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cloning and sequence analysis of wild argali isg15 cdna.the complete coding sequence of wild argali isg15 cdna was generated by rapid amplification of cdna ends. the isg15 cdna was 642 bp with an open reading frame of 474 bp, which encoded a 17.47 kda protein composed of 157 amino acids. its amino acid sequence shared 97.9%, 80.8%, 91.4%, 94.3%, 78.3% identity with those of isg15cdna from ovis aries (accession no. nm001009735.1), capra hircus (accession no. hq329186.1), bos taurus (accession no. bc102318.1), bubalus bubalis (accession no. hm543269.1) ...025049988
studies of the bactericidal action of phagocytin.the bactericidal activity of phagocytin on gram-negative enteric bacilli is influenced by the reaction of the medium; the more acid the environment, the more marked is the activity. phagocytin exerts approximately the same action whether citrate, acetate, or phosphate salts are used as buffer, and the addition of glucose, casein hydrolysate, or cation binding agents does not produce notable change. although proteins in general have but little effect, the inclusion in the medium of a high concent ...195613319581
escherichia coli associated with colostrum-free neonatal pigs raised in isolation.escherichia coli 08 was the most frequent coliform isolated from the blood and liver of morbid and dead neonatal, colostrum-free piglets raised under extremely sanitary conditions. this strain accounted for 67 per cent of the typable e. coli. the next most numerous strain occurred at a frequency of 6 per cent. hence, e. coli 08 was considered the main coli enteropathogen in our experimental, isolated environment. in random samples of the feces of healthy and diarrhetic neonatal piglets, 24 per c ...196214463349
studies on the metabolic function of branched-chain volatile fatty acids, growth factors for ruminococci. i. incorporation of isovalerate into leucine.allison, milton j. (dairy cattle research branch, u. s. department of agriculture, beltsville, md.), m. p. bryant, and r. n. doetsch. studies on the metabolic function of branched-chain volatile fatty acids, growth factors for ruminococci. i. incorporation of isovalerate into leucine. j. bacteriol. 83:523-532. 1962.-ruminococcus flavefaciens strain c94, a cellulolytic rumen bacterium, requires either isobutyrate or isovalerate for growth. the organism was grown in the presence of c(14)-labeled i ...196213860621
galactosidase action on human blood group b active escherichia coli and on red cell substances.the blood group b specificity of escherichia coli o(86) antigen, a b specific oligosaccharide fraction from it, and the b activity of a preparation of an "infectious mononucleosis receptor" from cattle erythrocytes are destroyed by alpha-galactosidase from the coffee bean, as demonstrated for the e. coli antigen by three methods. blood group h(o) activity appears simultaneously. galactose is the only hexose released from all three substances.196414202031
[the properdin level in cattle during immunization and hyperimmunization with escherichia coli, pasteurella and tetanus toxin]. 19655321201
in vitro and in vivo characterization of pyocin.pyocin, a bacteriocin obtained from lysates of ultraviolet-induced cultures of pseudomonas aeruginosa was characterized in vitro and in vivo after 1,000-fold purification by chemical, column, and differential centrifugation procedures. electron micrographs of negatively stained pyocin preparations contained rod-shaped particles which resembled the contractile tail protein of the t-even phages of escherichia coli. although two separate and distinct pyocin fractions were eluted from diethylaminoet ...19674960899
evaluation of t3 coliphage injuries and efficacy of selected materials in preventing them.a procedure was developed to analyze the inactivation of coliphage t3 during freeze-drying and subsequent rehydration. the amount of gross disruption of the phage as compared with the amount of phage remaining intact was evaluated by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. the amount of phage material able to adsorb to host cells and the residual infectivity after the drying were also evaluated. these analyses made it possible to determine the amount of phage material (i) degraded to pr ...19674860532
comparative studies of antigens from mycoplasma mycoides and escherichia coli.extracts of sonically disrupted mycoplasma mycoides and escherichia coli were fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. the presence of antigen in each of the fractions was determined by complement-fixation and agar-gel diffusion precipitin tests, in which cow, pig, and rabbit anti-m. mycoides sera and rabbit anti-e. coli serum were used. fractions of m. mycoides, with a buoyant density of 1.225 or lower, fixed complement with cow and pig anti-m. mycoides sera. these fractions als ...19684967193
volatile fatty acids and the inhibition of escherichia coli growth by rumen fluid.concentrations of volatile fatty acids (vfa) normally found in bovine rumen fluid inhibited growth of escherichia coli in antibiotic medium 3. acetic, propionic, and butyric acids each produced growth inhibition which was markedly ph-dependent. little inhibition was observed at ph 7.0, and inhibition increased with decreasing ph. a combination of 60 mumoles of acetate, 20 mumoles of propionate, and 15 mumoles of butyrate per ml gave 96, 69, and 2% inhibition at ph 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0, respectively ...19694886864
escherichia coli agglutinins in cow serum, colostrum and the nursing calf.immunochemical properties of escherichia coli o antibodies present in bovine serum and colostrum were investigated. dam and calf serum samples plus colostral whey samples were fractionated by gel filtration, and the 7s and 19s fractions isolated. antibody activity against the o antigens of four recognized e. coli bovine pathogens was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test on the whole serum and colostral whey samples and the 7s and 19s fractions thereof. mercaptoethanol reduction was u ...19704248443
the hygiene and marketing of fresh cream as assessed by the methylene blue test. a report by a working party to the director of the public health laboratory service.the hygiene and marketing of fresh cream in england and wales was investigated by a working party of the public health laboratory service (phls) between 1 october 1968 and 31 july 1969. thirty-one cream-producing dairies were visited and observations made in the light of the code of practice published by the milk and milk products technical advisory committee of the ministry of agriculture, fisheries and food, and the scottish home and health department. suggestions are made in this report to st ...19714326247
electrophoretic analysis of ribosomal and viral ribonucleic acids with a simple technique for slicing low-concentration polyacrylamide gels.the electrophoretic mobilities of ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rna) from cultured mammalian (hela, vero, mdbk), avian (chick embryo), and bacterial (escherichia coli) cells, and rna species extracted from selected viruses (sindbis, polio, tobacco mosaic, sendai) were compared, employing a simple, inexpensive technique for slicing low-concentration polyacrylamide gels. the procedure provides for rapid fractionation of gels used for characterization of rna, incorporating extrusion and serial secti ...19714331767
invitro formation of assimilatory reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: nitrate reductase from a neurospora mutant and a component of molybdenum-enzymes.an active neurospora-like assimilatory nadph-nitrate reductase (ec 1.6.6.2), which can be formed in vitro by incubation of extracts of nitrate-induced neurospora crassa mutant nit-1 with extracts of (a) certain other nonallelic nitrate reductase mutants, (b) uninduced wild type, or (c) xanthine oxidizing and liver aldehyde-oxidase systems was also formed by combination of the nit-1 extract with other acid-treated enzymes known to contain molybdenum. these molybdenum enzymes included (a) nitrogen ...19714399835
[detection of e. coli in cow's milk]. 19714942596
characteristics of antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli from animals: relationship to veterinary and management uses of antimicrobial agents.five-hundred fifty-five (555) isolates of escherichia coli were obtained from fecal specimens of a representative number of animals from five farms in the united states. antibiotic exposure of the selected herds was determined by an epidemiological survey of these farms. the incidence of multiple resistance in the e. coli isolates was higher in herds exposed to continuous feeding of antimicrobial agents (84.8%) than in a herd not receiving antimicrobials (15.7%). the most common resistance confi ...19714943278
[disinfection in colibacteriosis of small cattle]. 19714946542
[microflora of the uterus in postpartum cows]. 19714946545
uridinediphosphogalactose-4-epimerase deficiency in salmonella typhimurium and its correction by plasmoid-borne galactose genes of escherichia coli k-12: effects on mouse virulence, phagocytosis, and serum sensitivity.the synthesis of smooth lipopolysaccharide (lps) in relation to mouse virulence and resistance to serum bactericidal activity in vitro and to rapid intravenous clearance in vivo was studied in salmonella typhimurium by using a virulent [median lethal dose (ld(50)) = 10(2)], smooth, and genetically marked strain, a uridinediphosphogalactose epimerase-deficient mutant of it which was, therefore, rough, and a derivative of the mutant made smooth again by acquisition of the galactose-positive genes ...19714949486
antibacterial activity of dihydro-1,3-oxazine derivatives condensed with aromatic rings in positions 5,6.1. the antibacterial activity in vitro of dihydro-1,3-oxazine derivatives with aromatic rings condensed in positions 5, 6 was examined.2. of more than thirty compounds examined, two (t 615 and t 638) showed marked activity against various strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis at concentrations below 2 mug/ml.3. these two compounds also showed marked activity against escherichia coli, clostridium pneumoniae and salmonella typhi.4. both showed marked activity in vivo against tuberculosis produced ...19715003353
degradation of dna rna hybrids by ribonuclease h and dna polymerases of cellular and viral origin.ribonuclease h from human kb cells, chick embryos, calf thymus, avian myeloblastosis virus, and rous associated virus specifically degrades the rna of dna.rna hybrids, producing mono- and oligoribonucleotides terminated in 5'-phosphates. the cellular rnase h is an endonuclease, whereas the viral enzyme appears to be an exonuclease. viral dna polymerase and rnase h copurify through all separation steps. therefore, rnase h activity is an intrinsic part of the viral dna polymerase. dna.rna hybrids ...19724343966
[studies, in the field, of a polyvalent vaccine against pulmonary infections in cattle]. 19724573942
[practical experiences in the prevention and therapy of most important calf and young cattle diseases in large herds]. 19724569838
anti-gamma globulins and chronic infection: comparative studies of the immune response to various bacteria and gamma globulin preparations.a study of the relationship of clinical states associated with prolonged infection (bacterial endocarditis and osteomyelitis) and generation of serum anti-gamma globulins was made with particular reference to quantitative amounts of staphylococcal protein a in various infecting strains. no correlation between individual strain amounts of protein a and presence of anti-gamma globulins was detected. thirty-eight rabbits were immunized intravenously with various strains of bacteria (staphylococcus ...19724404684
transcription of brain chromatin by ribonucleic acid polymerases from brain nuclei and from escherichia coli.1. transcription of ox brain chromatin by brain nuclear rna polymerase ii and escherichia coli rna polymerase was studied. 2. the soluble chromatin prepared from brain nuclei contained dna, rna, histone and non-histone proteins. such chromatin preparations did not display any endogenous rna polymerase activity, when assayed in the presence of concentrations of kcl as high as 0.4m. 3. the chromatin-templated activity of brain nuclear polymerase ii was stimulated by kcl, with an optimum around 0.2 ...19724571299
phagocytosis of microbial l-forms.little data are available regarding l-form phagocyte interactions. due to difficulty with more conventional methods, a serum-free technique of surface phagocytosis employing cellulose ester micropore filters, fluorochrome staining, and reflecting fluorescence microscopy was developed. intracellular localization of l-frms was confirmed by electron microscopy. in timed experiments, phagocytosis of a group d streptococcus (atcc 23241) and its l-form (t53i) were maximal at 30 min, although the bacte ...19724628960
[r factors in strains of pathogenic enterobacteria isolated from domestic animals and particularly from dogs].strains of enterobacteria (nine escherichia coli and two salmonella) isolated from primary or secondary infections in the dog, cat, pig, calf and kangaroo were studied for the presence of extrachromosomal drug resistance factors (r factors). seven strains of e. coli and two strains of salmonella transferred resistance involving the following antibiotics: streptomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin and tetracycline. all strains harboring r factors transferred streptomycin resistance and t ...19724258542
antigenic relationships in mammalian dna polymerase.rabbit antibody was prepared against a high-molecular-weight dna polymerase purified from the soluble fraction of calf thymus gland. this antibody does not inhibit terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase isolated from that source, but does inhibit both low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight dna polymerases isolated from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of a number of mammalian tissues (mouse l cells, calf thymus, phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes, rat liver, and rabbit bone ...19724110484
a technique for ultracryotomy of cell suspensions and tissues.ultracryotomy of fixed tissue has been investigated for a number of years but, so far, success has been limited for several reasons. the simple technique herein reported allows the ultracryotomy not only of a variety of tissues but also of single cells in suspension, with a preservation and visualization of ultrastructural detail at least equivalent to that obtained with conventional embedding procedures. in this technique, sucrose is infused into glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue pieces before freezi ...19734121290
modification of rna polymerase after t3 phage infection of escherichia coli b.e. coli b cells infected with t3 phage contain a modified host rna polymerase in addition to the normal rna polymerase found in uninfected cells. the modified rna polymerase behaves differently in its elution properties from the normal enzyme on deae-cellulose, phosphocellulose, and dna-cellulose column chromatography. the modified enzyme also differs from the normal polymerase in some of its enzymatic parameters. the specific activity of the modified rna polymerase is markedly lower (i.e., (1/4 ...19734126728
studies on the chick-lethal toxin of eecherichia coli.a toxin which is lethal for two week old chicks has been recovered from strains of escherichia coli o78:k80 of bovine and avian origin and from avian isolates of serogroups o2, o45 and o109. the toxin is heat-labile, antigenic, high in protein, inactivated by pronase, trypsin, amylase, and pancreatic lipase. the toxin may be precipitated by ammonium sulfate or tca treatment from the supernatant obtained by repeated centrifugation of sonicated cells. considerable purification has been obtained by ...19734270809
the kinetics of hydrolysis of synthetic glucuronic esters and glucuronic ethers by bovine liver and escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase.1. the relative rates of hydrolysis of synthetically prepared beta-d-glucuronic esters [aglycone: benzoic acid, veratroic (3,4-dimethoxybenzoic) acid, indol-3-ylacetic acid and ethylbutyric acid], and beta-d-glucuronic ethers (aglycone: phenolphthalein, p-nitrophenol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol) by commercial preparations of beta-glucuronidase from bovine liver and escherichia coli were investigated. the rates of hydrolysis of all compounds tested were followed by measuring ...19734584027
platelet interaction with bacteria. 3. ultrastructure.the interaction of several common strains of bacteria with rabbit or human platelets in vitro has been examined sequentially with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. bacteria were added to platelets in their native plasma or to washed platelets in a balanced salt solution at ratios of about 1:1 or at low bacteria to platelet ratios (down to 1:100). the platelet-bacterial interaction (pbi) was studied with recording nephelometry. matched samples were fixed for microscopy at various poi ...19734632008
growth of indigenous organisms in aerated filtrate of feedlot waste.filtrates from feedlot waste were incubated under aerobic conditions to evaluate the availability of nutrients for cell production and to assess the capacity of indigenous flora to produce stabilized effluents. incubation was carried out in 9-liter aerated jar fermentors. three-fourths of the organic material and one-third of the nitrogen were taken up in 4 days; 90% utilization of organic material and nitrogen required almost a month. acid was produced initially, but aerated liquid thereafter r ...19744609184
infection and immunoglobulin concentrations in chediak-higashi mice.the chediak-higashi syndrome (chs) has been reported in man, cattle, mink, and mice. chs humans and cattle have an increased incidence of pyogenic infections, whereas chs mink are more susceptible to aleutian disease. age- and sex-matched groups of chs mice (mutant strain) and c57 bl/6n (parent strain) were challenged with candida albicans, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and staphylococcus aureus intravenously and streptococcus pneumoniae intraperitoneally. a significant increase (p < ...19744601767
continuous non-therapeutic use of antibacterial drugs in feed and drug resistance of the gram-negative enteric florae of food-producing animals.fecal samples from illinois farm animals and montana range cattle were examined for the frequency of gram-negative enteric organisms resistant to oxytetracycline, dihydrostreptomycin, or ampicillin. the illinois farm animals were continually fed rations containing various antibacterial drugs. the montana range cattle had minimal exposure to antibacterial drugs. the majority of samples from illinois farm animals demonstrated 10% or more antibiotic-resistant organisms. in contrast, resistant organ ...19744615630
herd incidence of bovine mastitis in four danish dairy districts. i. the prevalence and mastitogenic effect of micro-organisms in the mammary glands of cows. 19744213559
isolation of repeated and self-complementary sequences from e. coli dna.we have used the single-strand specific nuclease from neurospora crassa and chromatography on methylated albumin-kieselguhr to purify and characterize repeated and self-complementary sequences from escherichia coli dna. approximately 0.5% of the genome renatures spontaneously at zero time and another 2% renatures somewhat more rapidly than the total dna. the early renaturing dna has a base composition and a tm similar to the total dna and contains on the average 100 base pairs; the self-compleme ...197410793709
comparative studies on nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from different sources.(1) nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenases in submitochondrial particles from beef heart mitochondria, chromatophores from rhodospirillum rubrum and membrane preparations from escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa have been compared with respect to the following properties: stereospecificity for the 4-hydrogen of nadh, reactivity with 3'-nadp, inhibition by palmityl-coa, sensitivity tot rypsin, and effects of ca2+ and 2'-amp on the reaction rates. (2) transhydrogenases from submitochond ...197419400036
the interaction of bovine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase with hydrogen peroxide: chemiluminescence and peroxidation.reaction of bovine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase with h2o2 was accompanied by a luminescence whose intensity was a function of the concentration of h2o2 and whose duration was coincident with the inactivation of the enzyme by this reagent. oxygen, which protected against inactivation, also diminished the luminescence. several other compounds which prevented the inactivation by h2o2 also modified the luminescence. thus urate, formate, and triethylamine inhibited luminescence whereas imidazole ...1975172122
isolation and characterization of cytidine diphosphate diglyceride from beef liver.cytidine diphosphate diglyceride was isolated from beef liver by a combination of silicic acid column, deae-cellulose column, and this layer chromatography. the product (5.8 to 17.4 mumol/kg of liver) contained cytidine/phosphate/fatty acids in the molar proportions 1.05/2.0/2.05 (theoretical, 1.0/2.0/2.0) (average for three preparations). the liponucleotide was split quantitatively by a partially purified hydrolase from escherichia coli, specific for cdp-diglyceride, (raetz, c. r. h., hirschber ...1975169258
demonstation that thymine dimers are excised as oligonucleotides from specifically incised ultraviolet-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid.the average size of the dimer-containing acid-soluble oligonucleotides after incubation of specifically incised dna with two dimer excising nuclease activities has been determined to be about 8 nucleotides.1975164436
replication of polyoma dna in isolated nuclei. v. complementation of in vitro dna replication.nuclei from polyoma-infected 3t6 fibroblasts elongate in vitro the progeny strands of the replicative intermediates of polyoma dna. when high concentrations of such nuclei were incubated, short dna fragments were formed and subsequently added onto growing progeny strands. when nuclei were repeatedly washed with buffer containing detergent and then incubated at low concentrations. dna synthesis was decreased. in particular, the joining process was reduced, resulting in an accumulation of short dn ...1975163354
mucosal adherence of human enteropathogenic escherichia coli.an in-vitro assay system has been developed to measure bacterial adhesion to the mucosa of human fetal small intestine. two strains of escherichia coli that are proven human enteropathogens (e.p.e.c.) have been shown to adhere in large numbers, compared with control organisms. the attachment mechanism is species specific and is not caused by common fimbriae. mucosal adhesion may be as important as enterotoxin production or invasiveness in determining the virulence of some strains of human e.p.e. ...197553431
an attempt to identify the intestinal receptor for the k88 adhesin by means of a haemagglutination inhibition test using glycoproteins and fractions from sow colostrum.the k88 antigen of escherichia coli specifically adheres to the piglet intestinal cell; a solution of this antigen agglutinates guinea-pig red cells at 4 degrees c. the latter reaction was used as a model of the former, using inhibition of haemagglutination as an index of specific combination with the k88 adhesin. inhibition was found with mucous glycoproteins and chemical modification of their heterosaccharide residues by mild acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation or the smith degradation proced ...197546271
properties of a dna-adenylate complex formed in the reaction between mammalian dna ligase i and dna containing single-strand breaks.the major dna ligase from calf thymus (mammalian dna ligase i) forms a covalent enzyme-amp complex on incubation with atp [söderhäll & lindahl, j. biol. chem. 248, 672-675, (1973)]. the reaction of this complex with dna has now been studied. when the ligase-adenylate complex is incubated at 0 degrees c for short time periods with dna containing single-strand breaks, a dna-amp complex can be isolated from the reaction mixture by isopycnic centrifugation in cscl. incubation at ph 6.5 increased the ...1975235425
specific limited cleavage of bihelical deoxyribonucleic acid by wheat seedling nuclease.wheat seedling nuclease catalyzes the hydrolysis of intact, bihelical viral dna or high molecular weight, native escherichia coli dna to produce limit polymers which are resistant to further hydrolysis by additional enzyme. these limit products are double-stranded polymers free of single strand interruptions and are terminated at their 5' ends with equal amounts of either deoxycytidylate or deoxyguanylate residues. the average size of the duplex limit products, as determined by (a) alkaline and ...1975236302
the radiometric assay of alkaline phosphatase activity with 125-i-labelled phenolphthalein monophosphate.the coupling of 125-i to phenolphthalein monophosphate is described. hydrolytic cleavage of the phosphate group by alkaline phosphatases (ec 3.1.-3.1) releases labelled phenolphthalein which is extracted into ethyl acetate at ph 10. this forms the basis of a sensitive assay for the enzyme with the advantages of sensitivity and rapidity from the use of a gamma-emitter. results with escherichia coli and calf intestine alkaline phosphatases are presented.1975237639
studies on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. i. superoxide anion as substrate.indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase purified to apparent homogeneity from rabbit intestine was inhibited by scavengers for superoxide anion such as superoxide dismutase and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonic acid (tiron). on the other hand, beta-carotene and 1,4-diazobicyclo-(2,2,2)-octane, scavengers for singlet oxygen, did not affect the enzyme activity significantly. the degree of inhibition of the dioxygenase by superoxide dismutase preparations from bovine erythrocytes, green peas, spinach leaves, ...1975238993
[decomposition of steroids during incubation with beta-glucuronidase and during storage of urine].androsterone, etiocholanolone, pregnanetriol, dehydroepiandrosterone, pregnanediol, tetrahydrocortisol, 5-pregnenolone and 11-beta-oh-androsterone were incubated with beta-glucuronidase preparations (helix pomatia, bovine liver and e. coli) for 96 hrs at 37 degrees c. after extraction and silylation they were gas-chromatographed. the first 3 steroids were left practically intact. the least decomposition of the last 5 steroids occurred with the liver enzyme. testosterone and 11-ketoandrosterone w ...1975765125
diverse effects of bursectomy on humoral immune responses in the chicken.chickens bursectomized hormonally or surgically at various ages in embryonic to postembryonic lives were immunized with a mixture of antigens, and the antibodies produced titrated. immune responses to salmonella pullorum (sp), brucella abortus (ba). staphylococcus aureus (staph) and ovalbumin (oa) were more markedly suppressed by the bursal deprivation than those to heterogenous erythrocytes, viruses and such bacteria as pasteurella multocida (pm) and escherichia coli b. the immune response to b ...19751187514
[transcription of dna by rna polymerases of e. coli and calf thymus].the paper deals with the comparative investigation of initiation and in vitro rna synthesis on dna template by e. coli rna polymerase and b-form of calf thymus rna polymerase. it was shown in hybridization experiments that in the range of cot values between 10(2) and 10(4) rna synthesized by calf thymus rna polymerase was hybridized with homologous dna more effectively than rna synthesized by e. coli rna polymerase. no differences were observed in the case of low cot values. rna chains synthesiz ...1975768744
teat apex coliform populations and coliform mastitis--a herd study.a dairy herd having a high incidence of coliform mastitis was observed by means of pre- and post-milking samples and teat apex culture. infected quarters were the major source of teat apex contamination with coliform bacteria and therefore constituted a risk to unifected quarters and to other cows. coliform populations on the apex from environmental sources appeared to be transitory.1975806418
[the effect of dna isolated from different sources and different physico-chemical conditions on candida tropicalis strain d-2 his-].mutagenic effect of dna, isolated from escherichia coli, actinomyces olivaceus and calf thymus, on hystidine-deficient strain of candida tropicalis d-2 is demonstrated.1975773761
herd studies on coliform mastitis.escherichia coli, enterobacter aerogenes, and klebsiella pneumoniae were responsible for 63, 10, and 11 percent, respectively, of 158 coliform organisms recovered from mastitis cases in 8 california herds. the severity and nature of the coliform mastitis problem were found to vary greatly among herds but were characteristic for each of 4 herds studied in detail.1975804464
[etiology of mastitis in dairy cows in slovakia during 1972-1974].in the period from 1972 to 1974, veterinary institutes in slovakia performed bacteriological examinations in 178,853 milk samples coming from 72,454 dairy cows. on an annual average, the number of examined samples was higher by 61% than in 1967-1971. germs responsible for the inflammation of the mammary gland were found in the milk of 22.32% of the dairy cows. the following bacterial germs were represented: streptococcus agalactiae - 15.77%, staphylococcus aureus - 4.19%, other streptococci - 1. ...1975814671
the effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria. iii. bacteriolysis induced by extracts of different leukocyte populations and the inhibition of lysis by macromolecular substances.the lysis of 14c-labeled bacteria by hydrolases of human and rabbit leukocytes was studied in vitro. while staphylococcus albus, streptococcus faecalis, and streptococcus mutans were highly susceptible to lysis, staphylococcus auresus was intermediate in its susecptibility to lysis by the leukocyte enzymes. group a streptococcus, listeria monocytogenes, shigella flexneri, escherichia coli, and mycobacterium smegmatis were very resistant to degradation by these enzymes. the lytic activity of leuk ...1975804017
[etiology of dairy cows mastitis in slovakia in the years 1972-1974].in the period from 1972 to 1974, veterinary institutes in slovakia performed bacteriological examinations in 178,853 milk samples coming from 72,454 dairy cows. on an annual average, the number of examined samples were higher by 61% than in 1967-1971. germs responsible for the inflammation of the mammary gland were found in the milk of 22.32% of the dairy cows. the following bacterial germs were represented: streptococcus agalactiae -- 15.77%, staphylococcus aureus -- 4.19%, other streptococci ...1975813355
bactericidal and haemolytic activity of complement in bovine colostrum and serum: effect of proteolytic enzymes and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (egta).bovine colostral whey (cw) possessed heat-labile bactericidal activity against an enteropathogenic serum-susceptible strain of escherichia coli. activity was readily destroyed by trypsin or rat pancreatic juice, and less readily by chymotrypsin. loss of activity due to trypsin, but not by chymotrypsin, could be prevented by addition of excess bovine colostral trypsin inhibitor. a second enteropathogenic strain of e. coli was killed by cw only if exogenous complement was added. this activity was ...1975813560
selective adhesion of microorganisms to the ductular epithelium of the bovine mammary gland.streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus faecalis, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, and corynebacterium bovis were examined for their ability to adhere to the ductular epithelial cells of the bovine udder. s. agalactiae and s. aureus adhered readily and in large numbers, whereas the other organisms adhered poorly or not at all. the organisms showing the ability to adhere are those which frequently cause mastitis. these data suggest that selective adherence to the ductular epithelium may b ...1975811566
[effect of long-term freezing preservation on the level of bacterial contamination of the sperm].fourty-five ejaculates of breeding bulls were examined at a breeding station in order to study the contamination level of sperm after ejaculation, after thinning, after finished equilibration, after freezing, and after three months after placement in liquid nitrogen at -- 196 degrees c. the amount of germs in sperm was found to increase rapidly in the course of examination and thinning at laboratory temperature. the average number of 4,149 germs increased to 9,729. during equilibration the numbe ...1975808013
endonuclease ii of escherichia coli: dna reacted with 7-bromomethyl-12-methylbenz[alpha]anthracene as a substrate.an endonuclease ii preparation from escherichia coli makes single strand breaks in dna which has been treated with the carcinogen 7-bromomethyl-12-methylbenz[alpha]anthracene. in addition, the enzyme preparation excises n6-(12-methylbenz[alpha]anthracenyl-7-methyl)adenine and n2-(12-methylbenz[alpha]anthracenyl-7-methyl)guanine residues from the dna. these are relased as the modified purine bases, not as purine nucleoside derivatives. the rate of release of the adenine derivative is three to fo ...1975812550
inhibition of escherichia coli by bovine colostrum and post-colostral milk. i. complement-mediated bactericidal activity of antibodies to a serum susceptible strain of e. coli of the serotype o 111.bovine colostral whey diulted in unheated bovine milk or in kolmer saline containing 5 per cent pre-colostral calf serum was bactericidal for escherichia coli nctc 9703 (serotype o 111). whey diluted in saline without pre-colostral calf serum was inactive. bactericidal activity was abolished by heating at 56 degrees for 30 minutes or by pre-incubating with n-acetyl-l-tyrosine ethylester, indicating that complement present in milk or pre-colostral calf serum was involved in the bactericidal activ ...19751090521
indirect consequences of low-level use of antimicrobial agents in animal feeds.antibiotics may be classified as "therapeutic" or "feed" depending on their use for treatment of disease or for promotion of growth in animals. the mechanism of growth promotion is largely unknown, but it has been shown that the specific feed additive causes defined lesions in the cell wall of escherichia coli. this effect may sensitize the bacteria to the action of therapeutic drugs. damage to the bacterial cell wall may also cause the bacteria to be more susceptible to the body defense mechani ...19751090454
calf ligated intestinal segment test to detect enterotoxigenic escherichia coli.the ligated intestinal segment test in the young calf was utilized to establish the enterotoxigenicity of approximately 600 escherichia coli isolates obtained from fecal specimens intestinal contents of calves with diarrheal disease. one hundred and fifty isolates were routinely tested in a single calf. there was little problem with false-positive reactions. false-negative reactions normally occurred only if the isolate was tested in the posterior 3 m of the small intestine. the ligated small in ...19751090536
passive oral immunization with bovine immunoglobulins: enterpathogenic escherichia coli from infants and bovine anti-e. coli lactoserum assayed in the rabbit ileal loop model.the effect of immune bovine lactoserum (bls) antipolyvalent enteropathogenic escherichia coli on bacterial growth, viability and bacteria-induced fluid accumulation was examined in rabbit ileal loops. human enteropathogenic e. coli strains 0125:k70 (b15), 0111:k58 (b4) and 055:k59 (b5) (1-3 x 10(9) per inoculum) induced secretion of 4-6 ml fluid per 10 cm loop. this effect was inhibited effectively by bls (corresponding to 50 mg igg 1 per loop) while the viability of bacteria counts decreased 2- ...1975765710
[false-positive results obtained on examining slaughtered animals for the presence of antibiotic residues (author's transl)].as part of the examination of emergency-slaughtered animals for the presence of antibiotic residues, studies were done to see whether false-positive results would be obtained when the sarcina lutea kidney test and bacillus subtilis bga test were performed. when the s. lutea kidney test was positive in cattle, calves and swine, penicillin was invariably found to be present in those animals, the histories of which showed that they had not been given antibiotics. a syringe and an injected fluid con ...1975809859
[comparative study of some quaternary ammoniums neutralizing agents. influence of the nature of the bacterial strains used].the neutralising capacity of the anti-bacterial activity of a quaternary ammonium salt, depends on the nature of the bacterial strains used. consequently, the choice of a neutralising agent of the bactericidal activity can only be made following a preliminary study on several bacterial species. out of five products which we tested, we found the tween-lecithin fresh egg mixture alone had satisfactory activity.1975812041
defective mononuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in the chediak-higashi syndrome of humans, mink, and cattle.chemotaxis of mononuclear leukocytes from humans, mink, and cattle was evaluated in vitro using a morphologic boyden chamber technique and a new 51-cr-labeled mononuclear radioassay with a double micropore filter system. significantly decreased mononuclear leukocyte chemotactic response were noted when human, mink, or cattle chediak-higashi cells were tested using autologous serum or endotoxin-activated autolotous serum. a similar chediak-higashi mononuclear leukocyte defect was noted in humans ...19751092386
deoxyribonucleic acid-cytosine methylation by host- and plasmid-controlled enzymes.deoxyribonucleic acid (dna)-cytosine methylation specified by the wild-type escherichia coli k 12 mec+ gene and by the n-3 drug resistance (r) factor was studied in vivo and in vitro. phage lambda and fd were propagated in the presence of l-[methyl-3h]methionine in various host bacteria. the in vivo labeled dna was isolated from purified phage and depurinated by formic acid-diphenylamine treatment. the resulting pyrimidine oligonucleotide tracts were separated according to size and base composit ...19751091619
[bacteriocinogeny in yersinia enterocolitica].bacteriocinogeny was found in 19.8 per cent of y. enterocolitica strains tested. it was designated by the authors as enterocoliticacinogeny and the substance produced by the pathogen was named enterocoliticacine. bacteriocinogeny was found among the collection strains isolated in the south primorye and not among the strains isolated abroad. some cultures of y. enterocolitica isolated abroad and in the south primorye were used as indicator strains for revealing enterocoliticacinogeny. enterocolit ...19751091204
enzymatic arginylation of beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and of angiotensin ii.porcine beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and angiotensin ii were examined as acceptors in the reaction catalyzed by arginyl-trna-protein transferase. both inhibited enzymatic transfer of [14c]arginine from trna to bovine albumin. inhibition was competitive with albumin and the k-i values were, respectively, 15 and 0.8 mum. the expected arginylated compounds were isolated and characterized. beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and its arginylated product had identical activities in the frog epi ...19751091639
enzymatic multiplication of a chemically synthesized dna fragment.a synthetic dna fragment of 19 residues was enlarged by the enzymatic addition of deoxyadenylate residues to its 3'-end with calf thymus terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. the 3'-terminus of this elongated dna strand was blocked with 2', 3'-dideoxyadenylate to prevent hydrolysis by the 3'-exonuclease function of e. coli dna polymerase i. this elongated and 3'-blocked fragment was annealed to an oligomeric primer and used as a template for the synthesis of a complementary copy of the syntheti ...19751093143
the effects of overloading in density-gradient centrifugation.the effects of overloading of the sample zone in density gradient centrifugation have been studied by use of a three-component shelf-lavered sample in which the total protein concentration was increased by addition of different amounts of albumin. it is found that overloading of the gradient gives rise to particle movements which are not predictable from the svedberg equation. the two typical effects of overloading are dislocation of the zone mass centres and changes in the zone shapes. it is fo ...19751097246
quantitation of amanitins in amanita verna with calf thymus rna polymerase b.a procedure utilizing the specific inhibition of calf thymus dna-directed rna polymerase b has been applied to the quantitation of amanitins. this procedure has permitted the accurate quantitation of alpha-amanitin in amounts as low as 0.05 nanogram, a sensitivity 2000-fold greater than chemical detection methods used following tlc. analysis of extracts of specimens of amanita verna identified by morphological criteria has demonstrated that while toxin concentration is variable, some specimens ...19751094215
distribution of r plasmids among the o-antigen types of escherichia coli isolated from human and animal sources.the o-antigen types of 600 independently isolated escherichia coli strains from human feces have been determined, and the types have been related to the antibiotic resistance patterns of the strains. the relative abundance of each o-antigen type differed in the susceptible and resistant series of strains. the majority (86%) of the resistant strains carried r plasmids. resistant e. coli (20.3%) were found associated with o-antigen types 8, 9 and 101, whereas the susceptible strains covered a wide ...19751101815
some effects of calcium and magnesium ions on the activity of bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease a.bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease requires divalent metal cations for hydrolysis of dna. the effects of calcium and magnesium, alone and combined, on the rate and kinetics of the reaction were examined. divalent metal salts of dna were used as substrates. the ratio of either ca-2+ or mg-2+ to dna-p in these salts was 1:2. the mg-2+ salt of dna was found to have sufficient mg-2+ for optimal dnaase activity. addition of mgcl-2 to a large excess of mg-2+ over dna-p had no effect on the rate. km f ...19751095074
hematology of the neonatal calf. ii. response associated with acute enteric infections, gram-negative septicemia, and experimental endotoxemia.the hematological responses of neonatal calves with acute enteric infections were compared to the responses of calves with septicemia and experimentally induced endotoxemia. the mean hematocrit of septicemic calves (45.0% +/- 7.8) was similar to that of calves with primary enteric infections (45.3% +/- 7.0) but the total plasma protein concentration of septicemic calves (5.8g/100 ml +/- 0.69) was significantly lower than that of calves with primary enteric infections (8.6 g/100 ml +/- 1.5). the ...19751104259
[problems of resistance (author's transl)].the results of sensitivity tests performed during the period from 1970 up to 1973 inclusive are compared with those obtained in pervious years. this showed that resistance to penicillin had increased in staphylococci causing bovine mastitis. during each single year, however, there was a decrease. s. typhimurium isolated from cattle showed increased resistance to chloramphenicol, neomycin and ampicillin; s. dublin showed an increase in resistance to chloramphenicol. e. coli isolated from calves w ...19751096359
the effects of organic solvents on escherichia coli dna polymerase iii.the polymerizing ability of escherichia coli dna polymerase iii is enhanced by a variety of water-miscible organic solvents of which dimethyl sulfoxide at 17% (v/v) is the most effective tested. the extent of stimulation depends on the organic solvent used and its concentration, but shows no obvious correlation with the chemical structure of the solvent or its dielectric constant. kinetic studies indicate that the mechanism of stimulation is complex.19751098695
[sodium thiocyanate as a protective agent in intensive calf fattening. brief report].daily administration of sodium thiocyanate at 750 mg a calf for the first three weeks in the fattening stalls reduced the occurrence of illness by 60%. this protective effect seemed to persist during the following weeks without additional treatment. addition of the thiocyanate to the food may be beneficial through a nutritive effect.19751106349
studies on the binding of 5,5-diphenyl-hydantoin to nucleic acids in vitro and to rat brain subcellular fractions in vitro and in vivo.the binding of 5,5-diphenylhydantoin (dph) to nucleic acids (bovine brain rna, rat liver ribosomal and trna, torula utilis rna, and calf thymus and escherichia coli dna was studied using ultraviolet spectroscopy, gel chromatography and thermal transition profiles. within the sensitivity of these methods, it was found that there is essentially little or no interaction between dph and nucleic acids in vitro as has been reported previously. little, if any evidence of dph intercalation with dna was ...19761255490
modification of resistance of mice to naegleria fowleri infections.naegleria fowleri, which produces a fatal meningoencephalitis in humans, is also able to produce a progressive and fatal disease in mice. the course of the disease in dub/icr mice is dependent upon the infecting dose of organisms, whether administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intravenously (i.v.). all of the mice receiving 10(7) trophozoites/mouse i.v. or 4.85 x 10(7) trophozoites/mouse i.p. were killed within 10 days. escherichia coli o26:b6 lipopolysaccharide, administered at a dose of 1 mg ...19761270145
[etiology of mastitidos in dairy cows in slovakia during 1975].in 1975, in the veterinary institutes in slovakia bacteriological examinations of 54824 samples of milk coming from 28737 dairy cows were performed. bacterial germs responsible for the inflammation of the mammary gland were found in the milk of 18.91% of cows. these were: streptococcus agalactiae (in 13.93% of cows), staphylococcus aureus (2.86%), other streptococci (1.32%), e. coli (0.13%), klebsiella sp. (0.13%), corynebacterium pyogenes (0.15%), other bacterial germs (0.39%). streptococci and ...1976828997
[infective situation in a cow barn contaminated with klebsiella mastitis].the infection situation in a four-row cow-house for 153 animals with a frequent occurrence of klebsiella mastitis was subject to a detailed analysis. the following results were obtained after two collections of blood and udder-quarter milk samples examined by the test-tube agglutination, gel precipitation, and bacteriological diagnosis methods: 1. streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from milk samples 28 and 31 times, pseudomonas aeruginosa 15 and 19 times, staphylococcus arueus 16 and 19 times ...1976828991
etiologic diagnosis of diarrheal disease of calves: frequency and methods for detecting enterotoxin and k99 antigen production by escherichia cola.escherichia coli isolated from calves in minnesota and montana were tested for enterotoxigenicity via bio-assay of cell-free broth culture fluid and for k99 antigen via a serum agglutination test. infant mice were used to assay for heat-stable enterotoxin (st), and adrenal cells in culture were used to assay for heat-labile enterotoxin (lt). forty-six of the 345 e coli isolates produced st enterotoxin, but none produced lt enterotoxin. thirty-five of the 46 enterotoxigenic isolates had k99 antig ...1976786085
specific binding of a nonhistone chromosomal protein from lymphocyte to dna.the isolation of a nonhistone chromosomal protein, nh30 000, from bovine lymphocytes by affinity chromatography on a dna-agarose column is described. the procedure starts with nonhistone fraction nh4 obtained by hydroxyapatite chromatography as described previously [blüthmann, h., mrozek, s. & gierer, a. (1975) eur. j. biochem. 58, 315-326]. protein nh30 000 migrates as a single band with a molecular weight of 30 000 on sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gels. it contains, on a molar basis 25. ...19761009927
vaccination of cows with an escherichia coli bacterin for the prevention of naturally occurring diarrheal disease in their calves.a formalin-killed escherichia coli bacterin composed of 6 enterotoxigenic strains of the organism prepared from calves with diarrheal disease with field tested for efficacy against naturally occurring diarrheal disease in young calves. the bacterin was tested in 23 privately owned beef herds in montana involving 3,508 cows and their calves. about half the cows in each herd were given 2 subcutaneous vaccinations before calving and the other half (controls) were injected twice with a placebo. almo ...1976779544
reversibility of partial denaturation of dna.the hypochromicity recovery of a partially denatured dna sample when salt concentration is suddenly increased at an intermediate stage of the transition, is studied. the results of csc1 gradient analysis, polyethylenglycol/dextran partition analysis, and the behaviour in a new thermal transition, support the view that the process is an intramolecular double chain renaturation as that induced by cooling. the degree of denaturation irreversibility is dependent on the size of dna segments between t ...1976825148
occurrence and characteristics of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli isolated from calves with diarrhea.of 1,004 isolates of escherichia coli obtained during the spring of 1975 in seven different states from calves with diarrhea, 124 isolates were enterotoxigenic based upon ability to cause distention of the calf ligated intestinal segment. isolates of enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec) were obtained from calves in six of the seven states. etec were detected in calves in 118 of 355 herds in montana during the 1974 and 1975 spring beef calving seasons. the occurrence and serotypes of etec isolated from ...1976776828
conjugated polyene fatty acids as fluorescent membrane probes: model system studies.the use of conjugated polyene fatty acids as probes of membrane structure is examined, alpha- and beta-parinaric acid (cis, trans, trans, cis- and all trans-9, 11, 13, 15-octadecatetraenoic acid) and synthetic lecithins containing an alpha-parinaric acid chai in position 2 have been prepared, and their absorption and fluorescence properties have been determined. their absorption spectra are at sufficiently long wavelength to be unobscured by cellular chromophores such as nucleotides and aromatic ...1976778493
bronchiectasis in yearling feedlot cattle.thoughout all of 1974, we surveyed, for illnesses and deaths, about 407,000 yearling feedlot cattle. from the 3,943 dead cattle, 1,988 necropsies were made; of the cattle necropsied, 32 (1.6%) had bronchiectasis. in this disease, the permanently dilated small bronchi and bronchioles, located in ventral parts of the lungs, were filled with accumulations of exudate and microorganisms, including pasteurella hemolytica, pasteurella multocida, corynebacterium pyogenes, escherichia coli, salmonella an ...1976956033
[artificial intranasal bacterial invasion in the newborn calf. 1. quantitative assessment of nasal secretion for certain groups of bacteria].a technique has been developed for quantitative assessment of nasal secretion for the presence of specified groups of bacteria, as a contribution to microbiological treatment of the problem of artificial intranasal bacterial invasion in newborn and nursed calf. some 10(6) to 10(7) bacteria were recorded from each gram of nasal secretion in calves exposed to natural bacterial invasion. micrococci and green diplococci were very rare, with only 10(3) to 10(4) or hardly up to 10(5) bacteria per gram ...1976786200
[artificial intranasal bacterial invasion in the newborn calf. 2. artificial bacterial invasion using gram-positive and gram-negative strains].a micrococcal and a diplocaccal strain isolated from the nasal space of a clinically intact nursed calf were used for artificial bacterial invasion in the first phase of the experiment. application of bacterial suspension prepared from those strains had no effect upon the rise of coli counts in the nasal secretion of nursed calves during their first days of age nor upon the morbidity or mortality of all 677 test animals in comparison to 665 controls. therefore, an avirulent e.-coli strain was us ...1976786201
control of rna synthesis by chromatin proteins.the effect of chromatin proteins on template activity has been studied. using both e. coli rna polymerase and calf thymmus polymerase b we have measured the number of initiation sites on chromatin and various histone-dna complexes. chromatin can be reconstituted with histone proteins alone and this complex is still a restricted template for rna synthesis. the removal of histone f1 causes a large increase in the template activity. chromatin is then treated with micrococcal nuclease and the dna fr ...1976787926
pathogenesis and treatment of escherichia coli infections in calves.two clearly defined types of e. coli infection are recognised and the factors predisposing and giving rise to pathogenicity are discussed. the mode of action of enterotoxins in the secretary mechanism is thought to be through stimulation of adenyl cyclase activity. treatment and prevention of the disease is considered in relation to the pathogenesis of the infection.1976792447
effect of coliform challenge at milking time on new udder infections.this project was designed to study rates of infection in udders of cows exposed to an escherichia coli broth culture at milking time. forty holstein cows of varied stages of lactation were divided randomly into three treatment and one control group of ten cows each. the treatment groups were exposed for 3 wk to an escherichia coli broth of 10(9) colony forming units per ml at milking time by either 1) dipping teat ends in broth before milking, 2) spraying the udder and leaving it dripping wet du ...1976777057
inactivation by detergents of the proline transport system in membrane vesicles from escherichia coli and its reactivation by bovine serum albumin.the proline transport system of membrane vesicles from escherichia coli was inactivated by a low concentration of detergents such as deoxycholate, dodecyl sulfate and triton x-100. the addition of a large amount of bovine serum albumin to membrane vesicles which had been treated with one of these detergents resulted in the restoration of the proline transport activity. the restoration of the transport activity by bovine serum albumain was most remarkable with the deoxycholate-inactivated membran ...1976764873
coliform contaminated bedding and new infections.ten holstein cows were bedded on fresh, uncured sawdust seeded with coliform broth culture. escherichia coli concentrations were maintained at 10(6) colony-forming units/g for the 4-wk experimental period. ten control cows were bedded with dry shavings. the elevated bacterial contamination caused an increase in contamination of teat ends; however, no new coliform infections occurred.1976795819
cloning of calf thymus satellite i dna in escherichia coli.the 1400 base pair repeat produced by digestion of calf satellite i dna (phi = 1.714 g/cm3) with ecori, was cloned in e. coli. the hybrid plasmid (pgm 214) which contains the cole1-ap vector (psf 2124) and the 1400 base pair fragment replicates stably in e. coli and can be amplified by chloramphenicol treatment. no clone was found in which more than one "repeat unit" of the satellite i dna was present in the chimaera plasmid. digestion of the original satellite i and the plasmid pgm 214 with r-s ...1976796669
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