lung-tissue extract as an alternative to serum for surveillance for brucellosis in chamois.serological surveys are the most-used way to study diseases in free-ranging wild animals. however, the difficulty in obtaining a sufficient number of suitable serum samples is a major problem. to resolve this problem, we investigated the possibility of using lung-tissue extract in place of blood serum for searching for antibodies against brucella abortus. antibodies titres against b. abortus was tested from blood serum and lung-tissue extract from 112 chamois and 99 cattle. although in complemen ...200010673058
localization of brucella antigens that elicit a humoral immune response in brucella abortus-infected cells.localization of brucella antigens, to which brucella-infected cattle make antibodies, and the surface characteristics of brucella abortus smooth strain 19 and rough strain 45/20 were studied by the use of monospecific antisera in absorption tests, electron microscopy, and electrophoretic mobility of organisms in microelectrophoresis. antigenic determinants of electrophoretically defined antigen a5 were present on the surface of b. abortus rough strain 45/20 organisms, and protein moieties were m ...19816800949
a serological survey of bovine brucellosis in the molopo district of bophuthatswana.a serological investigation was carried out in the molopo district of bophuthatswana to determine the prevalence of brucellosis titre in heifers and cows (n = 9,675) over 24 months of age, which were grazing on communal tribal and privately owned land. the rose bengal, micro serum agglutination and complement fixation (cft) tests were used. two hundred and two (2.1%) animals tested positive with a cft titre of 30 (iu ml-1) or higher. factors that could have contributed to the relatively low prev ...19938176693
cloning and kinetics of expression of brucella abortus heat shock proteins by baculovirus an effort to develop genetically engineered brucella abortus (ba) vaccines, the genes encoding heat shock proteins (hsps) groel, groes, and htra were cloned and expressed in the bac-to-bac baculovirus system, and the kinetics of protein expression were analyzed using various insect cell lines in suspension cultures, different cell densities in suspension cultures, multiplicities of infection and recombinant virus replication times. trichoplusia ni cells expressed only ba htra, but spodoptera ...200010889410
the hook lake wood bison recovery project: can a disease-free captive wood bison herd be recovered from a wild population infected with bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis?the hook lake wood bison recovery project (hlwbrp) is a wildlife conservation project aimed at recovering a captive, disease-free herd of wood bison (bison bison athabascae) from a wild herd infected with bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) and brucellosis (brucella abortus). the disease eradication protocol that we have used involves a combination of techniques, including (1) orphaning of newborn wild-caught calves to minimize exposure to b. abortus and m. bovis, (2) testing calves for ma ...200212381597
[history of the eradication of bovine brucellosis in the czech republic].in the czech republic, the program of recovery of the livestock from brucellosis caused by the micro-organisms brucella abortus was successfully completed in 1964. the campaign started in 1959 by the exploration of the complete cattle population by agglutination tests. incidence of the disease was 211 positive cases for each 100 thousands, prevalence was 0.676% (20,481 animal in 654 foci of 34 districts). the prevalence was significantly higher in large cattle units. tens of new cases of the hum ...200010916210
variations in the prevalence of antibody to brucella infection in cattle by farm, area and district in kenya.variations in the sero-prevalence of antibody to brucella infection by cow, farm and area factors were investigated for three contrasting districts in kenya: samburu, an arid and pastoral area: kiambu, a tropical highland area; and kilifi, a typical tropical coastal area. cattle were selected by a two-stage cluster sampling procedure and visited once between august 1991 and 1992. schall's algorithm, a statistical model suitable for multi-level analysis was used. using this model, older age, free ...19979042033
comparative analysis of using mtt and xtt in colorimetric assays for quantitating bovine neutrophil bactericidal activity.two different tetrazolium compounds were compared for use in a colorimetric assay for quantitating bovine neutrophil bactericidal activity against staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes, and brucella abortus. the tetrazolium compounds tested included 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (mtt) and sodium 3,3'-[1[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-3,4- tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene sulfonic acid hydrate (xtt). the mtt and xtt colorimetric bacteric ...19938423367
simultaneous identification of antibodies to brucella abortus and staphylococcus aureus in milk samples by flow cytometry.two flow cytometric assays are described herein. the single cytometric test (sct) detects antibodies to either brucella abortus or staphylococcus aureus in the serum or milk of a cow or water buffalo. the double cytometric test (dct) detects both anti-b. abortus and anti-s. aureus antibodies concurrently. in the sct, the sample to be tested is incubated in succession with the antigen (either b. abortus or s. aureus) and the proper secondary antiserum (fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled rabbit a ...19989508316
regulation of brucella abortus catalase.all aerobic organisms have mechanisms that protect against oxidative compounds. catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and thioredoxin are widely distributed in many taxa and constitute elements of a nearly ubiquitous antioxidant metabolic strategy. interestingly, the regulatory mechanisms that control these elements are rather different depending on the nature of the oxidative stress and the organism. catalase is well documented to play an important role in protecting cells fr ...200010858195
identification of genes required for chronic persistence of brucella abortus in mice.the genetic basis for chronic persistence of brucella abortus in lymphoid organs of mice, cows, and humans is currently unknown. we identified b. abortus genes involved in chronic infection, by assessing the ability of 178 signature-tagged mutants to establish and maintain persistent infection in mice. each mutant was screened for its ability to colonize the spleens of mice at 2 and 8 weeks after inoculation. comparison of the results from both time points identified two groups of mutants attenu ...200010858227
immunohistochemical detection of brucella abortus antigens in tissues from aborted bovine fetuses using a commercially available polyclonal antibody.a commercially available polyclonal antibody and an avidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemical technique were used to detect brucella abortus antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of lung and liver from 20 aborted bovine fetuses. thirteen fetuses were obtained from farms with a previous history of brucellosis, and 7 were collected from farms without a history of brucellosis. among the 13 aborted bovine fetuses obtained from farms with a history of brucellosis, immunoreactivity ...19989526855
a functional water channel protein in the pathogenic bacterium brucella abortus.the gene for a new bacterial aquaporin, aqpx, was cloned from the pathogenic gram-negative bacterium brucella abortus. the gene was mapped on the large chromosome of b. abortus. it is flanked by one upstream and two downstream copies of the brucella repeated sequence bru-rs. prediction from the nucleotide sequence indicated that the protein is a member of the mip family, which comprises channels for water and/or solute transport. expression in xenopus oocytes and cryoelectron microscopy of esche ...200011101683
efficacy of elisa compared to conventional tests (rbpt and cft) for the diagnosis of brucella melitensis infection in indirect elisa (ielisa) using a b. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide (s-lps) as coating antigen and a polyclonal anti-sheep igg peroxydase-labeled serum as conjugate was developed. the ielisa was assessed in comparison to the food and agriculture organisation/international atomic energy agency (fao/iaea) standard bovine elisa kit (iaea kit) using an anti-bovine igg conjugate that cross-reacts with sheep antibodies, and with complement fixation test (cft) and rose bengal plate test (rbpt). the ...19989874104
experimental use of a dot-blot assay to measure serologic responses of cattle vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51.brucella abortus strain rb51 was recently approved as an official brucellosis calfhood vaccine for cattle by the animal and plant health inspection service branch of the united states department of agriculture. currently available serologic surveillance tests for b. abortus do not detect seroconversion following srb51 vaccination. the purpose of this study was to evaluate a dot-blot assay using gamma-irradiated strain rb51 bacteria for its specificity and sensitivity to detect antibody responses ...19979376424
relationship of age to susceptibility of nonvaccinated cattle to brucella abortus. 195713424917
responses of cattle to two dosages of brucella abortus strain rb51: serology, clearance and efficacy.a new brucellosis vaccine, brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51), is currently recommended for use as a calfhood vaccine in the us at dosages between 1 x 10(10)and 3.4 x 10(10)colony-forming units (cfu). the purpose of the study reported here was to compare responses to minimal and maximal recommended srb51 dosages. eighteen heifer calves were vaccinated subcutaneously with 1.6 x 10(10)cfu of srb51, 3.2 x 10(10)cfu of srb51, or saline (n = 6 per treatment). the vaccine strain was recovered from t ...199910208887
[persistent properties of brucella abortus isolated from various sources].persistence factors in 70 b. abortus strains isolated from different sources were studied. depending on the source of the isolation of b. abortus, the spread of their antilysozyme, anticomplementary, antiintercidal activity was determined and intraspecific differences in the manifestation of these signs were established. the highest spread and manifestation of persistence factors was registered in b. abortus populations isolated from brucellosis patients and from cattle.200111569250
brucella abortus differs in the multiplication within bovine chorioallantoic membrane explants from early and late gestation.the ability of brucella to infect and grow within extraplacentomal chorioallantoic explants (cams) derived from early and late gestational cattle was compared. following inoculation of cams with equal numbers of strain 2308 b. abortus, the infectivity was approximately the same in cams from both ages, however, bacterial replication was significantly greater in late gestational cams than in early gestational cams. co-culture of both early and late gestation cams or culture of both types of cams i ...19968654046
development and field validation of an avidin-biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for bovine brucellosis.the avidin-biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (a-b elisa), for use in surveillance for bovine brucellosis in india was developed and calibrated using the indirect brucellosis elisa kit of the international atomic energy agency (iaea) as a reference. the reagents used in the a-b elisa were as follows: the smooth lipopolysaccharide of brucella abortus strain 99 (antigen); biotinylated anti-bovine immunoglobulin g (detection antibody); avidin-horseradish peroxidase (conjugate); and o-phenylen ...200111732417
field investigations of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants in syria, 1990-1996.the authors present the epidemiological status of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants in syria from 1990 to 1996, based on laboratory findings at the brucellosis centre, damascus. initial investigations using the rose bengal plate test, the complement fixation test and a miniaturised variant of the slow agglutination test were conducted throughout the country in 1990 and 1991, revealing an overall herd seroprevalence rate of 3.14% in cattle herds and 2.94% in small ruminant flocks. althoug ...200111732419
comparison of the efficacy of brucella abortus strain rb51 and brucella melitensis rev. 1 live vaccines against experimental infection with brucella melitensis in pregnant test the efficacy of rough brucella strain vaccines in sheep, a vaccine recently developed in cattle (brucella abortus strain rb51) was assessed in comparison with the conventional rev. 1 vaccine. forty-five ewes from twelve to fourteen months of age, from brucellosis-free flocks, were allotted to three groups of fifteen ewes each. group one was vaccinated by the conjunctival route with 1.73 x 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) of rev. 1 vaccine. group two was vaccinated subcutaneously with 11 ...200111732416
aetiology of bovine abortion in argentina.necropsies were performed on 354 fetuses from dairy and beef herds submitted from 1994 to 2000 to the diagnostic laboratories at instituto nacional de tecnología agropecuaria, balcarce, argentina. samples from the fetuses were examined for pathogenic organisms and processed for microscopic examination. an aetiological diagnosis was made for 161 (45.5%) of the fetuses. no diagnosis was made for 193 (54.5%) fetuses. infectious agents were isolated from 122 (34.4%) of the fetuses, bacterial agents ...200314509450
use of polymerase chain reaction to identify brucella abortus strain rb51 among brucella field isolates from cattle in italy.brucella abortus strain rb51, a rough mutant of the b. abortus 2308 virulent strain, was recently approved in the united states as the official vaccine for brucellosis in cattle. following recent evidence of unauthorized use of rb51 vaccine in italy, where the use of vaccines for brucellosis is no longer allowed, the suitability of an rb51-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for identifying the rb51 strain among brucella field isolates from cattle in italy was investigated. the oligonucleot ...200111315520
field study of vaccination of cattle with brucella abortus strains rb51 and 19 under high and low disease assess humoral and protective immunity in cattle vaccinated by 12 months with brucella abortus vaccine strains rb51 and 19 under field conditions of high and low brucellosis prevalence.19989706206
experimental brucella abortus infection in wolves.four juvenile male wolves (canis lupus) each received an oral dose of 1.6-1.7 x 10(12) colony-forming units of brucella abortus biovar 1 isolated from a bison (bison bison) in wood buffalo national park (canada), and two others served as negative controls. infected wolves did not show clinical signs of disease but did develop high brucella antibody titers. small numbers of b. abortus were excreted sporadically in feces until day 50 postinoculation (pi). very small numbers of the bacterium were i ...200415137489
disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia.samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia, were collected during june-august 1999. all 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory ...200415137493
the efficacy of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity using a brucellin prepared from a mucoid strain of brucella abortus to detect brucellosis.eight-hundred-and-ninety-six cattle belonging to herds officially designated brucella-free, and 190 cattle belonging to infected herds were tested with the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (sdth) test, using brucellin (273) prepared from a mucoid strain of brucella abortus. an increase in skinfold thickness > or = 2 mm was considered a positive sdth test. the serum agglutination test, complement fixation test and bacteriological examination were used to confirm sdth test results. results show ...199910030130
the adjuvant effect of a single dose of interleukin-12 on murine immune responses to live or killed brucella abortus strain rb51.this study was designed to determine if a single 0.5 microg administration of recombinant murine interleukin-12 (il-12) would influence immune responses of mice vaccinated with live or killed brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51). mice were vaccinated intraperitoneally with 5 x 10(8) cfu of live or gamma-irradiated srb51 bacteria alone, or in combination with 0.5 microg of il-12. control mice received saline or 0.5 microg of il-12. serologic responses and spleen weights after vaccination were gre ...199910534009
a multiplex pcr for the detection of brucella spp. and leptospira spp. dna from aborted bovine fetuses.bovine brucellosis and leptospirosis are important causes of bovine abortion around the world. both diseases can be serologically diagnosed, but many factors may cause false positive and negative results. direct methods based on bacteriological isolation are usually employed, but they are difficult, time consuming and dangerous. monoplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) have been successfully described for the detection of brucella spp. and leptospira spp. aiming at improvement in the direct diag ...200212034542
is brucella abortus a facultative intracellular pathogen with mitochondria-like activity?brucella abortus is the agent of bovine brucellosis, a zoonotic disease of worldwide importance. in latently infected humans and animals, acute disease may recur under conditions that decrease the host resistance. this bacterium is considered to be a facultative intracellular pathogen. however, its pathogenic attributes appear reduced in comparison with other gram-negative pathogens. it has been recognized that b. abortus and other brucella species reach their intracellular location inside the r ...19989881835
comparison of serologic tests for detection of brucella infections in cattle and water buffalo (bubalus bubalis).to estimate sensitivity and specificity of 4 commonly used brucellosis screening tests in cattle and domestic water buffalo of trinidad, and to compare test parameter estimates between cattle and water buffalo.200212428673
immune responses of elk to vaccination with brucella abortus strain a study conducted from january to august 2000, elk (cervus elaphus) were vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51, n = 6) or injected with 0.15 m nacl solution (n = 3) at approximately 6 mo of age. beginning at 2 wk and continuing to 25 wk after vaccination, srb51-vaccinated elk had greater antibody responses (p < 0.05) to srb51 when compared to nonvaccinated elk. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from srb51-vaccinated elk had greater (p < 0.05) proliferative responses to s ...200212528441
brucella abortus vaccine strain rb51 produces low levels of m-like o-antigen.brucella abortus rb51 is a rough (r) stable vaccine strain used in cattle and is believed to be devoid of o-side chain. we analyzed by use of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against seven previously defined o-polysaccharide (o-ps) epitopes the o-chain expression in strain rb51. two mabs specific for the c/y (a=m) and c (m>a) epitopes showed low bindings in elisa to strain rb51. o-chain expression was further confirmed by western blot after sds-page of strain rb51. in particular, ...200211906770
fluorescence polarization assay: application to the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in argentina.a homogeneous fluorescence polarization assay (fpia) for detection of bovine antibody to brucella abortus was validated in argentina sera were defined based on their reactivity in the buffered antigen plate agglutination test (bpat) and the competitive enzyme immunoassay (celisa). sera negative in these tests were collected from farms without evidence of brucellosis (n=733). sera positive in the two tests were collected from cattle on farms from which b. abortus was isolated from at least one an ...199910458638
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate the antibody responses of animals infected with brucella species from those of animals infected with yersinia enterocolitica o9.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural brucella-infected animals from brucella-vaccinated or yersinia enterocolitica o9-infected animals. a field trial in mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.200312853409
attenuation and immunogenicity of a brucella abortus htra cycl double mutant in cattle.phe1 is a htra cycl double gene deletion mutant of virulent brucella abortus strain 2308 (s2308) which has previously been evaluated in the murine and caprine models of bovine brucellosis. this report describes the results of studies conducted with this mutant in the natural bovine host. six sexually mature, non-gravid heifers were inoculated via the conjunctival sac with 1 x 10(10) colony forming units (cfu) of either the parental s2308 or the htra cycl gene deletion mutant, phe1. at 4, 7 and 1 ...200010925044
evaluation of a fluorescence-polarization assay for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in méxico.a homogeneous fluorescence-polarization assay (fpa) was used for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in méxico. the assay uses o-polysaccharide prepared from brucella abortus lipoplysaccharide (20-30 kda) conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate as a tracer. to measure the fluorescence polarization, a fpm-1 fluorescence-polarization analyzer was used with the procedure described by nielsen et al. (1996b). a cut-off value of 90 millipolarization (mp) units was used for testing 560 b ...199910343334
comparative study of three serologic tests for detecting the response in cattle to virulent brucella abortus. 196214461730
field trial of the brucellosis fluorescence polarization assay.fluorescence polarization assay (fpa) is a homogeneous technique which was applied to the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. because of its simplicity and because it may be performed very rapidly, it was an ideal test to adapt to field use. the fpa was used to test cattle on six dairy farms in baja california, mexico. anticoagulated blood, serum, and milk were collected from each animal. the anticoagulated blood was tested immediately on the farm while serum and milk were tested subseq ...200212227417
brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccination in elk. i. efficacy of reduced dosage.bovine brucellosis is a serious zoonotic disease affecting some populations of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone area, usa. the fear that elk and/or bison may spread brucella abortus to livestock has prompted efforts to reduce or eliminate the disease in wildlife. brucella abortus strain rb51 (rb51) vaccine has recently been approved for use in cattle. unlike strain 19 vaccine, rb51 does not cause false positive reactions on standard b ...200211838212
brucellosis in a veteran's hospital, canada, about 100 sporadically occurring cases of brucellosis are reported yearly. three patients were admitted to one montreal hospital in the first seven months of 1963; all were employed in or around a packing plant. one had pain and electrocardiographic changes suggestive of brucella myocarditis; he recovered promptly. symptoms of neurasthenia and anxiety are common and were observed in two of these three cases. two had positive blood cultures; the third showed conclusive agglutination to ...196414221779
[occurrence of a strain of brucella abortus (schmidt et weiss) meyer et shaw, with the properties of a culture strain used in cattle vaccination; and a study of titer-negative brucella carriers]. 195014798920
survival of brucella abortus in milk fermented with a yoghurt starter countries such as mexico, brucellosis is still an important public health problem due to the consumption of non-pasteurized milk and dairy products, contaminated with brucella spp. the aim of this study was to look into the survival of brucella abortus during fermentation of milk with a yoghurt starter culture and storage at refrigeration temperature. sterile skim milk was inoculated with b. abortus at two concentrations, 10(5) and 10(8) cfu/ml simultaneously with a yoghurt starter culture of ...200517061533
characteristics of carbon dioxide-independent cultures of brucella abortus isolated from cattle vaccinated with strain 19. 196514331715
rescuing valuable genomes by animal cloning: a case for natural disease resistance in cattle.tissue banking and animal cloning represent a powerful tool for conserving and regenerating valuable animal genomes. here we report an example involving cattle and the rescue of a genome affording natural disease resistance. during the course of a 2-decade study involving the phenotypic and genotypic analysis for the functional and genetic basis of natural disease resistance against bovine brucellosis, a foundation sire was identified and confirmed to be genetically resistant to brucella abortus ...200717179549
seroprevalence of selected viral and bacterial pathogens in free-ranging european bison from the białowieza primeval forest (poland).blood was collected from bison that were selected between 1991 and 2001 for poor body condition, cachexia, lameness and balanoposthitis. sera were tested for antibodies to bovine herpes virus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), parainfluenza virus type 3 (pi-3), brucella abortus, chlamydophila abortus, coxiella burnetti, and leptospira interrogans. the results of serological tests showed a prevalence of low titers of a serological reaction to ...200717388020
a survey of brucellosis and tuberculosis in bison in and around wood buffalo national park, canada.examinations of complete or partial remains of 72 bison found dead in and around wood buffalo national park, canada, revealed evidence of brucellosis in 18 (25%) and tuberculosis in 15 (21%), with a combined prevalence of 42%. urease-positive and ureasenegative strains of brucella abortus biovar 1, and strains of biovar 2, were isolated from tissues of bison, including synovium and exudate from severe arthritic lesions. mycobacterium bovis was isolated from a range of granulomatous lesions that ...199017423532
prevention of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in c57bl/6 mice vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 expressing n. caninum protective antigens.bovine abortions caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum have been responsible for severe economic losses to the cattle industry. infected cows either experience abortion or transmit the parasite transplacentally at a rate of up to 95%. neospora caninum vaccines that can prevent vertical transmission and ensure disruption in the life cycle of the parasite greatly aid in the management of neosporosis in the cattle industry. brucella abortus strain rb51, a commercially available vacci ...200717575983
epidemiology and control of brucellosis in china.the paper describes the history and evolvement of brucellosis in china. it presents the variation of epidemic situation, epidemiological characteristics, application of vaccines and control in brief. before 1980s, human and animal brucellosis was quite severe; during 1980s, the incidence of human and animal brucellosis was relatively low, and seemed to decrease during the decade. during 1990s, there were no obvious changes in the incidence of animal brucellosis, but the incidence of human brucel ...200212414142
paradigm shifts in vaccine development: lessons learned about antigenicity, pathogenicity and virulence of part of a program to support the usda animal plant health inspection service bovine brucellosis eradication program, the brucellosis research unit of the national animal disease center (nadc) sought to develop a bovine brucellosis vaccine that would allow vaccinated animals to be distinguished from virulent field infected animals. in order to meet that goal, several avenues of research were undertaken to construct and test candidate vaccines, including brucella abortus rb51. in early vaccine ...200212414170
brucellosis vaccines: past, present and future.the first effective brucella vaccine was based on live brucella abortus strain 19, a laboratory-derived strain attenuated by an unknown process during subculture. this induces reasonable protection against b. abortus, but at the expense of persistent serological responses. a similar problem occurs with the b. melitensis rev.1 strain that is still the most effective vaccine against caprine and ovine brucellosis. vaccines based on killed cells of virulent strains administered with adjuvant induced ...200212414166
fluorescence polarization assay for the diagnosis of brucellosis: a review.fluorescence polarization assay (fpa) is based on the rotational differences between a small soluble antigen molecule in solution (labelled with a fluorochrome) and the antigen molecule complexed with its antibody. a small molecule will rotate randomly at a rapid rate, resulting in rapid depolarization of light, while a larger complex molecule will rotate slower and depolarize light at a reduced rate. the rate change in depolarization can be measured. the fpa is a homogeneous assay which does no ...200111506271
serological evidence of brucellosis among predisposed patients with pyrexia of unknown origin in the north eastern nigeria.brucellosis is the zoonosis of world wide distribution and common cause of economic loss and ill health among animals and human populations. patients with pyrexia of unknown origin (puo) who were predisposed to brucellosis through rearing of animals and consumption of different animal products were tested for presence of brucella abortus antibodies using rose bengal and serum agglutination antigens. twenty six (5.2%) of the 500 patients had b. abortus antibody. the high titres of 320, 640 and 12 ...200111505741
evaluation of brucellosis rb51 vaccine for domestic water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in trinidad.thirty-two young domestic water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) were obtained from a brucellosis-free farm to determine effectiveness of rb51 vaccination for prevention of brucella infection under natural-exposure conditions in trinidad. study animals (20 males and 12 females 5-20 months old) were assigned to vaccination or control groups, using a block randomization design ensuring equal sex distributions between groups. the vaccination group received commercially available rb51 at the recommended ca ...200312706059
adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine rb51.brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the center for veterinary biologics, veterinary services, animal and plant health inspection service, usda, on 23 february 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the united states. accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. the centers for disease control and ...200415308369
effect of leptospira pomona bacterin upon agglutinin titers of five cattle previously vaccinated with strain 19 brucella abortus. 195713475114
brucellosis in venezuela.brucellosis is a public health problem in venezuela and affects large numbers of animals. the most important biovar in the country is brucella abortus. in cattle and buffalo it causes high rates of abortions in females and infertility in males; it is transmissible to occupationally exposed humans. in 1968, an official program was set up for the control and eradication of the disease and it is still in place. amongst the control provisions, this program provides for the vaccination of female calv ...200212414132
eradication of bovine brucellosis in the 10th region de los lagos, chile.the process of bovine brucellosis eradication that began in 1996 in the 10th region de los lagos of chile will be reviewed. the region comprises the most important dairy area of the country and it has the largest concentration of brucellosis infected herds. based on the information gathered by an epidemiological surveillance system, the results of the eradication process for the years 1996 till 2001 are presented as rates of milk ring test (mrt) positive dairies, rates of brucellosis reactors (b ...200212414133
increases of efficacy as vaccine against brucella abortus infection in mice by simultaneous inoculation with avirulent smooth bvrs/bvrr and rough wbka mutants.the brucella abortus s19 and rb51 strains are the most widely used live vaccines against bovine brucellosis. however, both can induce abortion and milk excretion, s19 vaccination interferes in serological tests, and rb51 is less effective. we have shown previously that a rough wbkab. abortus mutant is attenuated and a better vaccine than rb51 in balb/c mice, and that mutants in the two-component regulatory system bvrs/bvrr are markedly attenuated while keeping a smooth lipopolysaccharide (s-lps) ...200616439039
likelihood ratio estimation without a gold standard: a case study evaluating a brucellosis c-elisa in cattle and water buffalo of trinidad.the likelihood ratio (lr) is a measure of association that quantifies how many more times likely a particular test result is from an infected animal compared to one that is uninfected. they are ratios of conditional probabilities and cannot be interpreted at the individual animal level without information concerning pretest probabilities. their usefulness is that they can be used to update the prior belief that the individual has the outcome of interest through a modification of bayes' theorem. ...200616600408
the animal and plant health inspection service (aphis) brucellosis eradication program in the united states.efforts to eradicate brucellosis caused by brucella abortus in the united states began in 1934 as part of an economic recovery program to reduce the cattle population because of the great depression and concurrent severe drought conditions. a number of states saw this as an opportunity to reduce the level of brucellosis, which was the most significant livestock disease problem in the us at the time. in 1934 and 1935, the reactor rate in adult cattle tested was 11.5%. in 1954, the magnitude of th ...200212414129
[the sensitivity of brucella abortus to ph and to certain weakly bactericidal solutions. a new technic of brucella isolation in strongly contaminated material (the fetuses of cattle)]. 196013849145
use of amplified fragment length polymorphism to identify and type brucella isolates of medical and veterinary interest.amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) is a whole-genome fingerprinting method that relies on the selective pcr amplification of restriction fragments. the potential of this approach for the discrimination of brucella isolates at the species and intraspecies level was assessed. a number of different combinations of restriction enzymes and selective primers were examined, and one, using ecori and msei with additional selective tc bases on the msei primer, was selected for full assessment a ...200515695677
efficacy of strain rb51 vaccine in heifers against experimental brucellosis.with the goal of providing an additional tool for controlling bovine brucellosis in brazil and evaluating the full calf dose in adult cattle, the efficacy of the rough brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine was tested in heifers. thirty-three females of approximately 24 months of age were divided in two groups: one group (n=20) received the rb51 vaccine and the other group (n=13) were used as non-vaccinated control. animals in the vaccinated group were split in two sub-groups. one sub-group (n=12) ...200616713034
the use of immunochemically purified anti-brucella antibody in a direct fluorescent antibody test for brucella abortus.antibodies specific for brucella abortus were purified from the serum of hyperimmunized sheep using immunochemical procedures. they were conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate and used in a fluorescent antibody (fa) test for b. abortus. the conjugate did not stain any heterologous bacterial or fungal species tested and background fluorescence associated with its use on smears and sections of abortion materials was particularly low. of 239 cases of abortion examined fluorescent microscopy demon ...198015615052
immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with brucella abortus strain rb51 or 19.previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with brucella abortus strains rb51 (srb51) and 19 (s19). elk were vaccinated with saline or 10(10) cfu of srb51 or s19 (n=seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. compared to nonvaccinates, ...200617028213
heterologous expression of brucella abortus groel heat-shock protein in lactococcus lactis.brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular pathogen that mainly infects cattle and humans. current vaccines rely on live attenuated strains of b. abortus, which can revert to their pathogenic status and thus are not totally safe for use in humans. therefore, the development of mucosal live vaccines using the food-grade lactic acid bacterium, lactococcus lactis, as an antigen delivery vector, is an attractive alternative and a safer vaccination strategy against b. abortus. here, we report th ...200616556312
incidence and distribution of brucella abortus in slaughtered bang's reactor cattle. 195114816498
expression and purification of the 26 kda periplasmic protein of brucella abortus: a reagent for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.development of a single diagnostic test for brucellosis in animals is the top priority of present-day research in the field. there is currently a battery of serological tests relying mainly on the use of lps (lipopolysaccharide) as an antigen, culminating in false positives due to serological cross-reactivity. other problems include difficulties in antigen production and the associated biohazard risk. this has prompted the need to develop an alternative antigen to replace lps. in the present stu ...200817685896
the role of brucella infection in abortions among traditional cattle reared in proximity to wildlife on the kafue flats of zambia.the role of brucella infections in cattle abortions was investigated in 914 females from 124 herds. animals were tested for exposure to brucella species and history of abortion over the past three years. sera were tested using the rose bengal test (rbt) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa). of 886 females tested, 189 were positive on rbt, and 154 (81.5%) were confirmed by c-elisa. at the individual animal level, 16.2% (95% confidence interval [ci]: 12.6% to 19.8%) of the c ...200718293620
non-specific seroreactions against brucella abortus in ruminants in new zealand and the presence of yersinia enterocolitica 0:9.the level of non-specific reactions found in the brucellosis serology of ruminants in new zealand was very low until july 1992. this changed when, in an export consignment of 1071 deer, 35% reacted in the brucella abortus tube agglutination test with titres varying from 50 to 200 iu. the reactors were also positive in the rose-bengal agglutination test and most of them reacted in the complement fixation test with titres varying from 10 to 80 iu. yersinia enterocolitica 0:9 was later isolated fro ...199516031844
serological discrimination by indirect enzyme immunoassay between the antibody response to brucella sp. and yersinia enterocolitica o:9 in cattle and pigs.a rapid, inexpensive and rugged serological test that distinguishes cattle and swine infected with brucella sp. or yersinia enterocolitica o:9 is described. the test protocol, which is an indirect enzyme immunoassay uses a high concentration of divalent cation chelating agents to minimize binding of y. enterocolitica o:9 antibody to rough lipopolysaccharide antigen derived from b. abortus rb51. no false positive reactions were observed when testing 100 canadian cattle and swine without any evide ...200616140390
[immunization of cattle against brucellosis with killed brucella abortus vaccine]. 195514360545
total hip arthroplasty infected by brucella: a report of two cases.infection caused by brucella following total joint arthroplasty is very rare. we present 2 cases of brucellar infection following total hip arthroplasty (tha). a 66-year-old woman who had prolonged contact with cattle presented with pain at the thigh and groin areas. the patient had undergone an uncemented tha for a hip fracture 3 years previously. cultures of articular liquid were positive for brucella abortus. the implant was loosened and was managed with a 2-stage re-implantation. a 71-year-o ...200616598098
failure to isolate brucella abortus from embryos or ova from culture-positive superovulated cows.nine, brucella abortus culture positive 2-yr-old cows were used to test the hypothesis that embryos and ova collected from such cows are not infected. superovulation was induced at varying times postpartum or postabortion with intramuscular injections of follicle stimulating hormone (fsh). the cows were artificially inseminated with b. abortus-negative semen. superovulations and nonsurgical embryo collections nonsurgical embryo collections were attempted twice for each cow. jugular blood, udder ...198816726359
rough lipopolysaccharide of brucella abortus rb51 as a common antigen for serological detection of b. ovis, b. canis, and b. abortus rb51 exposure using indirect enzyme immunoassay and fluorescence polarization assay.rough lipopolysaccharide (rlps) antigens were prepared from cultures of brucella abortus rb51, b. ovis, and b. canis. the preparations were standardized by weight and tested with sera from cattle immunized with b. abortus rb51, sheep infected with b. ovis, and dogs infected with b. canis. populations of unexposed animals of each species were also tested. the tests used were the indirect enzyme immunoassay (ielisa) using rlps and the fluorescence polarization assay (fpa) using rlps core fractions ...200415162920
protection of brucella abortus rb51 revaccinated cows. 200516182367
bovine slc11a1 3' utr sscp genotype evaluated by a macrophage in vitro killing assay employing a brucella abortus strain.the 3' untranslated region (3' utr) of the bovine natural resistance-associated macrophage gene (nramp1 or slc11a1) was genotyped in colombian creole blanco orejinegro (bon) (bos taurus) (n = 140) and zebu brahman (bos indicus) (z) (n = 20) cattle and their crosses (bon x zebu brahman [b x z] [n = 10]; zebu brahman x bon [z x b] [n = 10]), and in animals from a holstein x bon (h x b) (n = 10) cross. direct sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (sscp) helped in detecting ...200818717968
[molecular characterization of brucella abortus strain 19 and its application for controlling biologics].brucella abortus is the etiological agent of bovine brucellosis. the strain 19 used in vaccine elaboration can be identified through a deletion in the eri region associated with its susceptibility to erythritol. we optimized a pcr assay for specific characterization of this strain. the method described here is a rapid procedure that enables identification of b. abortus, and simultaneous differentiation of the strain 19 from other b. abortus biovar 1 strains. we applied the assay to detect the st ...200516323658
improved performance of brucella melitensis native hapten over brucella abortus ops tracer on goat antibody detection by the fluorescence polarization assay.the current method for goat brucellosis diagnosis is based on the world organization for animal health (oie) using the screening card test (ct), with antigen at 8% (ct8) or 3% (ct3) of cell concentrations, and the confirmatory complement fixation test (cft). however, these tests do not differentiate antibodies induced by vaccination from those derived from field infections by brucella species or other bacterial agents; in places like mexico, where the prevalence of brucellosis and the vaccinatio ...200818359093
evaluation of three different antigens in an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against brucella abortus srb51 in vaccinated heifers.the live attenuated brucella abortus srb51 (srb51) is a partial o-chain-deprived mutant. the relative lack of the polysaccharide prevents it from inducing antibodies detectable by most of the serological tests used for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. the performance of three antigens used in an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay test for detecting srb51 antibodies were evaluated. a homogeneous group of twenty-five 10-month-old hereford heifers was used. the animals were bled on day 0 and th ...200918980780
a proficiency testing method for detecting antibodies against brucella abortus in quantitative and qualitative serological tests.a proficiency testing panel for detecting antibodies against brucella abortus was developed and evaluated by both primary binding and conventional serological tests, using the guidelines of the world organisation for animal health and the international organization for standardization guide 43-1. all serological tests were judged satisfactory. among the primary binding tests, the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa 2) and the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa 1), ...200819284049
eradication of bovine brucellosis in the azores, portugal-outcome of a 5-year programme (2002-2007) based on test-and-slaughter and rb51 vaccination.bovine brucellosis is an important contagious disease that can cause abortions and infertility in cattle, and can be transmitted to humans. despite having an eradication programme in place since 1994, in 2000 the situation of bovine brucellosis due to brucella abortus was not significantly improving in 3 of the 9 islands (terceira, s. miguel and s. jorge) of the archipelago of azores, an autonomous region of portugal. farming on these islands, particularly dairy, is extensive. therefore, the use ...200919439382
persistence of brucella abortus infection in cattle. 195015410973
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and brucella abortus among dairy cattle herds with high abortion rates.abstract the protozoon neospora caninum and the bacterium brucella abortus are well recognized abortifacients in dairy cattle. serum samples (n = 240) from aborting (n = 141) and at risk (n = 99) animals from 5 herds with high abortion rates in punjab province, pakistan were tested for antibodies to n. caninum using monoclonal antibody based competitive elisa and to b. abortus using the serum agglutination test. antibodies to n. caninum and b. abortus were detected in 105 (43.8 %) and 135 (56.3% ...201121506829
expression of mpb83 from mycobacterium bovis in brucella abortus s19 induces specific cellular immune response against the recombinant antigen in balb/c mice.immunodominant mpb83 antigen from mycobacterium bovis was expressed as a chimeric protein fused to either β-galactosidase, outer membrane lipoprotein omp19 or periplasmic protein bp26 in gram-negative brucella abortus s19, in all cases driven by each gene's own promoter. all fusion proteins were successfully expressed and localized in the expected subcellular fraction. moreover, omp19-mpb83 was processed as a lipoprotein when expressed in b. abortus. splenocytes from balb/c mice immunized with t ...201020888425
dna genotyping suggests that recent brucellosis outbreaks in the greater yellowstone area originated from elk.identifying the source of infectious disease outbreaks is difficult, especially for pathogens that infect multiple wildlife species. brucella spp. are among the most problematic zoonotic agents worldwide, and they are notoriously difficult to detect and identify. we genotyped 10 variable number of tandem repeat (vntr) dna loci in 56 brucella abortus isolates from bison (bos bison), elk (cervus elaphus), and cattle (bos taurus) to test the wildlife species most likely to be the origin of recent o ...200919901392
evaluation of brucella abortus dna and rna vaccines expressing cu-zn superoxide dismutase (sod) gene in cattle.this study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity of a dna or rna vaccines encoding brucella abortus cu-zn superoxide dismutase (sod) in cattle. intramuscular injection of plasmid dna carrying brucella sod gene (pcdna-sod) into animals elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. animals injected with pcdna-sod developed sod igg antibody with predominance of immunoglobulin g1 (igg1) isotype over igg2. in addition, the dna vaccine elicited a specific t-cell-proliferative response. f ...200818164561
evaluation of the western immunoblot as a detection method for brucella abortus exposure in elk.brucella abortus has been an important wildlife disease issue for most of the last century, especially because wildlife species are considered to be important disease reservoirs for cattle. diagnostic uncertainty, caused in part by cross-reactions of antibodies to environmental pathogens such as yersinia enterocolitica o:9 on standard brucella serology, has exacerbated the challenges of managing the disease and has highlighted the need for test validation in wildlife species. the western immunob ...201020090021
effects of brucella abortus biotype 1 infection on the reproductive performance of sprague-dawley rats.the aim of this study was to assess the impact of brucella abortus biotype 1 infection on the reproductive performance using sprague-dawley (sd) rat model. virgin female sd rats (n = 24) were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of saline containing 1 x 10(11) colony forming unit (cfu) of pathogenic b. abortus biotype 1 korean bovine isolate. control rats (n = 24) were inoculated with 0.1 ml of apyrogenic saline. both inoculated and control rats were divided into six subgroups. four rats in ea ...200919579969
variable-number tandem repeat markers for identification of brucella abortus 82 and 75/79-av vaccine russia, live vaccine strains brucella abortus 82 and b. abortus 75/79-av have been widely and extensively utilized for specific prophylaxis of cattle brucellosis. to differentiate these vaccine strains from each other and laboratory collection of other vaccine (n=4), reference (n=15) and field brucella strains (n=61), the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (vntr) analyses (mlva) were used with 12 loci containing tandem repeats from 134bp to 8bp recently described for brucella spp. t ...201020362200
comparative study of the immunobiological properties of live brucellosis vaccines.findings from the comparative study of the immunobiological properties of live brucellosis vaccines in guinea pigs are presented in the article. vaccines from strains brucella abortus 19 (u.s.) and 82 (russia), in the s and sr forms, respectively, exhibited the highest and most pronounced immunological efficacy, while vaccines from strains b. abortus 82-ps (in the rs form) and b. abortus rb-51 and 75/79-ab (in the r forms) exhibited the lowest. the live vaccine from strain b. abortus 82, togethe ...201020362201
modulation of the bovine trophoblastic innate immune response by brucella abortus.brucellosis is still a widespread zoonotic disease. very little is known about the interaction between brucella abortus and trophoblastic cells, which is essential for better understanding the pathogenesis of the brucella-induced placentitis and abortion, a key event for transmission of the disease. the goal of this study was to evaluate the profile of gene expression by bovine trophoblastic cells during infection with b. abortus. explants of chorioallantoic membranes were inoculated with b. abo ...200818316388
immune responses and efficacy after administration of a commercial brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine to cattle.brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51) is a newly approved live vaccine to protect cattle against brucellosis. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunologic responses of cattle to a commercially available srb51 vaccine and to characterize the efficacy of the vaccine to protect against abortion or infection after midgestational challenge with virulent b. abortus strain 2308 (s2308). all cattle were pasture bred, and pregnancy was confirmed by rectal palpation. pregnant cattle were intra ...200019757581
use of the brucella melitensis native hapten to diagnose brucellosis in goats by a rapid, simple, and specific fluorescence polarization assay.the performance of the fluorescence polarization assay (fpa) using the recently described brucella melitensis native hapten and the brucella abortus o-polysaccharide tracer was evaluated and compared with those of the world organization for animal health tests related to indirect and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as classification variables for goat sera obtained from a high-prevalence area where vaccination was performed; test series were also evaluated to increase the final sp ...200818385457
epidemiological aspects of an infection by brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of araguaína, tocantins.the aim of this paper was to study some epidemiological aspects of the infection by brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of araguaína, tocantins. for antibody research, 645 serum samples were analyzed by the complement fixation test (cf). a 4.0% frequency was found (26/645) in patients' serum and among those 4.1% (23/551) were slaughterhouses employees and 8.1% (3/37) rural workers. of the total positive samples, three (2.0%) were women and 23 (4.7%) men; ten (2.9%) we ...200818641850
investigations into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors that predispose humans to infection among urban dairy and non-dairy farming households in dagoretti division, nairobi, explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of dairy and non-dairy farming households in dagoretti in regard to the risk posed by bovine brucellosis and determine the prevalence of the disease in urban dairy cattle.200718338729
bovine brucellosis.infection of cattle caused by brucella abortus (ie, bovine brucellosis) has been of political importance in the united states for many decades. the most common clinical manifestation of brucellosis in natural hosts is reproductive loss resulting from abortion, birth of weak offspring, or infertility. brucellosis regulatory programs were primarily developed as the most efficient way to prevent human infections. this article discusses cattle vaccination with b abortus strains 19 and rb51. other re ...201020117540
[have we defeated the principal zoonoses?].following an overview of some successful campaigns against zoonoses, this paper examines other zoonotic diseases that are likely to be brought under control in industrialized countries, such as brucellosis, tuberculosis and canine or wildlife rabies. the author goes on to explain the reasons for the failure to eradicate some other zoonoses in developing countries, and concludes by examining reasons for optimism or pessimism, taking into account new methods of prevention and control.200617140096
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