a comparison of six primer sets for detection of trypanosoma evansi by polymerase chain reaction in rodents and thai face the worldwide threat of surra caused by trypanosoma evansi, international organizations have stressed the need to evaluate and standardize diagnostic tools. pcr detection of t. evansi has known a great expansion during the last 20 years, but primer sets are often insufficiently assessed and compared. in this work, we compared the performances of six primer pairs-tbr1/2 (masiga et al., 1992), esag6/7 (holland et al., 2001a, b), tepan1/2 (panyim et al., 1993), pmutec f/r (wuyts et al., 199 ...201020466489
a novel ehrlichia genotype detected in naturally infected cattle in north america.during a research investigation to determine if cattle from british columbia (bc), canada were infected with anaplasma marginale or other related rickettsial blood parasites, a novel ehrlichia genotype was revealed. blood from seven bc source cattle was bioassayed by intravenous inoculation into naïve splenectomised calves. additional splenectomised calves were used as uninoculated negative control or a. marginale-inoculated positive control. newly designed sets of primers specific for the msp5 ...201020663613
development and laboratory evaluation of a lateral flow device (lfd) for the serodiagnosis of theileria annulata infection.several dna-based and serological tests have been established for the detection of theileria annulata infection, including polymerase chain reaction, reverse line blot and loop-mediated isothermal amplification, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and competitive elisa. in this study, we have applied knowledge from the development and application of a recombinant protein-based indirect elisa and competitive elisa to establish a rapid test for point-of-care diagnosis of t. annulat ...201020680339
detecting and differentiating theileria sergenti and theileria sinensis in cattle and yaks by pcr based on major piroplasm surface protein (mpsp).theileria sergenti and theileria sinensis are closely related members of benign theileria species found in cattle and yaks in china. they are morphologically indistinguishable. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting major piroplasm surface protein of t. sergenti and t. sinensis was developed in this study. the newly developed oligonucleotide primer set was able to specifically amplify the dna of t. sinensis and in conjunction with primers for t. sergenti and these two species could be detec ...201020685208
an update on bovine anaplasmosis (anaplasma marginale) in canada. 201021037882
haemoparasite prevalence and theileria parva strain diversity in cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) in uganda.cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) are considered to be an important reservoir for various tick-borne haemoparasites of veterinary importance. in this study we have compared the haemoparasite carrier prevalence in buffalo from four geographically isolated national parks in uganda [lake mburo national park (lmnp), queen elizabeth national park (qenp), murchison falls national park (mfnp) and kidepo valley national park (kvnp)]. differences were seen in haemoparasite prevalence in buffalo from the fou ...201021074945
epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in zambia.tick-borne diseases are a constraint to livestock production in many developing countries as they cause high morbidity and mortality, which results in decreased production of meat, milk and other livestock by-products. the most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-saharan africa are east coast fever (caused by theileria parva), babesiosis (caused by babesia bigemina and b. bovis), anaplasmosis (caused by anaplasma marginale) and heartwater (caused by ehrlichia ruminantium). despite ...201021106294
identification of anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein antigens conserved between a. marginale sensu stricto strains and the live a. marginale subsp. centrale vaccination with anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale (synonym for anaplasma centrale) induces protection against severe disease upon challenge with a. marginale sensu stricto strains. despite over a century of field use, the targets of protective immunity remained unknown. using a broad proteomic approach, we identified the proteins in a challenge sensu stricto strain that were bound by the relevant antibody isotype induced by live vaccination with anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale. a cor ...201021189322
Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens.Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were prot ...201222085549
Acute phase response in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale.This study was undertaken to evaluate the acute phase responses via the assessment of the concentration of serum sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound), inflammatory mediators (IFN-? and TNF-a) and acute phase proteins (Hp and SAA) in 20 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale. The infected animals were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of parasitemia rate (<20% and >20%). Also, as a control group, 10 clinically healthy cattle from the same farms were sa ...201121940118
Molecular Study of Free-ranging Mule Deer and White-tailed Deer from British Columbia, Canada, for Evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A. marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing o ...201121933360
development of a multiplex pcr assay for simultaneous detection of theileria annulata, babesia bovis and anaplasma marginale in cattle.tropical theileriosis, bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases that impose serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. a common feature of these diseases is that, following recovery from primary infection, animals become persistent carriers of the pathogen and continue to play a critical role in disease epidemiology, acting as reservoirs of infection. this study describes development and eva ...201223183165
anaplasma marginale and a. phagocytophilum in cattle in tunisia.tick-borne diseases caused by anaplasma species put serious constraints on the health and production of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. after recovering from a primary infection, cattle typically become persistent carriers of pathogens and play a critical role in the epidemiology of the disease, acting as reservoirs of the anaplasma spp.201627765073
molecular study on infection rates of anaplasma ovis and anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in west-azerbaijan province, iran.this study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of anaplasma ovis and anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in west-azerbaijan province, iran. a total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). the extracted dna from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) based on 16s rrna gene primer sets. species-specific pcr was set up us ...201627482362
outbreak of anaplasmosis associated with the presence of different anaplasma marginale strains in dairy cattle in the states of são paulo and goiás, brazil.the present study reports the genetic diversity of anaplasma marginale during anaplasmosis outbreaks in rural properties of the states of goiás and são paulo, brazil. mortality rates of 3.5% (37/1,050) in calves, 4.7% (45/954) in heifers and 1.1% (25/2,200) in lactating cows were observed in a cattle herd of the municipality of mambaí, state of goiás, central-western brazil. in a cattle herd from the municipality of lins, state of são paulo, in southeastern brazil, none of the animals died, desp ...201526648009
transplacental transmission of bovine tick-borne pathogens: frequency, co-infections and fatal neonatal anaplasmosis in a region of enzootic stability in the northeast of brazil.bovine tick-borne disease (tbd) constitutes a worldwide group of diseases that result in great losses for dairy and beef cattle. with regard to the epidemiological profile of the diseases, the importance of transplacental transmission is still not very well understood. the aim of this study was to determine the transplacental transmission of tbd agents (anaplasma marginale, babesia bovis and b. bigemina) in a herd of dairy cattle that had been naturally infected in an area of enzootic stability ...201626613663
low genetic diversity of anaplasma marginale in calves in an endemic area for bovine anaplasmosis in the state of são paulo, brazil.major surface protein 1a has been used as a marker for genetic stability in identifying geographical isolates of anaplasma marginale. we conducted a longitudinal study to ascertain the genetic diversity of a. marginale in a dairy cattle herd with a history of clinical anaplasmosis. a total of 20 calves were evaluated every 3 months, from birth to 1 year of age. they were evaluated using blood smears, ifat, elisa, and qpcr. additionally, samples positive for the msp1a gene using npcr were sequenc ...201626318264
bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex: diagnosis and evaluation of the risk factors from bahia, diagnoses were made by using - blood smears and nested pcr (npcr) tests on 309 blood samples from crossbred dairy cattle in the municipality of ibicaraí, bahia. from diagnostic blood smear slides, the observed parasitic frequencies were 31.1% for anaplasma marginale and 20.4% for babesia sp. from npcr diagnoses, they were 63% for a. marginale, 34% for babesia bigemina and 20.4% for babesia bovis. there were significant differences (p <0.01) between the two diagnostic methods (npcr and blo ...201625271452
risk factors for anaplasmosis in dairy cows during the peripartum.anaplasma marginale is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. some studies have suggested that cows during peripartum may present a transient immunosuppression state and development of clinical signs of anaplasmosis. the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between some risk factors and the seroprevalence of a. marginale in dairy cows during peripartum in rio de janeiro, brazil. the risk factors analyzed in association with the prevalence of antibodies again ...201424307390
association of bola-drb3 alleles with tick-borne disease tolerance in dairy cattle in a tropical environment.tick-borne disease is one of the most harmful tropical diseases in dairy production. selection of dairy cows for tolerance to tick-borne disease is a challenging concept for dairy breeders in the tropics. the objectives of this study were (1) to detect specific tick-borne pathogen in cattle of different genetics and (2) to examine the polymorphisms of drb3.2 alleles in thai dairy cattle and find the allelic association with tick-borne disease tolerance. specific primers to anaplasma marginale (a ...201323571121
prevalence and haemato-biochemical profile of anaplasma marginale infection in dairy animals of punjab (india).to do the systematic comparison of prevalence of anaplasmosis by pcr and giemsa stained thin blood smear (gstbs) based parasitological assays in dairy cattle of punjab, which has not been reported yet. to analyse the haematobiochemical alterations in infected animals to arrive at the conclusion regarding the pathogenicity induced by anaplasma marginale (a. marginale) in latent and patent infection.201323339917
molecular epidemiological survey and genetic characterization of anaplasma species in mongolian livestock.anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that cause great economic loss to the animal industry. few studies on anaplasma infections in mongolian livestock have been conducted. this study examined the prevalence of anaplasma marginale, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and anaplasma bovis by polymerase chain reaction assay in 928 blood samples collected from native cattle and dairy cattle (bos taurus), yaks (bos grunniens), sheep (ovis aries), and goats (capra a ...201728678004
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