from new brunswick, canada, dairy cows harbor blacmy-2 and blatem resistance genes.dairy calves are colonized shortly after birth by multidrug resistant (mdr) bacteria, including escherichia coli. the role of dairy colostrum fed to calves as a potential source of mdr bacteria resistance genes has not been investigated. this study determined the recovery rate of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (esc-r) e. coli in colostrum from cows. the esc-r e. coli isolates were further investigated to determine their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern and the genes conferr ...201728780105
characterization of ndm-5-positive extensively resistant escherichia coli isolates from dairy cows.the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of blandm-5 gene in escherichia coli isolates from dairy cows and to characterize the molecular traits of the blandm-5-positive isolates. a total of 169 cows were sampled (169 feces and 169 raw milk samples) in three dairy farms in jiangsu province and 203 e. coli isolates were recovered. among these strains, three isolates carried blandm-5 gene, including one co-harboring mcr-1, which belonged to sequence type 446 and the other two belonge ...201728757017
behavioral and patho-physiological response as possible signs of pain in dairy cows during escherichia coli mastitis: a pilot study.bovine mastitis is one of the most common diseases in the dairy industry and it is a major welfare problem. pain during mastitis is generally assessed through behavior but a combination of indicators would increase the chances of detecting pain and assessing its intensity. the aim of this study was to assess behavioral and patho-physiological responses as possible signs of pain experienced by cows after experimental intramammary challenge (mastitis) with escherichia coli. six holstein-friesian c ...201728755940
escherichia coli mastitis strains: in vitro phenotypes and severity of infection in vivo.mastitis remains a major infection of dairy cows and an important issue for dairy farmers and the dairy industry, in particular infections due to escherichia coli strains. so far, properties specific to e. coli causing mastitis remain ill defined. in an attempt to better understand the properties required for e. coli to trigger mastitis, we used a range of in vitro assays to phenotypically characterize four e. coli strains, including the prototypical e. coli mastitis strain p4, possessing differ ...201728727781
effect of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis.the effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient holstein cows in a complete randomized design. at calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (ctrl) or casein (cas) in addition to a lactation diet. casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (drtc) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 drtc to avoid excessive supply. synt ...201728727010
short communication: effects of an immunomodulatory feed additive on phagocytic capacity of neutrophils and relative gene expression in circulating white blood cells of transition holstein cows.high-producing dairy cows typically experience immunosuppression with dysregulated neutrophil function (e.g., compromised phagocytosis) during the transition period (3 wk before to 3 wk after parturition), which is causally associated with increased risk of infections. enhanced neutrophil immune competence has significant bearing with the wellbeing of transition dairy cattle. in the current study, we investigated the effect of omnigen-af (og; phibro animal health, quincy, il) and its dose in mod ...201728711260
normal milk microbiome is reestablished following experimental infection with escherichia coli independent of intramammary antibiotic treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin in bovines.the use of antimicrobials in food animals and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance are global concerns. ceftiofur is the only third-generation cephalosporin labeled for veterinary use in the usa, and it is the drug of choice in the majority of dairy farms for the treatment of mastitis. here, we use next-generation sequencing to describe longitudinal changes that occur in the milk microbiome before, during, and after infection and treatment with ceftiofur. twelve animals were intramammary ch ...201728701174
plasmids of diverse inc groups disseminate the fosfomycin resistance gene fosa3 among escherichia coli isolates from pigs, chickens, and dairy cows in northeast china.thirty-nine fosfomycin-resistant escherichia coli isolates carrying fosa3 were obtained from pigs, chickens, dairy cows, and staff in four northeastern provinces of china between june 2015 and april 2016. the fosa3 gene was colocated with blactx-m genes on conjugative plasmids of the incompatibility groups incn (n = 12), incn-f33:a(-):b(-)(n = 2), incf33:a(-):b(-)(n = 14), incf14:a(-):b(-)(n = 2), and inci1/sequence type 136 (st136) (n = 9). four different genetic contexts of fosa3 were detected ...201728674050
detection and drug resistance profile of escherichia coli from subclinical mastitis cows and water supply in dairy farms in saraburi province, thailand.subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. environmental escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. in thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. e. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. in this study, the presence of e. coli in milk and water samples was reported, am ...201728626609
bovine intra-mammary challenge with streptococcus dysgalactiae spp. dysgalactiae to explore the effect on the response of complement activity.recently published work as described by the authors highlighted the extent of complement activity in bovine milk. localised mastitis infection occurring in the mammary glands of dairy cows is readily detectable by the levels of somatic cells in milk. thus, it is opportune to monitor complement activity in milks in association with the animal's innate immune response to mammary infection. preliminary screening of milk samples taken randomly showed that milk with a high somatic cell count (scc) re ...201728625182
experimentally induced subclinical mastitis: are lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid eliciting similar pain responses?pain accompanying mastitis has gained attention recently as a relevant welfare compromising aspect of disease. adequate pain recognition and therapy are necessary in the context of a modern and ethically acceptable dairy care. for research purposes mastitis is often induced by intramammary infusion of immunogenic bacterial cell wall components. lipopolysaccharide (lps) from escherichia coli and lipoteichoic acid (lta) from staphylococcus aureus are commonly administered to this end. while the im ...201728615028
local immunization impacts the response of dairy cows to escherichia coli mastitis.current vaccines to escherichia coli mastitis have shown some albeit limited efficacy. their mode of action has not been documented, and immune responses protecting the mammary gland against e. coli are not completely understood. to improve our knowledge of mammary gland immune protection, cows immunized either intramuscularly or intramammarily with the e. coli p4 were submitted to a homologous mastitis challenge. a third group of mock-immunized cows serve as challenge controls. local immunizati ...201728611405
cefotaxime-resistant e. coli in dairy and beef cattle farms-joint analyses of two cross-sectional investigations in germany.resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics is of major concern for animal and human health. knowledge of the prevalence of resistant bacteria in primary production is an important element to estimate transmission along the stages in the food production chain and the exposure of the human population. the primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant commensal e. coli in dairy and beef cattle production units throughout ...201728606364
punicalagin protects bovine endometrial epithelial cells against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory injury.bovine endometritis is one of the most common reproductive disorders in cattle. the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammation potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (lps)-induced bovine endometrial epithelial cells (beecs) and to uncover the underlying mechanisms.201728585424
effects of intravaginal lactic acid bacteria on bovine endometrium: implications in uterine health.infection and inflammation of the endometrium after calving compromise uterine health, contributing to decreased reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. twenty multiparous cows were distributed in two groups and treated intra-vaginally with a combination of lactic acid bacteria (lab) composed by lactobacillus rhamnosus, pedioccocus acidilactici, and lactobacillus reuteri, or with a sterile carrier (con) twice per week during 3 wk. at the slaughterhouse, vaginal and endometrial swabs were taken fo ...201728532798
effects of continuous low dose infusion of lipopolysaccharide on inflammatory responses, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous low dose infusion of lipopolysaccharide (lps) on inflammatory responses and milk production and quality in lactating dairy cows. eight holstein cows were assigned to two treatments in a cross-over experimental design. cows were infused intravenously either with saline solution or with saline solution containing lps from escherichia coli o111:b4 at a dose of 0.01 μg lps/kg body weight for approximately 6 hr each day during a se ...201728503821
effects of intrauterine infusion of escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on uterine health, resolution of purulent vaginal discharge, and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows.the objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the effects of intrauterine infusion of escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (lps) in cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge (pvd) on intrauterine cell population, resolution of pvd, uterine health, and reproductive performance. jersey cows (n = 3,084) were examined using the metricheck device to diagnose pvd at 35 ± 6 d postpartum. purulent vaginal discharge was defined as the presence of purulent (≥50% pus) discharge detectable i ...201728434752
effects of intrauterine infusion of escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on uterine mrna gene expression and peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes in jersey cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge.the objectives of the current experiment were to investigate the effects of intrauterine treatment of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (pvd) using lipopolysaccharide (lps) from escherichia coli on uterine mrna expression of genes related to inflammatory responses, peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocyte (pmn) function, hematological parameters, and blood concentrations of cortisol, haptoglobin, and progesterone (p4). jersey cows (n = 3,084) were examined for pvd at 35 ± 6 d postpartum using t ...201728434729
a survey on antimicrobial resistant escherichia coli isolated from unpasteurised cows' milk in northern ireland. 201728424319
effect of lipopolysaccharide on developmental competence of oocytes.in postpartum dairy cows, lipopolysaccharide (lps) derived from gram-negative bacteria such as escherichia coli causes uterine inflammation resulting in low fertility. the aim of this study was to determine the effect of lps on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes in vitro. lps perturbed the nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes by inhibiting meiotic progression. although lps did not affect the copy number of mitochondrial dna, it decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in matured oo ...201728408308
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