Publications

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the susceptibility of the mallard duck (anas platyrhynchos) to clostridium botulinum c2 toxin.most strains of clostridium botulinum type c, after having lost their capacity to produce their dominant toxin (c1) as a result of being "cured" of their prophages, continue to produce c2, a trypsin-activable toxin reported by other investigators. while of relatively low toxicity when administered perorally to the adult mallard duck (anas platyrhynchos), it was highly toxic when given parenterally. by the intravenous route, for example, it was more than 1,000 times as toxic as c1 toxin by the sa ...19807412022
naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks.castor bean (ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. the most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. fragments ...19817271655
evaluation of coproexamination as a diagnostic test for avian botulism.fecal extracts and blood sera from 113 ducks showing clinical signs of botulism were examined for clostridium botulinum type c toxin by means of the mouse toxicity test to evaluate coproexamination as a diagnostic procedure, as compared with demonstration of toxin in serum. when death of test mice unprotected with type specific antitoxin (while protected controls survived) was the criterion, 78.8% of the sera and 5.3% of the fecal extracts were positive. when characteristic signs of intoxication ...19817241701
an outbreak of botulism in waterfowl and fly larvae in new york state.in october 1982 the death of approximately 1,500 wild ducks, mostly mallards (anas platyrhynchos), and about 100 shore birds including greater yellowlegs (tringa melanoleuca) was observed in the new york state oak orchard wildlife management area. the lack of gross pathology, the signs exhibited by the moribund ducks, and the ecologic conditions indicated possible botulinal intoxication. clostridium botulinum toxin type c was demonstrated in duck serum (approximately 5 x 10(4) mouse intraperiton ...19846737616
[botulism of aquatic birds at the starý u pohorelic pond (breclav district)].in the years 1981 and 1982 when a mass mortality of wild and domestic water birds was observed on the starý pond, eleven diseases or just died birds were examined by the neutralization test for botulotoxin and four sludge samples for the presence of clostridium botulinum. c. botulinum toxin of c type was detected in four wild ducks (anas platyrhynchos) from september 1981 and july 1982 and in one gull (larus ridibundus) and july 1982. the highest titres (of mice i. p. ld50/g) of botulotoxin in d ...19846441338
effects of botulism on ducks drinking saline water.mallard (anas platyrhynchos) ducklings (2 wk old) were given water from natural saline wetlands or fresh water as drinking water for 1 or 2 wk prior to, and after, receiving material containing clostridium botulinum type c toxin. water with conductivity ranging from 3,460 to 6,690 mu mhos/cm had no detectable effect on the occurrence or severity of clinical signs of botulism. ducks drinking water with conductivity of 7,130 mu mhos/cm for 1 wk prior to receiving toxin had more severe clinical sig ...19883373631
pcr for detection of clostridium botulinum type c in avian and environmental samples.a pcr was developed and applied for the detection of clostridium botulinum type c in 18 avian and environmental samples collected during an outbreak of avian botulism, and the results were compared with those obtained by conventional methodologies based on the mouse bioassay. pcr and mouse bioassay results compared well (100%) after the enrichment of samples, but pcr results directly indicated the presence of this microorganism in six samples, while only one of these contained the type c botulin ...19968815101
immunization of ducks for type c botulism.a single subcutaneous immunization with a vaccine used for protecting ranch mink (mustela vison) against type c botulism reduced morbidity and mortality in mallard (anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (anas acuta) ducks challenged with approximately 4.5 x 10(4) and 2.25 x 10(4) mouse lethal doses (mld50), respectively, of botulinum toxin at 10 and 15 days post-immunization (pi). there was no significant protection at 5 days pi. protection persisted in mallards for 90 days pi. to simulate us ...199910574530
protective effect of botulinum c/d mosaic toxoid against avian botulism.avian botulism is a paralytic disease caused by a toxin produced by clostridium botulinum type c. since type c isolates from cases of avian botulism produced a neurotoxin consisting of a mosaic form of parts of type c and d neurotoxins, we examined the antitoxin titers in the convalescent sera of botulism-affected birds which belonged to family anatidae. elisa using the c/d mosaic neurotoxin as an antigen revealed that the antibody was detected in the sera at 2 weeks, but not at 5 weeks after th ...200616679722
amino acid and nucleotide sequence, adjacent genes, and heterologous expression of hiracin jm79, a sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by enterococcus hirae dch5, isolated from mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos).the primary structure of a bacteriocin produced by enterococcus hirae dch5 was determined by combined amino acid and dna sequencing. nucleotide analysis of a 2838-bp dna fragment of e. hirae dch5 revealed five putative orfs. the first orf (hirjm79) encodes a 74-amino-acid peptide containing an n-terminal signal peptide of 30 amino acids, followed by the amino acid sequence of the mature bacteriocin, hiracin jm79 (hirjm79), of 44 amino acids. the second orf (hirijm79) encodes the putative immunit ...200717326750
optimization of polymerase chain reaction for detection of clostridium botulinum type c and d in bovine samples.botulism is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin that is produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. the economic, medical and alimentary consequences can be catastrophic in case of an epizooty. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay was developed for the detection of c. botulinum toxigenic strains type c and d in bovine samples. this assay has proved to be less expensive, faster and simpler to use than the mouse bioassay, the current reference method for diag ...200717894643
relationships between local carcass density and risk of mortality in molting mallards during avian botulism outbreaks.removal of bird carcasses has been advocated for management of clostridium botulinum outbreaks on lakes in north america because a reduction in density of toxin-laden maggots produced within bird carcasses is assumed to enhance survival of healthy birds. this inverse relationship between carcass density and survival has been reported in controlled studies with mallards (anas platyrhynchos) but has not been verified in wild ducks during naturally occurring botulism outbreaks. therefore, we radio- ...201020688643
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